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Volta Laboratory and Bureau

The Volta Laboratory and the Volta Bureau were created in Georgetown, Washington, D. C. by Alexander Graham Bell. The Volta Laboratory was founded in 1880–1881 with Charles Sumner Tainter and Bell's cousin, Chichester Bell, for the research and development of telecommunication and other technologies. Using funds generated by the Volta Laboratory, Bell founded the Volta Bureau in 1887 "for the increase and diffusion of knowledge relating to the deaf", merged with the American Association for the Promotion and Teaching of Speech to the Deaf in 1908, it was renamed as the Alexander Graham Bell Association for the Deaf in 1956 and the Alexander Graham Bell Association for the Deaf and Hard of Hearing in 1999. The current building, a U. S. National Historic Landmark, was constructed in 1893 under the direction of Alexander Graham Bell to serve as a center of information for deaf and hard of hearing persons. Bell, best known for receiving the first telephone patent in 1876, was a prominent figure of his generation in the education of the deaf.

His grandfather and elder brother were teachers of speech and the younger Bell worked with them. Born in Edinburgh, Bell moved to Canada with his family in 1870 following the deaths of his brothers, a year moved to Boston to teach at a special day school for deaf children. Both Bell's mother and wife were deaf, he became a renowned educator by opening a private normal class to train teachers of speech to the deaf and as a professor of vocal physiology and the mechanics of speech at Boston University. During this time he invented an improved phonautograph, the multiple telegraph, the speaking telegraph, or telephone, numerous other devices. In 1879, Bell and his wife Mabel Hubbard, deaf from early childhood, moved to Washington, D. C; the following year, the French government awarded Bell the Volta Prize of 50,000 francs for the invention of the telephone. Bell used the money to establish a trust fund, the Volta Fund, founded the Volta Laboratory Association, along with his cousin Chichester A.

Bell and Sumner Tainter. The laboratory focused on research for the analysis and transmission of sound. In 1887, the Volta Laboratory Association transferred the sound recording and phonograph invention patents they had been granted to the American Graphophone Company. Alexander Bell, bent on improving the lives of the deaf, took a portion of his share of the profits to found the Volta Bureau as an instrument "for the increase and diffusion of knowledge relating to the deaf"; the Volta Bureau worked in close cooperation with the American Association for the Promotion of the Teaching of Speech to the Deaf, organized in 1890, electing Bell as President. The Volta Bureau merged with the Association in 1908, has been known as the Alexander Graham Bell Association for the Deaf since 1956, as the Alexander Graham Bell Association for the Deaf and Hard of Hearing since 1999. Informally it is called the'AG Bell'. From about 1879 Bell's earliest physics research in Washington. D. C. was conducted at his first laboratory, a rented house, at 1325 L Street NW, from the autumn of 1880 at 1221 Connecticut Avenue NW.

The laboratory was relocated to 2020 F Street NW sometime after January 1886. With most of the laboratory's project work being conducted by his two associates, Bell was able to engage in extensive research into the causes of deafness as well as ways of improving the lives of the deaf, leading him to create the Volta Bureau in 1887. In 1889, Bell and his family moved from their Brodhead-Bell mansion to a new home close to his father, Alexander Melville Bell. Between 1889 and 1893, the Volta Bureau was located in the carriage house to the rear of the home of Bell's father, at 1527 35th Street NW in Washington, D. C; the work of the Bureau increased to such an extent that in 1893 Bell, with the assistance of his father, constructed a neoclassical yellow brick and sandstone building to house the institution. The new bureau building was constructed across the street from his father's home, where its carriage house had been its original headquarters. On May 8, 1893, Bell's 13-year-old prodigy, Helen Keller, performed the sod-breaking ceremony for the construction of the new Volta Bureau building.

The'Volta Bureau' was so named in 1887 at the suggestion of John Hitz, its first superintendent, Bell's prior researcher. Hitz remained its first superintendent until his death in 1908. Bell's former trust, the Volta Fund, was renamed the Volta Bureau Fund when the Bureau was established, except for US$25,000 that Bell diverted to the AAPTSD, one of several organizations for the deaf that Bell donated some $450,000 to starting in the 1880s; the building, a neoclassical Corinthian templum in antis structure of matching golden yellow sandstone and Roman brick with architectural terracotta details, was built in 1893 to a design by Peabody and Stearns of Boston. Its design is unique in the Georgetown area of Washington, due to its Academic Revival style, it was declared a National Historic Landmark in 1972. While the Volta Bureau's assigned mission was to conduct research into deafness as well as its related pedagogical strategies, Bell would continue with his other scientific and inventive works for the remainder of his life, conducted at the newer and larger laboratory he built on his Nova Scotia estate, Beinn Breagh.

