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Volhynia

Volhynia, is a historic region in Central and Eastern Europe, situated between south-eastern Poland, south-western Belarus, western Ukraine. While the borders of the region are not defined, the territory that still carries the name is Volyn Oblast, located in western Ukraine. Volhynia has changed hands numerous times throughout history and been divided among competing powers. At one time all of Volhynia was part of the Pale of Settlement designated by Imperial Russia on its southwestern-most border. Important cities include Lutsk, Volodymyr-Volynskyi and Novohrad-Volynskyi. After the annexation of Volhynia by the Russian Empire as part of the Partitions of Poland, it included the cities of Zhytomyr, Korosten; the city of Zviahel was renamed Novohrad-Volynsky, Volodymyr became Volodymyr-Volynskyi. Volynia Ukrainian: Волинь, romanized: Volyń). According to some historians, the region is named after a semi-legendary city of Volin or Velin, said to have been located on the Southern Bug River, whose name may come from the Proto-Slavic root *vol/vel-'wet'.

In other versions, the city was located over 20 km to the west of Volodymyr-Volynskyi near the mouth of the Huczwa River, a tributary of the Western Bug. Geographically it is located in the Volhynian-Podolian Upland and Polesian Lowland along the Prypyat valley as part of the vast East European Plain, between the Western Bug in the west and the Ovruch Ridge and Dnieper Upland in the east. Before the partitions of Poland, the eastern edge stretched a little west along the right-banks of the Sluch River or just east of it. Within the territory of Volhynia is located Little Polisie, a lowland that divides the Volhynian-Podolian Upland into separate Volhynian Upland and northern outskirts of Podolian Upland, the so-called Kremenets Hills. Volhynia is located in the basins of the Western Bug and Prypyat, therefore most of its rivers flow either in a northern or a western direction. Relative to other historical regions, it is northeast of Galicia, east of Lesser Poland and northwest of Podolia; the borders of the region are not defined, it is considered to overlap a number of other regions, among which are Polesia and Podlasie.

The territories of historical Volhynia are now part of the Volyn and parts of the Zhytomyr and Khmelnytskyi Oblasts of Ukraine, as well as parts of Poland. Major cities include Lutsk, Kovel, Volodymyr-Volynskyi and Starokostiantyniv. Before World War II, many Jewish shtetls, such as Trochenbrod and Lozisht, were an integral part of the region. At one time all of Volhynia was part of the Pale of Settlement designated by Imperial Russia on its southwesternmost border; the land was mentioned in the works of Arabian scholar Al-Masudi, who denoted the local tribe as "people of Valin". In his work of 947-948, Al-Masudi mentions the Valinians as an intertribal union ruled by their leader Madjak. Volhynia may have been included in the Grand Duchy of Kiev as early as the 10th century. At that time Princess Olga sent a punitive raid against the Drevlians to avenge the death of her husband Grand Prince Igor. In the opinion of the Ukrainian historian Yuriy Dyba, the chronicle phrase «и оустави по мьстѣ. Погосты и дань.

И по лузѣ погосты и дань и ѡброкы» (and established in place pogosts and tribute along Luha, the path of pogosts and tribute reflects the actual route of Olga's raid against the Drevlians further to the west, up to the Western Bug's right tributary Luha River. As early as 983, Vladimir the Great appointed his son Vsevolod as the ruler of the Volhynian Principality. In 988 he established the city of Volodymer; the first records can be traced to the Ruthenian chronicles, such as the Primary Chronicle, which mentions tribes of the Dulebe and Volhynian peoples in the year of 1077. Volhynia's early history coincides with that of the duchies or principalities of Halych and Volhynia; these two successor states of the Kievan Rus formed Halych-Volhynia between the 12th and the 14th centuries. After the disintegration of the Grand Duchy of Halych-Volhynia circa 1340, the Kingdom of Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania divided the region between them, Poland taking Western Volhynia and Lithuania taking Eastern Volhynia.

