The 1947 National Football League Championship Game was the 15th annual National Football League championship game, held December 28 at Comiskey Park in Chicago. The attendance was 30,759, well below capacity; the game featured the Western Division champion Chicago Cardinals and the Eastern Division champion Philadelphia Eagles. A week earlier, the Eagles defeated the Pittsburgh Steelers 21–0 in a tiebreaker playoff to determine the Eastern winner. Both the Eagles and Cardinals were making their first appearances in the championship game; the Cardinals had won the regular season meeting in Philadelphia three weeks earlier by 24 points and after a week off, were 12-point favorites to win the title game at home. This was the second NFL title game played after Christmas Day, the latest to date. Scheduled for December 21, it was pushed back due to the Eastern division playoff; the temperature at kickoff was 29 °F. The Cardinals built a 14–0 lead in the second quarter the teams traded touchdowns; the Eagles closed the gap to 28–21 with five minutes to go, but the Cardinals controlled the ball the rest of the game on an extended drive to win the title.
This was the only NFL title game remains as the Cardinals' only win. The two teams returned for a rematch in 1948 in Philadelphia; the Cardinals have not won a league championship since this one, over seven decades ago, the longest drought in the NFL. They made it to Super Bowl XLIII in the 2008 season representing Arizona, but lost to the Pittsburgh Steelers; the Cardinals' win kept the NFL title within the city of Chicago. This was the Cardinals' last playoff win as a franchise until January 1999, they relocated to St. Louis as the St. Louis Cardinals in 1960 and Arizona as the Phoenix Cardinals in 1988. Sunday, December 28, 1947 Kickoff: 1:05 p.m. CST First quarter CHI – Charley Trippi 44 run, 7–0 CHI Second quarter CHI – Elmer Angsman 70 run, 14–0 CHI PHI – McHugh 53 pass from Tommy Thompson, 14–7 CHI Third quarter CHI – Trippi 75 punt return, 21–7 CHI PHI – Steve Van Buren 1 run, 21–14 CHI Fourth quarter CHI – Angsman 70 run, 28–14 CHI PHI – Russ Craft 1 run, 28–21 CHI The NFL added a fifth official, the back judge, this season.
Each player on the Cardinals received $1,132, while the losing Eagles got $754
Brookland Halt was a railway station which served the village of Brookland in Kent, England. The station opened in 1881 and closed in 1967. Brookland was the first station on the Lydd Railway Company's New Romney branch line, it opened to traffic on 7 December 1881. The station was ½ mile from Brookland village, one of the larger settlements on Romney Marsh, an area well known for games and wrestling as well as smuggling, it was located on the north side of the A259 Straight Lane which links the villages of Brenzett and Brookland. Brookland was once an impressive station boasting two platforms, with the main station building on the down side and a small wooden waiting shelter on the up side. A passing loop was provided, but this was removed in 1920; as passenger traffic dwindled and freight became insignificant in the post-war period, the New Romney branch fell into decline and subsequently figured in the Beeching Report along with the Ashford to Hastings line. Although the closure was protested against, passenger services ceased on 6 March 1967, with the section between Romney Junction and New Romney closing entirely.
The line was retained for goods traffic to Dungeness Power Station. The station building remains as a private residence and the down platform remains extant if overgrown; the line through the station remains open for freight traffic and is subject to a 20 mph speed restriction. The level crossings have to be operated by the train crew; the line sees regular nuclear waste traffic from Dungeness nuclear power station. Citations Sources
The Hawaiian Islands Land Trust is a non-profit organization established in Hawaii to “protect the lands that sustain us for current and future generations". The organization works with landowners to protect important areas by restricting commercial or other development; this protection is provided either by the landowner accepting a conservation easement on the land or by selling the land to HILT. As of 2018, the organization protected more than 18,000 acres across the state. In January 2011, HILT was formed from the merger of the Kauai Public Land Trust, the Oahu Land Trust, the Maui Coastal Land Trust, the Hawaii Island Land Trust; the first executive director was Dale Bonar, followed by Ted Clement and Kawika Burgess. In addition to its core function of conserving important lands for future generations, HILT provides educational services and opportunities for recreation. HILT offers a series of educational walks on its properties across the state. HILT properties are open to the public for activities such as fishing and hiking.
HILT staff conducts research on Hawaii's unique anchialine ponds and on the culture that surrounds them. HILT protects multiple properties on O'ahu, Kauai and Hawaii Island, totalling more than 17,000 acres. Protected lands include coastal areas, ranchlands, cultural sites and more; the Waiheʻe coastal dunes and wetlands refuge protects over 277 acres of land on Maui. The refuge includes 24 acres of coastal, spring-fed wetland, 103 acres of sand dune ecosystem, over 7,000 feet of shoreline and more than 8 acres of riparian habitat, totaling 277 acres, it is located on the windward side of Hawaii. The Maui Coastal Land Trust took ownership of this site in 2004 with support from Maui County; the property passed to HILT with the merger. Active restoration programs have replaced invasive vegetation with native species, enhanced wildlife habitat and preserved archaeological and cultural resources. Restoration employs volunteer labor, managed by professional staff; the refuge is an important historical site, once hosting kingly residences and Hawaiian legends.
