Volterra is a walled mountaintop town in the Tuscany region of Italy. Its history dates from before the 8th century BC and it has substantial structures from the Etruscan and Medieval periods. Volterra, known to the ancient Etruscans as Velathri or Vlathri and to the Romans as Volaterrae, is a town and comune in the Tuscany region of Italy; the town was a Bronze Age settlement of the Proto-Villanovan culture, an important Etruscan center, one of the "twelve cities" of the Etruscan League. The site is believed to have been continuously inhabited as a city since at least the end of the 8th century BC, it became a municipium allied to Rome at the end of the 3rd century BC. The city was a bishop's residence in the 5th century, its episcopal power was affirmed during the 12th century. With the decline of the episcopate and the discovery of local alum deposits, Volterra became a place of interest of the Republic of Florence, whose forces conquered Volterra. Florentine rule was not always popular, opposition broke into rebellion.
These rebellions were put down by Florence. When the Republic of Florence fell in 1530, Volterra came under the control of the Medici family and followed the history of the Grand Duchy of Tuscany. Volterra has a station on the Cecina-Volterra Railway, called "Volterra Saline – Pomarance" due to its position, in the frazione of Saline di Volterra. Roman Theatre of Volterra, 1st century BC, excavated in the 1950s Piazza dei Priori, the main square, a fine example of medieval Tuscan town squares Palazzo dei Priori, the town hall located on Piazza dei Priori, construction begun in 1208 and finished in 1257 Pinacoteca e museo civico di Volterra in Palazzo Minucci-Solaini. Founded in 1905, the gallery consists of works by Tuscan artists from 14th to 17th centuries. Includes a Deposition by Rosso Fiorentino. Volterra Cathedral, it was enlarged in the 13th century after an earthquake. It houses a ciborium and some angels by Mino da Fiesole, a notable wood Deposition, a masterwork of Romanesque sculpture and the Sacrament Chapel, with paintings by Santi di Tito, Giovanni Balducci and Agostino Veracini.
In the center of the vault are fragments of an Eternal Father by Niccolò Circignani. Noteworthy is the Addolorata Chapel, with a terracotta group attributed to Andrea della Robbia and a fresco of Riding Magi by Benozzo Gozzoli. In the nearby chapel, dedicated to the Most Holy Name of Jesus, is a table with Christ's monogram painted by Bernardino of Siena; the rectangular bell tower is from 1493. Volterra Baptistery of San Giovanni, built in the second half of the 13th century. Fortezza Medicea, build in the 1470s, now a prison housing the noted restaurant, Fortezza Medicea restaurant. Guarnacci Etruscan Museum, with thousands of funeral urns dating back to the Hellenistic and Archaic periods. Main attractions are the bronze statuette "Ombra della sera", the sculpted effigy, "Urna degli Sposi" of an Etruscan couple in terra cotta; the Etruscan Walls of Volterra, including the well-preserved Walls of Volterra, Porta Diana gates. The Medici Villa di Spedaletto, outside the city, in direction of Lajatico There are excavations of Etruscan tombs in the Valle Bona area.
Volterra Psychiatric Hospital, Founded in 1888 until 1978, it was reopened for public and will be once more used for psychiatric purposes. The main events that take place during the year in Volterra are Volterra gusto Volterra arte Volterra teatro Persius, the Roman satirist of Etruscan stock Pope Linus, according to the Liber Pontificalis, was born in Volterra, was the successor to Peter. Lucius Petronius Taurus Volusianus, consul with the Emperor Gallienus in AD 261 and Urban Prefect in AD 267-268 Daniele da Volterra, Mannerist painter The poet Jacopo da Leona was a judge at Volterra in the 13th century; the Maffei family of Volterra produced the apostolic Secretary Gherardo Maffei and his three sons: the eldest Antonio Maffei, one of the assassins in the Pazzi Conspiracy against the Medici in 1478. Emilio Fiaschi, sculptor Volterra features in Horatius, a poem by Lord Macaulay. Linda Proud's A Tabernacle for the Sun, the first volume of The Botticelli Trilogy, begins with the sack of Volterra in 1472.