Although Bell self-described his occupation as a "teacher of the deaf"


Xasthur is the project of American musician Scott "Malefic" Conner. Conner formed Xasthur in 1995 and released eight studio albums of black metal by 2010, when he announced the end of the project. However, he revived it in 2015 to focus on acoustic neofolk music, releasing a ninth album, Subject to Change, in 2016; the name "Xasthur" is a combination of "Hastur" and "Xenaoth". Conner explained that he found the former name in a Necronomicon paperback and believed that it referred to "a demoness who kills people in their sleep"; the latter name referred to a celestial deity he read about in a book on the Afro-Caribbean religion Santería. Xasthur was created in December 1995 in Alhambra, after Conner had played with several local death metal groups in Southern California; the band began rehearsing and recording in a home studio with an unstable lineup. A 10-track tape of these early rehearsals was circulated on the trade scene. While the original of that tape was destroyed, some tracks appeared on re-releases of albums.

For a self-released split album with Orosius, Conner was joined on drums and vocals by friend Mike Pardi from the band Draconis, who used the stage name "Ritual." Subsequently, Xasthur became Conner's solo project, although Khaija "Blood Moon" Ausar appeared as a session musician on the song "A Curse for the Lifeless" and the EP Xasthur, Mark "M. H." Hunter performed on Defective Epitaph and All Reflections Drained, Marissa Nadler sang on Portal of Sorrow. Before releasing their first official full-length album in 2002, Xasthur recordings were distributed in limited editions, which were re-released by the Swedish Total Holocaust Records and other small underground labels; the band's first album, Nocturnal Poisoning, was released by the Blood Fire Death label in 2002. Southern Lord Records re-released a remastered double-LP version in 2005. In the following years, Xasthur's releases were issued through a variety of labels including Bestial Onslaught Productions, Moribund Records, Profound Lore Records, Battle Kommand Records, Autopsy Kitchen Records, Hydra Head Records, Turanian Honour Productions, Avantgarde Music and Disharmonic Variations.

Xasthur released several split albums with other black metal acts such as Acid Enema, Angra Mainyu, Black Circle, Leviathan and Striborg. Additionally, Conner collaborated with numerous bands including the drone metal project Sunn O))), Mord and Gravesideservice, participated on the first album by black metal "supergroup" Twilight. On March 26, 2010, Conner announced that he was wholesaling Xasthur's eighth studio album, Portal of Sorrow, he stated that this would be the last album under the Xasthur moniker, as he was dissolving the Xasthur musical project. Conner cited a lack of motivation, for ending Xasthur. Conner remarked that another, non-metal musical project was in the works revealed to be called Nocturnal Poisoning, named after his 2002 album. Nocturnal Poisoning released three albums between 2012 and 2014: Other Worlds of the Mind, A Misleading Reality and Doomgrass. On September 30, 2010, Conner released the first and only music video to date under the Xasthur name, for the song "Walker of Dissonant Worlds" from the To Violate the Oblivious album.

Conner was featured in One Man Metal, a 2012 Noisey documentary alongside Jef Whitehead of Leviathan and Russell Menzies of Striborg. On March 5, 2015, Conner announced on the official Nocturnal Poisoning Facebook page that the band were reverting to the name Xasthur. In reclaiming the name, he said: "For five years, Nocturnal Poisoning was locked out and denied every opportunity or open door that Xasthur used to have, or would've had. I worked hard at building up both projects, starting both of them from nothing and nowhere, but I'm taking back what's mine. Xasthur doesn't belong to the greedy hipsters, he noted that a new Xasthur album would be available in 2016 on the Disharmonic Variations label, that the current version of the band would be a continuation of Nocturnal Poisoning's acoustic-driven music, saying, "There's no need to rehash old Xasthur songs, the acoustic ones are plenty dark, sometimes they're not. If you've been listening, reading and getting it, we could call it Xasthur acoustic/unplugged with, whatever, a country, blues,'folk', doomgrass or singer/songwriter style and technique in it".

