Volkswagen AG, known internationally as the Volkswagen Group, is a German multinational automotive manufacturing company headquartered in Wolfsburg, Lower Saxony and indirectly majority owned by Austrian Porsche and Piëch families. It designs and distributes passenger and commercial vehicles, motorcycles and turbomachinery and offers related services including financing and fleet management. In 2016, it was the world's largest automaker by sales, overtaking Toyota and keeping this title in 2017, 2018 and 2019 selling 10.9 million vehicles. It has maintained the largest market share in Europe for over two decades, it ranked seventh in the 2018 Fortune Global 500 list of the world's largest companies. Volkswagen Group sells passenger cars under the Audi, Bugatti, Porsche, SEAT, Škoda and the flagship Volkswagen marques, it is divided into two primary divisions, the Automotive Division and the Financial Services Division, as of 2008 had 342 subsidiary companies. Volkswagen has two major joint-ventures in China.
The company has operations in 150 countries and operates 100 production facilities across 27 countries. Volkswagen was founded in 1937; the company's production grew in the 1950s and 1960s, in 1965 it acquired Auto Union, which subsequently produced the first post-war Audi models. Volkswagen launched a new generation of front-wheel drive vehicles in the 1970s, including the Passat and Golf. Volkswagen acquired a controlling stake in SEAT in 1986, making it the first non-German marque of the company, acquired control of Škoda in 1994, of Bentley and Bugatti in 1998, Scania in 2008 and of Ducati, MAN and Porsche in 2012; the company's operations in China have grown in the past decade with the country becoming its largest market. In June 2018, Volkswagen Trucks and Buses which comprises the MAN, RIO truck brands are renamed to TRATON AG but the marques will not change, said by Andreas Renschler. Volkswagen Aktiengesellschaft is a public company and has a primary listing on the Frankfurt Stock Exchange, where it is a constituent of the Euro Stoxx 50 stock market index, secondary listings on the Luxembourg Stock Exchange, SIX Swiss Exchange.
It has been traded in the United States via American depositary receipts since 1988 on the OTC Marketplace. Volkswagen delisted from the London Stock Exchange in 2013; the state of Lower Saxony holds 12.7 % of the company's shares. Volkswagen was founded on 28 May 1937 in Berlin as the Gesellschaft zur Vorbereitung des Deutschen Volkswagens mbH by the National Socialist Deutsche Arbeitsfront; the purpose of the company was to manufacture the Volkswagen car referred to as the Porsche Type 60 the Volkswagen Type 1, called the Volkswagen Beetle. This vehicle was designed by Ferdinand Porsche's consulting firm, the company was backed by the support of Adolf Hitler. On 16 September 1938, Gezuvor was renamed Volkswagenwerk GmbH. Shortly after the factory near Fallersleben was completed, World War II started and the plant manufactured the military Kübelwagen and the related amphibious Schwimmwagen, both of which were derived from the Volkswagen. Only a small number of Type 60 Volkswagens were made during this time.
The Fallersleben plant manufactured the V-1 flying bomb, making the plant a major bombing target for the Allied forces. After the war in Europe, in June 1945, Major Ivan Hirst of the British Army Royal Electrical and Mechanical Engineers took control of the bomb-shattered factory, restarted production, pending the expected disposal of the plant as war reparations. However, no British car manufacturer was interested. To build the car commercially would be a uneconomic enterprise". In 1948, the Ford Motor Company of USA was offered Volkswagen, but Ernest Breech, a Ford executive vice president said he didn't think either the plant or the car was "worth a damn". Breech said that he would have considered merging Ford of Germany and Volkswagen, but after the war, ownership of the company was in such dispute that nobody could hope to be able to take it over; as part of the Industrial plans for Germany, large parts of German industry, including Volkswagen, were to be dismantled. Total German car production was set at a maximum of 10% of the 1936 car production numbers.
