The Volkswagen Kübelwagen, was a light military vehicle designed by Ferdinand Porsche and built by Volkswagen during World War II for use by the German military. Based on the Volkswagen Beetle, it was prototyped as the Type 62, but became known internally as the Type 82. Kübelwagen is a contraction of Kübelsitzwagen, meaning'bucket-seat car' because all German light military vehicles that had no doors were fitted with bucket seats to prevent passengers from falling out; this body style had first been developed by Karosseriefabrik Nikolaus Trutz in 1923. The first Porsche Type 62 test vehicles had no doors and were therefore fitted with bucket seats as Kübelsitzwagen, shortened to Kübelwagen. Mercedes and Tatra built Kübelsitzwagen. With its rolling chassis and mechanics built at Stadt des KdF-Wagens, its body built by US-owned firm Ambi Budd Presswerke in Berlin, the Kübelwagen was for the Germans what the Jeep and GAZ-67 were for the Allies. Although Adolf Hitler discussed with Ferdinand Porsche the possibility of military application of the Volkswagen as early as April 1934, it was not until January 1938 that high-ranking Third Reich army officials formally approached Porsche about designing an inexpensive, light-weight military transport vehicle, that could be operated reliably both on- and off-road, in the most extreme conditions.
This implied. Porsche began work on the project having a prototype of the vehicle ready within the month, but realized during development that it would not be enough to reinforce the Beetle's chassis to handle the stresses that military use would place on it. In order to guarantee adequate off-road performance of a two-wheel-drive vehicle with a 1,000 cc FMCV 1 engine, it would have to be lightweight. In fact, the army had stipulated a laden weight of 950 kg, including four battle-dressed troops, which meant that the vehicle itself should not weigh more than 550 kg. Porsche therefore sub-contracted Trutz, an experienced military coachbuilder, to help out with the body design. Developmental testing by the military began after a presentation of the prototypes designated as Type 62 in November 1938. Despite lacking four wheel drive, the vehicle proved competent at maneuvering its way over rough terrain in a direct comparison with a contemporary standard German army 4×4, the project was given the green light for further development.
The vehicle's light weight and ZF self-locking differential compensated for the lack of 4×4 capabilities. Further development of the Type 62 took place during 1939, including a more angular body design, pre-production models were field-tested in the invasion of Poland, that started in September that year. Despite their overall satisfaction with the vehicle's performance, military commanders demanded that a few important changes be made: the lowest speed of the vehicle had to be reduced from 8 km/h to 4 km/h as an adjustment to the pace of marching soldiers. Second, it needed some improvement of its off-road ability. Porsche responded to both requests by mounting new axles with gear-reduction hubs, providing the car with more torque and more ground-clearance all at once. Revised dampers, 41 cm wheels, a limited slip differential, as well as countless small modifications, completed the specification. In order to reflect the changes, the vehicle was renamed Type 82. Full-scale production of the Type 82 Kübelwagen started in February 1940, as soon as the VW factories had become operational.
No major changes took place before production ended in 1945, only small modifications were implemented eliminating unnecessary parts and reinforcing some, which had proved unequal to the task. Prototype versions were assembled with four-wheel-drive and different engines, but none offered a significant increase in performance or capability over the existing Type 82 and the designs were never implemented; as of March 1943, the car received a revised dash and the bigger 1,131 cc engine, developed for the Schwimmwagen, that produced more torque and power than the original 985 cc unit. When Volkswagen production ceased at the end of the war, 50,435 Kübelwagen vehicles had been produced, the vehicle had proven itself to be useful and durable. Long after the end of the war, VW resurrected the basic Kübelwagen design as the 1969 Type 181, developed for the German Federal Armed Forces and also produced for the civilian market, known as "Thing" in the US, "Trekker" in the UK, "Safari" in Mexico. Although similar in looks and design no parts were interchangeable with the Type 82.