After 1569 Volhynia was organized as a province of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. During this period many Poles and Jews settled in the area; the Roman and Greek Catholic churches became established in the province. In 1375 a Roman Catholic Diocese of Lodomeria was established, but it was suppressed in 1425. Many Orthodox churches joined the latter organization in order to benefit from a more attractive legal status. Records of the first agricultural colonies of Mennonites, Protestants from Germany, date from 1783. After the Third partition of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth in 1795, Volhynia was annexed as the Volhynian Governorate of the Russian Empire, it covered an area of 71,852.7 square kilometres. Following this annexation, the Russian government changed the religious make-up of the area: it forcibly liquidated the Ukrai

Lori Peek

Lori Peek is a professor of Sociology at University of Colorado at Boulder and director of the Natural Hazards Center. Peek has received many awards for her scholarship, her career in teaching, her service to the discipline of sociology and broader hazards and disaster field. Peek, born and raised in Kansas, completed her K-12 studies in a rural school district in Waverly, Kansas, she went on to pursue an undergraduate degree in Sociology at Ottawa University in Ottawa, Kansas. During the summer before her senior year, she received an international scholarship to study abroad in England at Nottingham Trent University, she graduated summa cum laude from Ottawa University with her Bachelor of Arts in Sociology in 1997. She continued her education at Colorado State University where she graduated with a Master of Education in 1999. In 2005, Peek graduated with a Ph. D. in Sociology from the University of Colorado Boulder. Peek has been recognized with many awards for her efforts over the years. Among her most notable awards: 2016- Outstanding Scholarly Contribution Award for Children of Katrina, American Sociological Association Section on Children and Youth 2016- Betty and Alfred McClung Lee Book Award for Children of Katrina, Association for Humanist Sociology 2016- Board of Governor's Excellence in Undergraduate Teaching Award, Colorado State University System 2015- Ann Gill Excellence in Teaching Award, College of Liberal Arts, Colorado State University 2013- Best Book Award for Behind the Backlash: Muslim Americans after 9/11, American Sociological Association Section on Altruism and Social Solidarity 2012- President's Award for Volunteer Service, Natural Hazards Mitigation Association 2011- Choice's Compilation of Significant University Press Titles for Undergraduates, 2010–11, Behind the Backlash: Muslim Americans after 9/11 2010- Professor of the Year, Colorado State University Greek Life and the Panhellenic Council 2009- Early Career Award for Outstanding Contributions to Scholarship, American Sociological Association Section on Children and Youth Behind the Backlash: Muslim Americans After 9/11 gives voice to Muslim Americans living in post 9/11 America who faced backlash violence and were misrepresented in the media.

This book would go on to win awards such as, the Distinguished Book Award from the Midwest Sociological Society in 2012, the Best Book Award from the American Sociological Association in 2013. Peek co-edited Displaced: Life in The Katrina Diaspora along with fellow sociologist, Dr. Lynn Weber; this book features the work of 12 feminist scholars and follows the lives of hundreds of person who were displaced in the aftermath of Hurricane Katrina. Peek's work in this book focuses on the discrimination that Katrina survivors faced in Colorado after the storm, she co-authored other chapters in the text focusing on the broader displacement and on children's experiences. Alice Fothergill and Lori Peek spent seven years after Katrina following a cohort of children and their families who were affected by the storm. Children of Katrina, has been recognized as the Outstanding Scholarly Contribution Award from the American Sociological Association in 2016, the Betty and Alfred McClung Lee Book Award from the Association for Humanist Sociology in 2016.