The company survived by producing cars for the British Army, in 1948 the British Government handed the company back over to the German state, it was managed by former Opel chief Heinrich Nordhoff. Production of the Type 60 Volkswagen started after the war due to the need to rebuild the plant and because of the lack of raw materials, but production grew in the 1950s and 1960s; the company began introducing new models based on the Type 1, all with the same basic air-cooled, rear-engine, rear-drive platform. These included the Volkswagen Type 2 in 1950, the Volkswagen Karmann Ghia in 1955, the Volkswagen Type 3 in 1961, the Volkswagen Type 4 in 1968, the Volkswagen Type 181 in 1969. In 1960
The following is a list of Kentucky Wildcats men's basketball head coaches. The Wildcats have had 22 coaches in their 113-season history. Since 1930, Kentucky has been led by seven head coaches, five of whom have led the Wildcats to an NCAA Championship. Adolph Rupp led Kentucky to 4 NCAA Championships during his tenure. Rupp's successor Joe B. Hall guided the Wildcats to their fifth NCAA Championship in 1978. During the 1990s, Rick Pitino and Tubby Smith each added a championship, capturing the crown in 1996 and 1998, respectively. Most John Calipari led the program to its eighth national championship in 2012. Kentucky is the only school in college basketball history with five NCAA Division I Championship head coaches
Swedish death metal is a death metal music scene developed in Sweden. Many Swedish death metal bands are associated with the melodic death metal movement, thus giving Swedish death metal a different sound from other variations of death metal. Unlike American death metal groups, the first Swedish bands were rooted in hardcore punk. Although Norway is known for its quantity of black metal, Gothenburg in Sweden has a large melodic death metal scene, while Stockholm is known for its more raw death metal scene. Unlike American groups, the Swedish death metal scene's earliest originators were influenced by punk rock the D-beat and hardcore punk scene. Bathory, who would subsequently become a primary influence for the black metal scene, were a pivotal group in Swedish extreme metal. In the early 1990s, two death metal scenes emerged in Stockholm; the first wave of "Swedish death metal" consisted of the bands Carnage and Nihilist, who fragmented into Entombed and Unleashed. Many of these bands used the trademark Tomas Skogsberg/Sunlight Studios "buzzsaw" guitar tone.
It was created by using detuned electric guitars, a maxed out Boss HM-2 Heavy Metal pedal, sometimes in combination with a single guitar through a Boss DS-1 Distortion pedal. The originator of this guitar sound was Nihilist guitarist Leffe Cuzner, though it was evolved and altered over the years. Newer bands playing in the "old school" Swedish style include Bloodbath and Repugnant. According to Stewart Mason of AllMusic, the "increasingly melodic" style of Swedish death metal combines the post-hardcore aggression and guttural vocals of black metal with melodic and technically proficient guitar lines. Swedish and Finnish bands used grindcore-based riffs and began adding progressive rock influences and the scene moved from Stockholm to Gothenburg; the Gothenburg sound, propelled by both the Boss HM-2 Heavy Metal distortion effect pedal with cleaner recordings and melded with new wave of British heavy metal guitar lines, was pioneered by bands such as At the Gates, Dark Tranquillity and In Flames for their respective albums: Slaughter of the Soul, The Gallery and The Jester Race.
Other groups to have emerged from the Swedish death metal scene include Scar Symmetry, Tiamat, Arch Enemy, Meshuggah, Amon Amarth, Edge of Sanity, Desultory, Cemetary and The Haunted. The death metal scene in Sweden has influenced many genres outside Sweden. Stewart Mason has noted this popularity in the United States, using the term "Swedecore" to describe Scandinavian-style metal as played by non-Nordic bands; the Stockholm sound has been known to be influenced by the first Entombed album and bands such as Autopsy and Repulsion. The Stockholm sound has less reception but is followed by bands like Trap Them and Rotten Sound. Melodic death metal, on the other hand, has had a notable influence on the melodic metalcore sound of the 2000s. List of Swedish death metal bands Early Norwegian black metal scene Purcell, Natalie J.. Death Metal Music: The Passion and Politics of a Subculture. McFarland. ISBN 978-0-7864-1585-4. Ekeroth, Daniel. Swedish Death Metal. Bazillion Points. ISBN 978-0-9796163-1-0. Olivier "Zoltar" Badin, "In the Embrace of Evil: Swedish Death Metal New Blood", Terrorizer #182, April 2009, pp. 32–34.
James Hoare, "Left Hand Pathfinders", Terrorizer #182, April 2009, pp. 28–29. Perlah, Jeff. "Justin Foley of Killswitch Engage: Playing Heavy, having Fun." Modern Drummer 10 2004: 96,100, 102, 104, 106. Freeborn, Robert. "A SELECTIVE DISCOGRAPHY OF SCANDINAVIAN HEAVY METAL MUSIC." Notes - Quarterly Journal of the Music Library Association 66.4: 840-50