Volkswagen G60 engine

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Volkswagen G60/G40 engine
Overview
ManufacturerVolkswagen Group
ProductionG60: August 1988–July 1993
G40: August 1986–July 1994
Layout
ConfigurationInline-4
DisplacementG60: 1.8 L (1,781 cc)
G40: 1.3 L (1,272 cc)
Cylinder boreG60: 81 mm (3.19 in)
G40: 75 mm (2.95 in)
Piston strokeG60: 86.4 mm (3.40 in)
G40: 72 mm (2.83 in)
Block materialGray cast iron
Head materialCast aluminium alloy
Valvetrain2 valves per cylinder, hydraulic valve lifters, belt-driven single overhead camshaft (SOHC)
Compression ratio8.0:1
Combustion
SuperchargerG-Lader with intercooler
Fuel systemCommon rail electronic Multi-point fuel injection
ManagementBosch Digifant
Fuel typeUnleaded Gasoline
Oil systemWet sump
Cooling systemWater-cooled
Output
Power outputG60: 118 kW (160 PS; 158 bhp)
G40: 85 kW (116 PS; 114 bhp)
Torque outputG60: 225 N⋅m (166 lb⋅ft)
G40: 150 N⋅m (111 lb⋅ft)
Chronology
Successor2005 1.4-litre 'Twincharger'
One of the users of the G60 engine, the Volkswagen Corrado 2-door coupé
A Volkswagen Golf Mk2 Rallye powered by the G60 engine
A rare Volkswagen Golf Mk2 G60 Limited hot hatch - one of only 71 produced

The Volkswagen G60 and G40 engines are inline-four cylinder automobile petrol engines, which uses a specific method of forced induction - by way of a scroll-type supercharger. The G60 engine was formerly manufactured by the German automaker Volkswagen Group, and was installed in a limited number and range of 'hot hatch' cars from their Volkswagen Passenger Cars marque from August 1988 to July 1993.[1]

A smaller G40 engine of identical design had earlier been installed in the Mk2 Volkswagen Polo GT G40 from August 1986 to July 1994.

Design and specifications[edit]

The G60 is a 1.8-litre (1,781 cc) internal combustion engine, from a cylinder bore of 81 mm (3.19 in), and a piston stroke of 86.4 mm (3.40 in). Its cylinder block is constructed from grey cast iron, and its cylinder head is cast aluminium alloy, with additional post-production heat treatment; the crankcase contains a forged steel crankshaft which runs in five main bearings, and cast pistons with increased size gudgeon pins. It has two valves per cylinder (eight valves in total), which are operated by a toothed belt-driven forged steel single overhead camshaft (SOHC) via hydraulic valve lifters, with the valves being closed by two concentric valve springs. Charged air is cooled via an intercooler, and the operation and control of the engine is managed by a Bosch Digifant engine control unit, which includes common rail electronic multi-point fuel injection and a knock sensor, it produced a maximum rated motive power output of 118 kW (160 PS; 158 bhp) at 5,800 rpm, and could generate a turning force torque of 225 N⋅m (166 lb⋅ft) at 4,000 rpm.

Although it was based on an existing Volkswagen Group engine from their EA111 series, it underwent so many modifications, it is usually regarded as a separate powerplant from others which the Group produced, it was named after the "G-Lader" magnesium-cased supercharger that it was mated to - this supercharger having a 60 mm (2.36 in) diameter inlet, hence the "G60" moniker.[2] It utilised a side-mounted intercooler (SMIC), positioned in front of the left front wheel, to lower the temperature of the compressed charged engine intake air.

The G60 engine was developed from an earlier, smaller version called the G40. This engine displaced 1.3 L (1,272 cc) from a bore of 75 mm (2.95 in) and a stroke of 72 mm (2.83 in). The G40's supercharger had an inlet diameter of 40 mm (1.57 in), hence the "G40" name. The engine produced a maximum power of 85 kW (116 PS; 114 bhp) at 5,500 rpm, and torque of 150 N⋅m (111 lb⋅ft) at 3,500 rpm.

Applications[edit]

The original "G-Lader" engine, the smaller version of the G60 engine, called the G40, was previously used in the Mk2 Volkswagen Polo Coupé GT G40 supermini. The G40 engine could propel this nervous little car to a top speed of 196 km/h (121.8 mph).