The refuge once hosted two fishing Hawaiian villages, an extensive inland Hawaiian fish ponds and several heiau. The refuge incorporates the last of Maui's large sand dunes that once stretched from Waihe'e to Makena, which once led to the island's nickname of "Sahara in the Pacific"; the dunes are some 200 feet high. The purchase was funded by Maui County, the United States Fish and Wildlife Service and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Management funding came from FWS, the National Resource Conservation Service Wetlands Reserve Program, NOAA, other grants and private funding from foundations and groups. Expected rising sea levels could inundate the sand dunes with seawater or transform them into sandy beaches. A 10 feet rise is expected to submerge 50-60% of the refuge. Adaptations that would preserve environmental and cultural values have yet to be developed/discovered, it is possible that the return to pre-development ecological status will provide sufficient resilience to provide protection.
Restoration plans include restoration of the fishpond and production of farmed crops such as taro. Nine taro patches are undergoing restoration; some 200 sheep live in the refuge. Six endangered taxa, two endangered plants, two endangered insects were found on the site. Eight endangered species have repopulated the refuge, including alae keʻokeʻo, koloa and nene; when the property was first protected, 95% of the plants were invasive species. As of 2014, 70% of the flora in the wetland are native species. Many of the important cultural and archaeological sites are located in sand dunes at or near the water; the dunes contains multiple burial sites. The dunes were fenced off to exclude invasive predators. Thereafter endangered bird species began to nest on the dunes, acting as a natural vector and fertilizer for native plants. HILT purchased the 82-acre Nu'u Preserve in 2011; the preserve provides habitat for endangered bird species and is home to numerous pre-contact archaeological sites, including petroglyphs and traditional house sites.
In 2015 the Nisei Veterans Memorial Center donated a 4.5 acre parcel in Kahului to HILT, Maui and turned it into a memorial park to commemorate the service of the Nisei Veterans in World War II. In 2015, HILT took ownership of Maunawila Heiau located on 9 acres in Hau'ula and began to restore it In 2013, the Trust acquired a 12.2-acre parcel at Kahili beach in Kilauea. Each year HILT honors a major contributor to the environment as a Champion of the Land. United States Senator Brian Schatz Henk Rogers Founding members Susan and Jac Kean HILT gave a separate honor to former Board Chair Peter Merriman in 2018. Official website "HILT Blog". Hawaiian Islands Land Trust. Retrieved 2019-02-25. Maui News article on a Palaka Award being given to the founder of the trust Official Facebook page Hawaiian Islands Land Trust's channel on YouTube Malama Maui on YouTube
Citizen sourcing is the government adoption of crowdsourcing techniques for the purposes of enlisting citizens in the design and execution of government services and tapping into the citizenry's collective intelligence for solutions and situational awareness. Applications of citizen sourcing include: The use of ideation tools by government agencies to collect ideas and suggestions from the public The use of problem-solving tools that allow citizens to identify and evaluate solutions to problems proposed; the adoption of citizen reporting platforms, such as for crime or emergency response information The government monitoring of social media, such as Twitter, for situational awareness, such as with regard to natural disastersCitizen sourcing has gained prominence as part of the Obama administration's Open Government Initiative and is seen, in the words of Vivek Kundra, as a way of driving “innovation by tapping into the ingenuity of the American people” to solve those problems that are too big for government to solve on its own.
David Cameron of the British Conservatives believes that citizen sourcing mechanisms and the advent of Web 2.0 technologies will help usher in “the next age of government” by enabling citizens to act on John Kennedy's historic call to “ask not what your country can do for you, but what you can do for your country.” Citizen sourcing is a derivative of the term crowdsourcing. "Citizen" is used instead of "crowd" to emphasis civic purpose. Citizen sourcing is a new take on the concept of the coproduction of public services by service users and communities enabled by the maturation of Web 2.0 participatory technologies. Granicus is an example of a solution, implemented in a number of cities like The City of Austin that allows the public to submit ideas for government services, improve upon these ideas with the help of government employees that moderate the discussions online, design solutions in a crowdsourcing fashion that can be implemented by the city. HunchBuzz is another example, implemented by New Zealand's central government and is being rolled out to local city councils.
CitizenLab is a more European-oriented ideation platform on which the citizens co-create their city through ideation and citizensourcing challenges. Their approach to civic engagement is through gamification, in order to incentivise citizens to share their input; the City of Boston provides a Citizens Connect iPhone App that allows constituents to report various services requests, including for removing graffiti, filling potholes, fixing traffic lights. A similar system, SeeClickFix, has been adopted in a number of cities across the United States. Online communities of citizens such as the Crisis Commons and the International Network of Crisis Mappers provide assistance to professional responders on the ground by performing data-driven tasks, such as locating missing persons, converting satellite imagery into street maps, reporting and processing actionable citizen reports of needs and damage; the Peer-to-Patent system enables citizens to assist the United States Patent and Trademark Office in evaluating the validity of patent applications.