On April 16, Xasthur's first-ever live concert appearance was announced, to take place on June 19, 2015 at the Thirst for Light: Cascadian Summer Solstice II festival at Red Hawk Avalon in Pe Ell, Washington. On September 4, the title for the next Xasthur album was announced as Subject to Change. Conner has noted other one-man black metal projects such as Burzum and Graveland as an inspiration for his singular approach: "The main way that Burzum inspired me was that he could do it all on his own-- why couldn't I?" Although similar in terms of low fidelity production and the wearing of corpse paint and lyrically, the focus of the first edition of Xasthur was not on paganism, Satanism or anti-Christian blasphemy – as is common in the black metal genre – but rather on astral projection, despair, suicide and death. Conner has toured with Sunn O))) and ha

Column of Glory

The Column of Glory, sometimes called the Russo-Turkish War Memorial column, is a victory memorial situated in the immediate surroundings of the Trinity Cathedral in Saint Petersburg, Russia. Completed in 2004 as a gift at the 300th anniversary of the city in 2003, the monument is an exact replica of a monument from 1886, destroyed by Soviet leader Joseph Stalin in 1929. In honor of the victory in the Russo-Turkish War, 1877-1878, when the Russians liberated Bulgaria from a Turkish invasion, a memorial column was constructed in 1886 in front of the northern facade of the Trinity Cathedral, its foundation was 140 trophy cannon barrels used to beat back the Turks during the liberation of Bulgaria. The monument stood eight meters high, was crowned with the winged figure of victory with a wreath made of oak leaves in one hand and palm branches in the other. An iron spiral staircase was located inside. Ten cannons surrounded the outside of the monument. In 1929, the monument was sold by the Soviet Government to Germany for cash.

In 2004 the monument was restored using the original blueprints of the project. The foundation of the column is built out of exact replicas of 128 Turkish cannons cast by the Novolipetsk Steel company; the cannons and other metal parts of the column were given to Saint Petersburg as a gift to its 300th anniversary. Media related to Column of Glory at Wikimedia Commons

Timandra (moth)

Timandra is a genus of moths in the family Geometridae first described by Philogène Auguste Joseph Duponchel in 1829. Palpi not reaching beyond the frons. Antennae of male bipectinate. Apex simple. Hind tibia of male with two spur pairs. Forewings with acute and produced apex. Vein 3 from near angle of cell and vein 5 from somewhat above middle of discocellulars. Veins 7, 8 and 9 stalked. Vein 10 anastomosing with veins 8 and 9 to form the areole. Hindwings with produced outer margin to a point at veins 6 and 7 from angle of cell. Timandra amaturaria Walker, 1866 Timandra apicirosea Timandra comae Schmidt, 1931 Timandra commixta Warren, 1895 Timandra comptaria Timandra convectaria Walker, 1861 Timandra dichela Timandra extremaria Walker, 1861 Timandra griseata Petersen, 1902 Timandra paralias Timandra recompta Timandra rectistrigaria Timandra synthaca Pitkin, Brian & Jenkins, Paul. "Search results Family: Geometridae". Butterflies and Moths of the World. Natural History Museum, London. Savela, Markku.

"Timandra Duponchel, 1829". Lepidoptera and Some Other Life Forms. Retrieved August 2, 2018

Sony α5100

The Sony α5100 is a digital rangefinder-type mirrorless camera announced by Sony on 18 August 2014. The camera has been well received because of its features. One of the main drawbacks is the fake shutter sound that the camera emits when taking a photo, something that many reviewers noted that worsens the experience of taking photos, as the sound cannot be turned off; this fake shutter sound can be heard when shooting at 1/10 s or slower, at faster speeds it is either not emitted or the sound appears to blend in with the mechanical rear curtain shutter sound. This fake shutter sound is present in order to indicate to the camera user that the exposure has started, most to mimic a mechanical front curtain, as most Sony camera now have electronic front curtains. Missing from this camera model is a dedicated physical Fn button, standard for most Sony mirrorless cameras; the programmable function menu that can be assigned to one of the programmable buttons, similar to older Sony NEX camera models, is not available.