It was named a finalist for the Colorado Book Awards in the scholarly non-fiction category. Official website

Natural Balance Pet Foods

Dick Van Patten's Natural Balance Pet Foods is an American pet food manufacturer with its headquarters located in Burbank, Los Angeles, California. Established in 1989 by actor Dick Van Patten, the company markets itself as "Food For a Lifetime" and promotes itself as having "the finest food you can buy for your pet." A subsidiary of Big Heart Pet Brands, it is owned by the J. M. Smucker Company. Natural Balance began in 1989. Van Patten had lunch with Joey Herrick, who rescued dogs and cats. Van Patten told him when he was a kid he had snakes and other animals; the drummer and Van Patten had an idea of making a health food for dogs. At the time, Van Patten played tennis with a veterinarian and she said the best quality food should have no filler, no wheat, no corn, no soy, no by-products. Many of Natural Balance's dry formulas maintain this initial ingredient list; as of 2014, the food rolls have been reformulated to not contain wheat flour and instead utilize brown rice. Natural Balance lost money, until the brand was picked up by Petco and featured in more than 625 stores.

On May 22, 2013, Natural Balance merged with Del Monte, maker of pet foods such as Kibbles'n Bits, Meow Mix and Milo's Kitchen. In March 2015 The J. M. Smucker Company purchased the Big Heart Pet Brands from Del Monte; the product line includes L. I. D. Limited Ingredient Diets, Original Ultra Whole Body Health and Wild Pursuit high protein diets. Natural Balance has a large variety of both dog and cat formulas in dry, rolls, or canned form, including: Limited Ingredient Diets-Dry Dog Limited Ingredient Diets-Wet Dog Natural Balance was a member of Association of Zoos and Aquariums and has created zoological products that are formulated for carnivores in zoos and wild animal parks and not sold to the general public; these foods were developed by Director of Zoological Product Research and Development Dr. Martin R. Dinnes, a founding member of the American College of Zoological Medicine. Natural Balance's zoological formulas were used by, among others, Big Cat Rescue, Tippi Hedren's Shambala Preserve, Toledo Zoo, San Diego Zoo, San Diego Zoo Safari Park and SeaWorld.

Natural Balance is the official dog food of the United States Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Explosives Arson Investigation and Explosives Detection Canines. Natural Balance partnered with the Petco Foundation to raise money to honor service dogs across America; the organizations aspire to raise $1 million to honor guide dogs and military service dogs across America. Natural Balance and Petco are working to build a National Monument for Military Working Dogs, which will be dedicated at Lackland Air Force Base in San Antonio, Texas, in 2013. On April 16, 2007, Natural Balance informed the FDA that they had received complaints from consumers regarding a select amount of Venison & Brown Rice Dry Dog Food and Venison & Green Pea Dry Cat Food; some animals were reported to have a few experienced kidney failures. Natural Balance issued a voluntary recall for all its Venison dog products and its dry Venison cat food after lab results showed that some of the products contained trace amounts of melamine.

The source of melamine was believed to be from rice protein concentrate. On April 27, 2007, Natural Balance issued a second recall for three canned dog food and one canned cat food. Like the first recall, the contaminants were melamine in rice protein concentrates; as with the venison based formulas, rice protein concentrate was not on the list of ingredients of the four products. This time, Natural Balance claimed that their canned food manufacturer American Nutrition, Inc added the rice protein concentrate without their knowledge or consent, calling it a "manufacturing deviation". In response, ANI issued a press release denying any deliberate or intentionally wrongful conduct, claiming that "customers required rice-based formulations". Along with Natural Balance, other pet food organizations such as Blue Buffalo and Menu Foods were affected by the contaminated products and issued recalls. Additionally, in July 2007, a small lot of certain Natural Balance canned pet foods were recalled after it was determined that they may have been involved in a large-scale Botulism outbreak, associated with its producer Castleberry's Food Company.

