click links in text for more info

Volstead Act

The National Prohibition Act, known informally as the Volstead Act, was enacted to carry out the intent of the 18th Amendment, which established prohibition in the United States. The Anti-Saloon League's Wayne Wheeler conceived and drafted the bill, named for Andrew Volstead, Chairman of the House Judiciary Committee, who managed the legislation; the Eighteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution prohibited the production and transport of "intoxicating liquors," but it did not define "intoxicating liquors" or provide penalties. It granted both the federal government and the states the power to enforce the ban by "appropriate legislation." A bill to do so was introduced in Congress in 1919. This act was voided by the Twenty-first amendment; the bill was vetoed by President Woodrow Wilson on technical grounds because it covered wartime prohibition, but his veto was overridden by the House on the same day, October 27, 1919, by the Senate one day later. The three distinct purposes of the Act were: to prohibit intoxicating beverages, to regulate the manufacture, production and sale of high-proof spirits for other than beverage purposes, to insure an ample supply of alcohol and promote its use in scientific research and in the development of fuel and other lawful industries.

It provided further that "No person shall on or after the date when the eighteenth amendment to the Constitution of the United States goes into effect, sell, transport, export, furnish or possess any intoxicating liquor except as authorized in this Act, all the provisions of this Act shall be liberally construed to the end that the use of intoxicating liquor as a beverage may be prevented." The act defined intoxicating liquor as any beverage containing 0.5% or more alcohol by volume and superseded all existing prohibition laws in effect in states that had such legislation. This low limit on allowed alcohol content, banning wine and beer, took many around the country by surprise Prohibition supporters; the production and distribution of alcoholic beverages — once the province of legitimate business — was taken over by criminal gangs, which fought each other for market control in violent confrontations, including murder. Major gangsters, such as Omaha's Tom Dennison and Chicago's Al Capone, became rich and were admired locally and nationally.

Enforcement was difficult because the gangs became so rich they were able to bribe underpaid and understaffed law enforcement personnel and pay for expensive lawyers. Many citizens were sympathetic to bootleggers, respectable citizens were lured by the romance of illegal speakeasies called "blind tigers." The loosening of social morals during the 1920s included popularizing the cocktail and the cocktail party among higher socio-economic groups. Those inclined to help authorities were intimidated murdered. In several major cities — notably those that served as major points of liquor importation — gangs wielded significant political power. A Michigan State Police raid on Detroit's Deutsches Haus once netted the mayor, the sheriff, the local congressman. Prohibition came into force at 12:00:01 a.m. on January 17, 1920, the first documented infringement of the Volstead Act occurred in Chicago on January 17 at 12:59 a.m. According to police reports, six armed men stole $100,000 worth of "medicinal" whiskey from two freight train cars.

This trend in bootlegging liquor created a domino effect with criminals across the United States. Some gang leaders were stashing liquor months; the ability to sustain a lucrative business in bootlegging liquor was helped by the minimal police surveillance at the time. There were only 134 agents designated by the Prohibition Unit to cover all of Illinois and parts of Wisconsin. According to Charles C. Fitzmorris, Chicago's Chief of Police during the beginning of the Prohibition period: "Sixty percent of my police in the bootleg business."Section 29 of the Act allowed 200 gallons of "non-intoxicating cider and fruit juice" to be made each year at home. "intoxicating" was defined as anything more than 0.5%, but the Bureau of Internal Revenue soon struck that down legalizing home wine-making. For beer, the 0.5% limit remained until 1933. Some vineyards embraced the sale of grapes for making wine at home; the thick skins of Alicante Bouschet were less susceptible to rot, so this and similar varieties were planted for the home winemaking market.