List of Sony E-mount cameras

Xunzi (book)

The Xunzi is an ancient Chinese collection of philosophical writings attributed to Xun Kuang, a 3rd century BC philosopher associated with the Confucian tradition. The Xunzi is most famous for the emphasis it places on education and propriety, as well as its striking assertion that "human nature is detestable"; the text is furthermore an important source of early theories of ritual and governance. The ideas within the Xunzi are thought to have exerted a strong influence on Legalist thinkers, such as Han Fei, laid the groundwork for much of Han Dynasty political ideology; the text criticizes a wide range of other prominent early Chinese thinkers, including Laozi, Zhuangzi and Mencius. Some Xunzi chapters are significant; the "Discussion of Heaven" rejects the notion. Instead, Xunzi asserts; the "Discussion of Ritual Propriety" chapter gives rules of social decorum. "Dispelling Obsessions" teaches that in focusing on only one aspect of a situation, one loses sight of the larger purpose. "Proper Use of Terms": A name becomes proper for a situation through conventional usage, but once this is fixed it is improper to deviate from this norm.

"Human Dispositions are Detestable" rejects Mencius's claim that people have a natural inclination toward goodness. Confucius, who said that people are similar by nature, was not clear on the matter. Xunzi holds that man is inclined towards selfishness, that if this inclination is not curbed, human societies devolve into chaos, he argues that people become good only through conscious efforts and social constructs, emphasizing the difference between natural endowment and cultivated potential. In the first century AD, Liu Xiang redacted Xunzi's extant oeuvre from hundreds of loose fascicles into 32 bundles of bamboo strips; the first commentary on the Xunzi does not appear until 818 AD, when an official named Yang Liang claimed to have corrected errors in the existing bamboo strips and transcribed them on scrolls of silk. Yang's commentary still appears in some modern editions of the text; the text has been continuously in print since the invention of the printing press in the 11th century AD. The essays in the Xunzi are not in chronological order.

Mozi, another philosopher of the Warring States era, discouraged the use of music and other forms of culture as being wasteful of resources needed to keep the state healthy and prosperous. Xunzi's chapter on music questions this stance naming Mozi. Why, poses Xunzi, should music be renounced if created by the sage kings to create order in expression, or if it brings people into unity and harmony and soldiers into order? Or what if it has the ability to reform people? Following a line of Confucian thought, Xunzi argues that music, as defined and ordered by the ancient sage kings, acts like ritual in that it moderates and restrains the person listening and the person performing, it positively inspires people and is thus an effective means of governing. However, again agreeing with Confucius, Xunzi does admit that there are types of music which can lead one into licentious behavior, but states that the gentleman knows to be wary of his environment and the sounds he hears. Music embodies an unchanging harmony.

Music unites that, the same. Because he criticized music, one would expect Mozi to have met with some punishment, and yet in his lifetime the enlightened kings had all died and there was no one to correct his errors, so that stupid men continue to study his doctrines and bring jeopardy to themselves. Xunzi's chapter on dispelling obsession can be understood via the use of an ode he uses from the Book of Odes: I pluck and pluck the burr-weed But it does not fill my slanting basket. I sigh for my loved one; because the mind of the plucker in this ode is divided between her task at hand and the love she has for a man in the ranks of Zhou, she cannot complete the simple task of filling her basket. Xunzi warns against falling into obsession in this chapter; when one is subject to obsession, it means that he is focusing so intently on a certain thing his mind will not be able to absorb any new information outside of the realm of his obsession. His true mind is thus divided in the sense of there being a wall too tall to see over in his head separating the obsession from everything else.

Obsession, as argued by Xunzi, is so strong that the ineptitude it causes can lead to one's death without his knowing it. Examples of people who fell into such obsessions include rulers who neglected their duties at the hands of an obsession and thus fell into discord with their people, usurpers of the throne who met their end because of their obsession with gaining power. Alternately, a sage uses the Way to keep his mind open. In order to accept the Way, one must first understand it approve it abide by it; the Way is the path away from obsession because of the nature of its interaction with the mind, empty and still, according to Xunzi, when it is in accord with the Way. When it happens that one's mind is empty, one is able to poss