No illnesses were reported with the pet food. As a result of this recall, the company invested $800,000 to build a laboratory to test for melamine and other toxins. All of Natural Balance products are now tested for 9 known contaminants through the company's Buy With Confidence program, sold if the production run has passed testing. Official Natural Balance website

A Little Tour in France

A Little Tour in France is a book of travel writing by American writer Henry James. Published under the title En Province in 1883–1884 as a serial in The Atlantic Monthly, the book recounts a six-week tour James made of many provincial towns in France, including Tours, Nantes, Toulouse and several others; the first book publication was in 1884. A second, extensively revised edition was published in 1900. James gives the idea for the book in the first paragraph of the first installment of the original magazine serial: "France may be Paris, but Paris is not France." He conceived the book as a description of and homage to the provinces. James had tried living in Paris before settling in London in 1876, he returned to France in 1882 to discover more of French provincial life than he had been able to see. James began his tour in Touraine journeyed southwest through Provence, north along the flooding Rhône River to Burgundy; the resulting book was a pleasant mix of art and architecture criticism, references to classic literature as well as guide-books and pamphlets, sharp observation of people and places, knowledgeable discussion of French history and culture - all communicated in an easygoing, witty style.

James could never resist the piquant detail, like the chatty nun who guided him through Marmoutier Abbey or the tough soldiers quartered in the dismal old papal residence at Avignon. He was interested in ancient cathedrals and castles, the less restored the better, though he hardly neglects present-day realities of shabby inns, talkative diners, uncomfortable train rides, dreary museums. There's little attempt at abstract theorizing. James is content to describe what he saw as as possible, he wrote in a letter of November 12, 1882, to Isabella Gardner: "I have seen more of France than I had seen before, on the whole liked it better." Henry James Collected Travel Writings - The Continent - A Little Tour in France, Italian Hours, Other Travels edited by Richard Howard ISBN 0-940450-77-1 Original magazine text of A Little Tour in France under the title En Province Project Gutenberg text of A Little Tour in France Note on the various texts of A Little Tour in France at the Library of America web site

Cannibalization (parts)

Cannibalization of machine parts, in maintenance of mechanical or electronic systems with interchangeable parts, refers to the practice of removing parts or subsystems necessary for repair from another similar device, rather than from inventory when resources become limited. The source system is crippled as a result only temporarily, in order to allow the recipient device to function properly again. Cannibalization is due to unavailability of spare parts, due to an emergency, long resupply times, physical distance, or insufficient planning or budget. Cannibalization can be due to surplus inventory. At the end of World War II a large quantity of high quality, but unusable war surplus equipment such as radar devices made a ready source of parts to build radio equipment. Sometimes, removing parts from old equipment is the only way to obtain spare parts, either because they are no longer made, are obsolete, or can only be manufactured in large quantities. In logistics, this is known as Diminishing Manufacturing Sources.

This is the case in the military, ships and aircraft, as well as other expensive equipment, produced in limited quantities. Such was the case with the aircraft carrier USS Kitty Hawk, the sole survivor of a class of three ships built during the early-1960s; the ship herself is over forty years old, having manufacturers build individual custom replacement parts would be impractical, thus decommissioned ships, such as the USS Independence, have been utilized for the necessary parts to keep the Kitty Hawk in operation. Another example is the Union Pacific's 4-8-4 locomotive 838 is used as a spare parts source for 844 since the type has been out of production for decades and its builder no longer exists. One strategy used to combat DMS is to buy additional inventory during the production run of a system or part, in quantities sufficient to cover the expected number of failures; this strategy is known as a lifetime buy. Aircraft boneyard Knockdown aircraft Wrecking yard UK Aircraft Parts Cannibalization - Regulatory Article 4812

Moritz Schlick

Friedrich Albert Moritz Schlick was a German philosopher and the founding father of logical positivism and the Vienna Circle. Schlick was born in Berlin to a wealthy family, his father was Ernst Albert Schlick and his mother was Agnes Arndt. At the age of sixteen, he started to read Descartes' Meditations and Schopenhauer's Die beiden Grundprobleme der Ethik; also sprach Zarathurstra by Friedrich Nietzsche would impress him. He studied physics at the University of Heidelberg, the University of Lausanne, the University of Berlin under Max Planck. Schlick explained this choice in his autobiography by saying that, despite his love for philosophy, he believed that only mathematical physics could help him obtain actual and exact knowledge, he felt deep distrust towards any metaphysical speculation. In 1904, he completed his PhD thesis at the University of Berlin, Über die Reflexion des Lichts in einer inhomogenen Schicht. After a year as Privatdozent at Göttingen, he turned to the study of Philosophy in Zurich.