The Act contained a number of exemptions. Many of these were used to evade the law's intended purpose. For example, the Act allowed a physician to prescribe whiskey for his patients but limited the amount that could be prescribed. Subsequently, the House of Delegates of the American Medical Association voted to submit to Congress a bill to remove the limit on the amount of whiskey that could be prescribed and questioned the ability of a legislature to determine the therapeutic value of any substance. According to Neely, "The Act called for trials for anyone charged with an alcohol-related offense, juries failed to convict. Under the state of New York's Mullan–Gage Act, a short-lived local version of the Volstead Act, the first 4,000 arrests led to just six convictions and not one jail sentence". Prohibition lost advocates as ignoring the law gained increasing social acceptance and as organized crime violence increased. By 1933, publi

2017–18 Loyola Ramblers men's basketball team

The 2017–18 Loyola Ramblers men's basketball team represented Loyola University Chicago during the 2017–18 NCAA Division I men's basketball season. The Ramblers, led by seventh-year head coach Porter Moser, played their home games at the Joseph J. Gentile Arena in Chicago, Illinois, they were members of the Missouri Valley Conference. With a win against Evansville on February 18, 2018, Loyola clinched at least a share of its first-ever Missouri Valley Conference regular season championship. With a win over Southern Illinois on February 21, the Ramblers clinched the outright MVC championship; the Ramblers defeated Northern Iowa and Illinois State to win the MVC Tournament. As a result, the Ramblers received the conference's automatic bid to the NCAA Tournament; as the No. 11 seed in the South Region, they upset No. 6-seeded Miami on a last second three-pointer. In the Second Round, they defeated No. 3-seeded Tennessee to earn the school's first trip to the Sweet Sixteen since 1985. They defeated Nevada in the Sweet Sixteen and Kansas State in the Elite Eight to advance to the Final Four for the first time since 1963.

Their Cinderella run ended with a loss to Michigan in the national semifinal. The Ramblers finished the 2016–17 season 18–14, 8–10 in MVC play to finish in fifth place, they lost to Southern Illinois in the quarterfinals of the MVC Tournament. In the conference's preseason poll, the Ramblers were picked to finish in third place in the MVC. Senior forward Aundre Jackson was named to the preseason All-MVC first team; the Ramblers won at least eight of their first nine games for the first time since the 1965–66 Ramblers. In their tenth game on December 6, they upset No. 5 ranked Florida, for the school's first win against a ranked opponent since a February 15, 2009 win over No. 15 Butler and the first against a top 5 team since a December 22, 1984 victory over No. 4 Illinois. Full Schedule and Results

113th Operations Group

The 113th Operations Group is a flying group of the United States Air Force. It provides air sovereignty forces to defend District of Columbia and provides fighter and support forces capable of local and global employment; the group's primary mission is training of air combat and operational airlift crews for national defense. The group provides a ready response force of fighters for the defense of the District of Columbia area. Members of the group assist local and federal law enforcement agencies in combating drug trafficking in the District of Columbia on a case by case basis, its predecessor, the 352nd Fighter Group, was one of the most decorated United States Army Air Forces Fighter Groups in World War II, producing many leading aces of the war. The 352d was composed of three squadrons:. Once deployed to the European Theater of Operations, the group was headquartered in RAF Bodney, England before being forward deployed to Belgium, it performed a variety of missions for the Eighth Air Force, but predominantly served as bomber escort.

The 121st Fighter Squadron of the 113th Operations Group, is a descendant organization of the 121st Observation Squadron, established on 10 July 1940. It is one of the National Guard observation squadrons formed before World War II The 352d Fighter Group was activated at Mitchel Field, New York on 1 October 1942, moved to Bradley Field, Connecticut to begin organization; the group was equipped with the Republic P-47 Thunderbolt fighter. The initial squadrons to be assigned were the 21st and 34th Fighter Squadrons and the newly activated 328th. On 18 May 1943 the assignment of the 21st and 34th Squadrons was retroactively revoked and they were replaced by the 486th and 487th Fighter Squadrons effective 1 October 1942; the group absorbed new personnel, moving several times from Bradley Field to Westover Field, Massachusetts in November and to Trumbull Field, Connecticut in January 1943 where it received the majority of personnel. Once aircraft were received and pilots proficient, the squadrons were assigned to alert duty over New York City, operating from LaGuardia Airport where pilots performed acrobatic maneuvers on takeover much to chagrin of the tower buzzed Yankee Stadium and engaged in dogfights over the city thereby garnering attention of authorities.