Intermeccanica of Canada, has been producing a Kubelwagen replica since 1995-96. When the German military took delivery of the first vehicles, they put them to the test on- and off-road in snow and ice to test their capability at handling European winters. Several four-wheel-drive vehicles were used as reference points; the two-wheel-drive Kübelwagen surprised those, a part of its development, as it handily out-performed the other vehicles in nearly every test. Most notably, thanks to its smooth, flat underbody, the Kübel would propel itself much like a motorised sled, when its wheels were sinking into sand, snow, or mud, allowing it to follow tracked vehicles with remarkable tenacity. In November 1943, the U. S. military conducted a series of tests as well on several Type 82s they had captured in North Africa. This evaluation, done at the Army's Aberdeen Proving Ground, resulted in the publica
The Armenian community in Jerusalem produces traditional forms of decorated pottery. Jerusalem's ancient Armenian community experienced a major increase in numbers as survivors of the Armenian Genocide perpetrated by the government of the Ottoman Empire beginning in 1915 found refuge in Jerusalem's Armenian Quarter; the industry is believed to have been started by refugees from Kütahya, a city in western Anatolia noted for its Iznik pottery. The tiles decorate many of the city's most notable buildings, including the Rockefeller Museum, American Colony Hotel, the House of the President of Israel. David Ohannessian, who had established a pottery in Kütahya in 1907, is credited with establishing the Armenian ceramic craft industry in Jerusalem. In 1911 Ohannessian was commissioned with installing Kütahya tile in the Yorkshire home of Mark Sykes. In 1919 Ohannessian and his family fled the Armenian Genocide. Although the commission for the Dome of the Rock did not come through, the Ohannession pottery in Jerusalem succeeded, as did other Armenian potteries in Jerusalem beginning in the 1920s.
In 2019 the Israel Museum mounted a special exhibition of Jerusalem pottery in its Rockefeller Museum branch location. Lower quality, mass-produced imitations of Armenian pottery produced in Arab cities and in China are popular with tourists, undercutting the carefully-crafted, traditional pottery. A form of Palestinian Arab ceramics similar in style is known as Hebron pottery. Israeli art The Armenian Ceramics of Jerusalem: Three Generations, 1919-2003, by Nurith Kenaan-Kedar, Yad Izhak Ben-Zvi books, 2003 The Armenian Pottery of Jerusalem, exhibition catalogue by Yael Olenik, Eretz Israel Museum, 1986 Feast of Ashes. Armenian Weekly. 24 July 2019
Paul Kelly is an English film director, musician and designer. The son of an RAF fighter pilot - he took up flying aged fourteen, making his first solo flight on his seventeenth birthday. However, a passion for music and electric guitars led him to follow a musical path. In the early 1980s he formed the band Episode Four with his brother Martin. Changing their name to East Village the band went on to join Heavenly Records with whom they recorded an album ‘Drop Out’ in 1990; the band split in 1991 after releasing three singles. The album was released in 1993. Following a brief spell as guitarist with the Saint Etienne live band, he began to concentrate more on film and design work, although he continued to produce music, forming the band Birdie with his partner and former Dolly Mixture member Debsey Wykes, they signed with Tris Penna’s It Records, releasing several singles and two studio albums, Some Dusty and Triple Echo. A keen photographer since childhood, Kelly began to photograph some of the other bands he came into contact with as a musician.
He took up film making as an extension to this photography work directing music promo videos for bands including Saint Etienne, Cherry Ghost and The Magic Numbers. In 2002 he was asked by Saint Etienne to collaborate on a film project they were planning to accompany their album Finisterre. Described in The Observer as a “cinematic hymn to London”, it premiered at the ICA in London and was screened around the world by onedotzero. In 2005 he and Saint Etienne were invited by The Barbican to create a film and music event to be premiered in the main auditorium; the result was What Have You Done Today Mervyn Day?, a drama-documentary set in the Lower Lea Valley, the proposed site for the 2012 Olympic Games. Following the premiere, along with producer Andrew Hinton and Saint Etienne were invited by Jude Kelly to become artists-in-residence at London's South Bank Centre; this one year appointment culminated with the premiere of their 2007 film This Is Tomorrow which included a live performance of the soundtrack by the band, accompanied by a 60-piece orchestra in front of a sell out crowd in the newly refurbished Royal Festival Hall.
Kelly has, most completed a six-year documentary about Felt, Denim and Go-Kart Mozart front man Lawrence entitled Lawrence Of Belgravia which premiered at the 2011 London Film Festival. Kelly and Saint Etienne collaborated again on How We Used to Live, described as "a cherishable, woozy-hazy trawl of London from postwar days to yuppiedom". Birdie - Reverb Deluxe 2002 LP Birdie - Triple Echo 2001 LP Birdie - Some Dusty 1999 LP East Village - Hot Rod Hotel 1994 LP East Village - Drop Out 1993 LP Finisterre 2002 What Have You Done Today Mervyn Day? 2005 This Is Tomorrow 2007 Take Three Girls 2008 Lawrence Of Belgravia 2011 Hungry Beat How We Used To Live 2014 "Dexys: Nowhere Is Home" 2014 Orange Juice - Coals To Newcastle Fender, The Golden Age 1946-1970 Dolly Mixture - Everything And More Pete Molinari - A Train Bound For Glory Caught By The River Saint Etienne - Foxbase Beta The Magic Numbers- The Magic Numbers Saint Etienne - Travel Edition 22-20s - 22-20s Saint Etienne - Finisterre Saint Etienne - Good Humor Heavenly Films - official site