The larger G60 engine debuted in August 1988 in the B3 Volkswagen Passat G60 saloon, and the Mk2 Volkswagen Golf G60 hatchback. In the Golf G60, it was capable of propelling the car from a standstill to 100 km/h (62 mph) in 7.8 seconds, reaching a top speed of 216 km/h (134.2 mph).

A month later, in September 1988, the Volkswagen Corrado G60 was released. Performance figures for the Corrado G60 state a 0 - 100 km/h (62 mph) time of 8.3 seconds and a top speed of 225 km/h (139.8 mph).

In the United States, the G60 engine was used only in the Corrado, and this was dropped in 1992 in favour of the newer, more powerful VR6 engine.

A limited-production, four-wheel drive Syncro variant of the Golf G60, called the Golf Rallye was also powered by the eight-valve G60, but the engine was reduced to 1.8 L (1,763 cc) for sports homologation purposes. It included a larger intercooler, which is mounted across the full width of the radiator. Power remained at 118 kW (160 PS; 158 bhp).

A 16-valve G60 engine was used in the ultra-rare Golf Limited, of which only 71 were produced by VW Motorsport, all with four-wheel drive.[3][4] Power was raised to 154 kW (209 PS; 207 bhp), and the car could now accelerate from 0 - 100 km/h (62 mph) in 6.4 seconds, reaching a top speed of 247 km/h (153.5 mph), which was Volkswagen's highest-performance production car ever, until the Golf R32 in 2004.[citation needed]

The G60 engine, like any supercharged or turbocharged engine, was sensitive to high air temperatures, so engine performance very much depended on the weather conditions; some models, like the Golf Rallye, or even some variants of the Golf G60, had a bigger, better-placed intercooler, resulting in increased, and more consistent performance compared to the standard placed intercooler.

VW engine ID codes[edit]

All Volkswagen G-Lader internal combustion engines are inline four-cylinder SOHC designs, operate on the four-stroke cycle petrol engines with Bosch Digifant electronic multi-point fuel injection, are water-cooled, and use a G-Lader supercharger:

Engine ID code Displacement Valvetrain Max. power Max. torque Applications Years installed
G40 PY 1.3 L (1,272 cc) SOHC 8v 85 kW (116 PS; 114 bhp)
@ 5,500 rpm
150 N⋅m (111 lb⋅ft)
@ 3,500 rpm
VW Polo Mk2 GT G40 08/86-07/94
G60 1H 1.8 L (1,763 cc) 118 kW (160 PS; 158 bhp)
@ 5,800 rpm
225 N⋅m (166 lb⋅ft)
@ 4,000 rpm
VW Golf Mk2 G60 08/88-07/89
G60 PG 1.8 L (1,781 cc) 110 kW (150 PS; 148 bhp) VW Passat (B3) G60 08/88-07/89
G60 PG 118 kW (160 PS; 158 bhp)
@ 5,800 rpm
225 N⋅m (166 lb⋅ft)
@ 4,000 rpm
VW Golf Mk2 G60
VW Passat (B3) G60
VW Corrado G60
08/88-07/91
08/88-07/93
09/88-07/93
G60 3G DOHC 16v 154 kW (209 PS; 207 bhp)
@ 6,300 rpm
247 N⋅m (182 lb⋅ft)
@ 5,000 rpm
VW Golf Mk2 Limited
Syncro 4WD
????

Future use of technology[edit]

Technologies found in the G40 and G60 engines have subsequently been used in other Volkswagen engines.[citation needed] They first utilised this technology with turbochargers in their TurboDiesel 'TD' engines; this then evolved into their highly regarded range of Turbocharged Direct Injection 'TDI' diesel engines, which are now available throughout virtually every car and light commercial vehicle in the Volkswagen Group. Turbochargers have also been of great benefit to recent petrol engines in the Volkswagen Group. Probably their most famous and widely used engine is their highly popular Audi-developed 1.8-litre 20-valve Turbo inline-four engine.[citation needed] This has been used in many of their mainstream, and high-performance cars; such as the original Audi S3 and Audi TT, the Mk4 VW Golf GTI, the original Škoda Octavia vRS, and the original SEAT León Cupra R. Furthermore, this same engine is used in a very high state of tune in the one-make Formula Palmer Audi (FPA) open-wheeled racing series.[citation needed]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  • Sly, James (January–February 1990). "Development of the G-60". VW & Porsche magazine: pg.52/53.

External links[edit]