Shortly thereafter, the 328th was moved back to Mitchel Field in and was joined by the 487th in March. The 486th moved to Republic Field on 8 March. Training was in its advanced phase when the group was reassembled at Westover in late May in anticipation of deployment orders; the order to deploy arrived in June and the group moved to Camp Kilmer, New Jersey to prepare to embark aboard the ocean liner RMS Queen Elizabeth, leaving on 1 July 1943 for Scotland and service with the Eighth Air Force. The first missions of the 352d were flown on 9 September 1943 when the Thunderbolts flew an escort mission over the North Sea protecting Boeing B-17 Flying Fortress bombers returning from a raid over continental Europe. Skirmishes with the Luftwaffe were frequent, but it wasn't until 26 November when Major John C. Meyer of the 487th Squadron scored the group's first victory over Europe, a Messerschmitt Me 109 fighter. Meyer became deputy commander of the 352d during its most successful period of operations.

On 8 April 1944, the 352d exchanged its radial-engined P-47s for sleek North American P-51 Mustang fighter planes. It was that the Group adopted their unique blue nose marking and the nickname the "Blue Nosed Bastards of Bodney." Notable pilots of the 352d include top scoring P-51 aces Major George Preddy and Col. John C. Meyer, Capt. John Thornell, Capt. William T. Whisner, Captain Donald S. Bryan, Capt. Raymond Littge Lt. Robert "Punchy" Powell, Capt. John "Smokey" Stover and Capt. William C. Miller. One of the 352d's greatest accomplishments was its huge victory over the Luftwaffe on 1 January 1945. In December 1944, the 352d received orders to deploy to Asch Airfield, a remote field 3 miles south-southeast of As, Belgium. After arriving on 22 December, it began operating on the 24th. Poor weather hampered the Battle of Bulge was raging nearby. Unknown to the Allies, the Luftwaffe was preparing a New Year's Day attack, designated Operation Bodenplatte against sixteen forward deployed Allied airfields in the area.

Similar to the preparations for the Battle of Bulge, the Luftwaffe had been preparing and assembling every available fighter on the Western Front and had an estimated 800 fighters and fighter bombers ready to execute an attack when the Allies might be off guard following celebration of New Year's Eve. The concept was simple – a mass attack on newly established continental bases to destroy as many Allied aircraft on the ground and ease the pressure on German ground forces engaged in the battle of the Bulge. However, many of the Luftwaffe pilots were poorly trained and did not have the experience necessary to battle seasoned Allied pilots. John C. Meyer had risen to be Deputy Commander of the 352d by December and was now a lieutenant colonel, he suspected that the Germans might use New Year's Day as an opportunity to attack and decided to have Y-29 in readiness when the sun rose. While haggling with higher authorities at Ninth Air Force throughout the night, he ordered a squadron assigned to do a morning sweep and ordered the pilots not to engage in any alcoholic celebration the night prior.

Although he did not get permission until 0800, he joined the 487th Fighter Squadron in the frigid cold of the snowy weather at 0530 preflighting their Mustangs and was sitting in the cockpit of the lead aircraft. As the Mustangs were awaiting take-off for the morning

Council of Vézelay (1146)

Bernard of Clairvaux, a French abbot, preached at Vézelay to encourage support for the Second Crusade. News from the Holy Land alarmed Christendom. Christians had been defeated at the Siege of Edessa and most of the area had fallen into the hands of the Seljuk Turks; the Kingdom of Jerusalem and the other Crusader states were threatened with similar disaster. Deputations of the bishops of Armenia solicited aid from the pope, the King of France Louis VII sent ambassadors. Vézelay's hilltop location has made it an obvious site for a town since ancient times. In the 9th century the Benedictines were given land to build a monastery during the reign of Charles the Bald. According to legend, not long before the end of the first millennium a monk named Baudillon brought relics of Mary Magdalene to Vézelay from Saint-Maximin-la-Sainte-Baume. In 1058 Pope Stephen IX confirmed the authenticity of the relics, leading to an influx of pilgrims that has continued to this day. Vézelay Abbey was a major starting point for pilgrims on the Way of St. James to Santiago de Compostela, one of the most important of all medieval pilgrimage centres.

This was crucially important in attracting pilgrims and the wealth they brought to the town. In 1144 the Pope, Eugene III commissioned French abbot Bernard of Clairvaux to preach the Second Crusade, granted the same indulgences for it which Pope Urban II had accorded to the First Crusade. A parliament was convoked at Vezelay in Burgundy in 1146, Bernard preached before the assembly on March 31. Louis VII of France, his wife, Eleanor of Aquitaine, the princes and lords present prostrated themselves at the feet of Bernard to receive the pilgrims' cross; the crowd was so large. The full text has not survived, but a contemporary account says that "his voice rang out across the meadow like a celestial organ" When Bernard was finished the crowd enlisted en masse. Bernard began tearing it into strips to make more. Others followed his example and he and his helpers were still producing crosses as night fell. For all his overmastering zeal, Bernard was by a bigot nor a persecutor; as in the First Crusade, the preaching inadvertently led to attacks on Jews.