In 1907, he married Blanche Hardy. In 1908, he published Lebensweisheit, a slim volume about eudaemonism, the theory that happiness results from the pursuit of personal fulfillment as opposed to passing pleasures, his habilitation thesis at the University of Rostock, Das Wesen der Wahrheit nach der modernen Logik, was published in 1910. Several essays about aesthetics followed, whereupon Schlick turned his attention to problems of epistemology, the philosophy of science, more general questions about science. In this last category, Schlick distinguished himself by publishing a paper in 1915 about Einstein's special theory of relativity, a topic only ten years old, he published Raum und Zeit in der gegenwärtigen Physik, which extended his earlier results by applying Poincaré's geometric conventionalism to explain Einstein's adoption of a non-Euclidean geometry in the general theory of relativity. After early appointments at Rostock and Kiel, in 1922 Schlick assumed the chair of Naturphilosophie at the University of Vienna, held by Ludwig Boltzmann and Ernst Mach.

Schlick displayed an unusual success in organizing talented individuals in the philosophical and scientific spheres. When Schlick arrived in Vienna, he was invited to lead a group of scientists and philosophers who met to discuss philosophical topics in the sciences. Early members included the mathematician Hans Hahn and, within a few years, they were joined by Rudolf Carnap, Herbert Feigl, Kurt Gödel, Otto Neurath, Friedrich Waismann and others, they called themselves the Ernst Mach Association, but they became best known as the Vienna Circle. In the years 1925–26, the Thursday night group discussed recent work in the foundations of mathematics by Gottlob Frege, Bertrand Russell, Ludwig Wittgenstein. Wittgenstein's book, Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus, was a work that advanced, among other things, a logical theory of symbolism and a "picture" or "model" theory of language. Schlick and his group were impressed by the work, devoting considerable time to its study and when it was no longer the principal focus of their discussion, it was mentioned in discussion.

Wittgenstein agreed to meet with Schlick and other Circle members to discuss the Tractatus and other ideas but he found it necessary to restrict the visitors to sympathetic interlocutors. Through Schlick's influence, Wittgenstein was encouraged to consider a return to philosophy after some ten years away from the field. Schlick and Waismann's discussions with Wittgenstein continued until the latter felt that germinal ideas had been used without permission in an essay by Carnap, a charge of dubious merit, but he continued discussions in letters to Schlick. Schlick had worked on his Allgemeine Erkenntnislehre between 1918 and 1925, though developments in his philosophy were to make various contentions of his epistemology untenable, the General Theory is his greatest work in its acute reasoning against synthetic a priori knowledge; this critique of synthetic a priori knowledge argues that the only truths which are self-evident to reason are statements which are true as a matter of definition, such as the statements of formal logic and mathematics.

The truth of all other statements must be evaluated with reference to empirical evidence. If a statement is proposed, not a matter of definition, not capable of being confirmed or falsified by evidence, that statement is "metaphysical", synonymous with "meaningless", or "nonsense"; this is the principle upon which members of the Vienna Circle were most in agreement — with each other, as well as with Wittgenstein. Between 1926 and 1930, Schlick labored to finish Fragen der Ethik, in which he surprised some of his fellow Circlists by including ethics as a viable branch of philosophy. In his 1932-33 contribution to Erkenntnis, "Positivism and Realism", Schlick offered one of the most illuminating definitions of positivism as every view "which denies the possibility of metaphysics". Accordingly he defined metaphysics as the doctrine of “true being”, “thing in itself” or “transcendental being”, a doctrine which "presupposes that a non-true, lesser or apparent being stands opposed to it"; therefore in this work he bases the positivism on a kind of epistemology which holds that the only true beings are givens or constitue