Following the implementation of Peer-to-Patent, the USPTO started exploring how to further integrate citizens into the patent application review process. They invited experts to present at two roundtables on using citizen submissions in prior art. Presenters at the roundtables included experienced representatives from Peer-to-Patent, Ask Patents and Article One Partners; the USPTO opened the process up to citizens by requesting public comments and suggestions on how to proceed following each of the two roundtables. The City of Medellin, Colombia uses the power of the citizens' collective intelligence to identify potential solutions for important problems the city faces; the platform structures problems as open challenges.
On 22 December 2014 a bin lorry collided with pedestrians in the city centre of Glasgow, killing six and injuring fifteen others. The driver of the council-owned vehicle, Harry Clarke, said. A similar blackout had happened to him in the driving seat of a bus, although he had not disclosed the incident on his heavy goods vehicle licence renewal application, despite such self-reporting being mandatory. Clarke was told he would not face further prosecution giving him immunity over the deaths and causing protests from victims' families at the way the case had been handled. In October 2015 it was reported that Clarke had been arrested on suspicion of driving without a licence in September 2015; the incident was the third Christmas time tragedy to affect the city in four years. It followed from a similar accident in a 2013 helicopter crash; the accident occurred in Queen Street at around 14:30 GMT. The 26-tonne vehicle was being driven by 58-year-old Harry Clarke, with two crew members seated in the rear compartment, separated from the front by a railing.
While travelling north, Clarke blacked out just after the traffic lights at the Gallery of Modern Art. After mounting the pavement the lorry travelled for 19 seconds, striking pedestrians accelerating to 25 mph before dropping to 19 mph and 10 mph as it struck walls and other street furniture, it came to rest part-way into an alley between the entrance to Glasgow Queen Street railway station and a hotel. The pedestrian collisions resulted in a further 15 injuries; the six dead were a family of three from Dumbarton — an 18-year-old woman and her grandparents — and a 29-year-old woman from Glasgow, a 51-year-old woman from Glasgow and a 52-year-old woman from Edinburgh. Rail services at the station continued and were accessed through alternative entrances in Dundas and North Hanover Streets. At a meeting between representatives of Police Scotland, the Crown Office and Procurator Fiscal Service, the Health and Safety Executive and others the day after the accident, it was concluded that the incident was to be treated as a road traffic accident and thus should be investigated by the police as the proper regulator.
Having been admitted to the Western Infirmary after the crash, Clarke was discharged on 7 January 2015. He was diagnosed as having suffered neurocardiogenic syncope, a fainting episode caused by drop in blood pressure, he waived the anonymity he was given after the incident and released a statement in a newspaper on 5 February to the effect that he had been unconscious and had no memory of the crash. After the police investigation, which did not involve Clarke giving a police statement, on 25 February 2015 the Crown Office concluded that no criminal charges would be brought against either Clarke or the council, it had been determined that as he was unconscious Clarke did not "have the necessary criminal state of mind required for a criminal prosecution" and that no breaches of Health and Safety law had occurred. It was, decided that a Fatal Accident Inquiry would be held to determine the cause of the crash and establish what lessons could be learned; the inquiry would examine three main aspects — Clarke's health and training, the safety of the vehicle and the safety of the route.
On 25 June 2015 the Driver and Vehicle Licensing Agency withdrew Clarke's car-driving licence for medical reasons and banned him from driving Heavy Goods Vehicles for ten years. The inquiry began at Glasgow Sheriff Court on 22 July 2015 before Sheriff John Beckett QC. Evidence to the inquiry found there were no mechanical faults with the vehicle and that the other two crew members would have been unable to apply the handbrake because they were wearing their seatbelts. No other safety devices were fitted to the vehicle that would have allowed a crew member not in the driver's seat to stop the vehicle; the inquiry revealed that Clarke's medical history contained episodes of dizziness and fainting dating from the 1970s and that he had suffered a blackout while at the wheel of a First Glasgow bus, in service but stationary at a bus stop. It was stated that Clarke had been passed fit to return to work as a bus driver owing to failures by both the bus company's doctor and Clarke's own General Practitioner to spot that Clarke had changed his account of events, telling his GP that the episode had occurred in the canteen, which the GP attributed to the hot conditions and deemed to be unlikely to be repeated.
The inquiry further found that Clarke had subsequently lied about this medical history, both when he applied for a Large Goods Vehicle licence from the DVLA in Swansea and in his job application to Glasgow City Council. As a result, Clarke was suspended by the council on 6 August 2015. In giving evidence the DVLA admitted its self-declaration system had a weakness, since it allowed applicants to be assessed by either an employer-appointed occupational-health doctor or their own GP, occupational-health doctors would not have access to the applicant's medical records. In August 2015 the head of the inquiry reiterated that the February 2015 decision not to file criminal charges still stood, clarifying that "this covered all aspects of Mr Clarke's driving and any false information he had given to doctors, the DVLA and Glasgow City Council about his medical history." This was followed by confirmation that a possible prosecution in the jurisdiction of England and Wales by the DVLA for the non-disclosure to them would not be pursued either.
During the fifth week of the inquiry, with Clarke still to give evidence, the family of one of the dead applied for an a