Bernard, the Archbishop of Cologne and the Archbishop of Mainz were vehemently opposed to these attacks, so Bernard traveled from Flanders to Germany to deal with the problem and quiet the mobs. Bernard found Rudolf in Mainz and was able to silence him, returning him to his monastery; the Castle of Vezelay could not contain the multitudes who thronged to hear the fervid eloquence of Bernard. The preacher, with the King of France Louis VII. by his side, who wore the cross conspicuously on his dress, ascended a platform of wood. At the close of his harangue the whole assembly broke out in tumultuous cries, " The Cross, the Cross! " They crowded to the stage to receive the holy badge. The stock at hand was soon exhausted. Bernard tore up his own dress to satisfy the eager claimants. For the first time, the two greatest sovereigns in Christendom, the Emperor and the King of France, embarked in the cause. Louis had appeared at Vezelay. Bernard found it expedient to dwell upon taking the cross as a potent means of gaining absolution for sin and attaining grace.

On 31 March, with King Louis VII of France present, he preached to an enormous crowd in a field at Vézelay, making "the speech of his life". The full text has not survived, but a contemporary account says that "his voice rang out across the meadow like a celestial organ"James Meeker Ludlow describes the scene romantically in his book The Age of the Crusades: A large platform was erected on a hill outside the city. King and monk stood together, representing the combined will of heaven; the enthusiasm of the assembly of Clermont in 1095, when Peter the Hermit and Urban II launched the first crusade, was matched by the holy fervor inspired by Bernard as he cried, "O ye who listen to me! Hasten to appease the anger of heaven, but no longer implore its goodness by vain complaints. Clothe yourselves in sackcloth, but cover yourselves with your impenetrable bucklers; the din of arms, the danger, the labors, the fatigues of war, are the penances that God now imposes upon you. Hasten to expiate your sins by victories over the Infidels, let the deliverance of the holy places be the reward of your repentance."

As in the olden scene, the cry "Deus vult! Deus vult! " rolled over the fields, was echoed by the voice of the orator: "Cursed be he who does not stain his sword with blood." When Bernard was finished the crowd enlisted en masse. Bernard began tearing it into strips to make more. Others followed his example and he and his helpers were still producing crosses as night fell. Unlike the First Crusade, the new venture attracted royalty, such as Eleanor of Aquitaine, Queen of France, but an greate

John Bradley & Co

John Bradley & Co was a company established in 1800 by John Bradley at Stourbridge in the West Midlands area of England. The company developed into a large industrial concern with furnaces and mines. Under James Foster, John Bradley's half brother, it was instrumental in bringing the first commercial steam locomotive into the Midlands area in 1829; the firm stayed under family control until the early years of the 20th century when first the mining and the ironworks were sold off. Part of the business continued to trade under the name John Co.. Ltd until after the Second World War. John Bradley was the son of Gabriel and Mary Bradley of the town of Stourbridge, where they ran an iron business including Stourbridge Forge on the River Stour. After Gabriel's death in 1771, Mary married Henry Foster and had seven further children, six of whom survived infancy; the youngest of their sons was James Foster. Henry Foster died in 1793. John Bradley founded his firm in 1800 in Stourbridge with the financial assistance of Thomas Jukes Collier, a wine merchant from Wellington.

Bradley leased land by the Stourbridge Canal. where he set up a forge, a furnace and a rolling and slitting mill. The company produced wrought iron using the puddling process. In 1802 the company was set up as a partnership divided into three: one third held by John Bradley, one third by Thomas Jukes Collier and a third held in trust for the children of the late Henry Foster. A steam engine owned by the company, Murray's Hypocycloidal Engine, built in 1805, has been preserved and is now in Thinktank, Birmingham Science Museum, it is the world's third-oldest working steam engine. At this stage the company didn't make iron from ore but bought in pig iron to be turned into wrought iron at the Stourbridge Ironworks. By 1807 the Foster family share of the company was concentrated in the hands of the brothers James and William Foster. In 1809 the company acquired Eardinton Forge near the River Severn to the south of Bridgenorth. William Foster left the partnership in 1813, subsequently running the Stourbridge Forge as an independent business, and, as Thomas Jukes Collier had sold his share of the company to the other partners, this meant that the company was co-owned by John Bradley and James Foster after this date.

John Bradley died 1816. After his half-brother's death, James Foster took control of the enterprise, which included the Stourbridge Iron Works, he was not the sole owner at this stage, since a proportion of the company was held in trust for the Bradley children. In 1823 John Bradley & Co. took a lease of land at Shut End, Kingswinford from J. H. H. Foley with the aim of exploiting the coal and other minerals found there as well as building furnaces. An agreement to construct a rail line to link the Shut End area to a purpose-built canal basin at Ashwood on the Staffordshire and Worcestershire Canal was signed in 1827 by James Foster and Francis Downing, the mineral agent of John William Ward, the 4th Viscount Dudley and Ward; the locomotive that ran on this line Agenoria was constructed by Foster and Company, a partnership between James Foster and the engineer John Urpeth Rastrick. Agenoria remained the property of John Bradley & Co.. The Foster, Rastrick & Co business was wound up by mutual consent on 20 June 1831, its assets being absorbed into John Bradley & Co.

A guide to Stourbridge and its vicinity published in 1832 gave the following description of the company: "on the left bank of the canal, occupying a space intervening between its channel and that of the Stour, being the south side of the wharf. This extensive concern considered as belonging to James Foster, Esq. comprehends all the various parts of the iron processes with the exception of the incipient one of smelting the ore, the pigs being obtained from distant localities." The same source reported: "every species of requisite machinery, from the potent Leviathan of the mechanic arts, to the minutest instrument, is here in full operation, the multiform articles demanded by the artisan, are prepared and supplied. Under the same firm, large works in the county of Salop and elsewhere are carried on. By 1835 Foster had developed a colliery at Shut End. John Bradley & Co. had an ironworks at Brockmoor by this date. On 27 February 1836, Henry Bradley, John's only surviving son decided to leave the business and sold his share to Foster.

The four daughters of John Bradley had sold their own shares in the company and so James Foster became sole owner of John Bradley & Co. At this time the company was described as having premises at: Stourbridge, Hampton's Load, Shutt End, Brettell Lane, Baptist End, Scott's Green, Brockmoor in the counties of Worcestershire and Staffordshire. In 1840, the 2-mile long Stourbridge Extension Canal opened, linking Bradley's Shut End works with the canal network. In a Parliamentary report from 1843, Foster was described as a'large proprietor of iron-works and collieries, employing about 5000 hands'. On James Foster's death in 1853, John Bradley & Co. passed to James's nephew William Orme Foster. He was the son of William Foster, who had left the Bradley partnership in 1813, Charlotte Foster; the company continued to be a large industrial concern under William, although its profits came under pressure as steel manufacturers competed with the traditional iron products of John Bradley

Alliance for Brazil

Alliance for Brazil is a political group that aims to become a Brazilian political party. With conservative roots, it was announced by President of Brazil Jair Bolsonaro, at 12 November 2019, after stating his departure from the Social Liberal Party. After a meeting in Palácio do Planalto with PSL lawmakers, Bolsonaro notified of his resignation from the party and discussed ways to create a new one, but the President still didn't formalize his de-affiliation from PSL at that time. After the meeting, Bolsonaro published a message in his social media, stating that "today I announced my resignation from PSL and beginning of creation of a new party: Alliance for Brazil", thanking "everyone who collaborated with me in PSL and who were partners in the 2018 elections". In the weeks before the announcement of the party creation, Bolsonaro had a lot of misunderstandings with PSL Chairman Luciano Bivar, which triggered an internal crisis. In October 2019, Bolsonaro stated to a supporter to "forget" the party, saying that Bivar was "doomed".

According to Bolsonaro, the Alliance for Brazil is a "conservative party, that respects all religions, backs family values, supports the right to self-defense, the right to possess a firearm, free-trade with the whole world, without any ideological agenda." The Brazilian media, has labeled Bolsonaro's new party as a far-right populist movement. Alliance for Brazil on Twitter