Volterra is the ancestral home of the Maffei family and the events of 1472 lead directly to the Pazzi Conspiracy of 1478. The protagonist of the novel is Tommaso de' Maffei, half brother of one of the conspirators. Volterra is an important location in Stephenie Meyer's Twilight series. In the books, Volterra is home to the Volturi, a coven of rich, powerful ancient vampires, who act as the rulers of the world's vampire population. Volterra is the site of Stendhal's famously disastrous encounter in 1819 with his beloved Countess Mathilde Dembowska: she recognised him there, despite his disguise of new clothes and green glasses, was furious; this is the central incident in his book On Love. Volterra is mentioned in British author Dudley Pope's Captain Nicholas Ramage historical nautical series. Gianna, the Marchesa of Volterra and the fictional ruler of the area, features in the first twelve books of the eighteen-book series; the books chart the progress and career of Ramage during the Napoleonic wars of the late eighteenth and early nineteenth century, providing readers with well-scripte
Cecil Roberts is a miner and president of the United Mine Workers of America. He is a vice president of the AFL-CIO, sits on the AFL-CIO's executive council. Roberts was born on Halloween in 1946, he grew up along Cabin Creek in West Virginia. Roberts enlisted in the United States Army and served with the 167th Light Infantry Brigade, Americal Division at Chu Lai during the Vietnam War in 1967-68. After leaving the Army, Roberts went to work as a miner in 1971, he became active in Miners for Democracy, the reform movement in the United Mine Workers which sprung up around miner Arnold Miller. In 1977, he was elected vice president of District 17. In 1982, Roberts was elected vice president of UMWA, his running mate was Richard Trumka. Roberts graduated from the West Virginia Institute of Technology with a bachelor's degree in 1987. In 1989, Roberts was the on-site leader and strategist and chief negotiator in UMWA's 10-month strike against Pittston Coal; when Trumka resigned the presidency of UMWA on December 22, 1995, after being elected secretary-treasurer of the AFL-CIO, Roberts assumed the presidency in his stead.
In 1996, Roberts won agreement from coal mine operators to re-open UMWA's national coal agreement. It was the first time the contract had been re-opened in the union's history, Roberts won substantial wage increases. In 1997, Roberts was elected president of UMWA in his own right to a new five-year term. For the first time in UMWA history, the entire leadership team slate ran unopposed. In 1998, Roberts negotiated a new national coal agreement. In 2000, Roberts won re-election a second time. Although his term was not due to expire, delegates to UMWA's March 2000 convention approved a resolution to move the election up so balloting would not coincide with negotiations for a new bituminous coal contract. Again and his slate ran unopposed. In 2001, Roberts bargained a five-year national coal agreement; the new agreement included significant pension increases and "30-and-out" language that allowed miners with 30 years of service to retire with full benefits at any age. In September 2003, Roberts called an International Special Convention to restructure UMWA.
Delegates approved proposals to eliminate all international vice president positions, combine the international executive board member, district president and district secretary-treasurer positions into one office called international vice president. Delegates approved moving the 2005 presidential election up to 2004. In 2004, Roberts was re-elected a third time as president of UMWA. In December 2005, Roberts negotiated a new national coal agreement which contained the highest pay raises since 1974. Health benefits were maintained, coal companies will increase contributions to the UMWA Pension Fund by more than $500 million. In 2008, Roberts received the Eugene V. Debs Foundation Award. BibliographyBaratz, Morton S; the Union and the Coal Industry. New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1955. Coleman, McAlister. Men and Coal. New York: Farrar and Rinehart, 1969. Fox, Maier B. United We Stand: The United Mine Workers of America, 1890–1990. Washington, D. C.: United Mine Workers of America, 1990. J. H. M. Laslett, The United Mine Workers of America: A Model of Industrial Solidarity?.
Long, Priscilla. Where the Sun Never Shines: A History of America's Bloody Coal Industry. New York: Paragon, 1989. United Mine Workers of America Roberts UMWA C. E. Roberts Penn State records Login required
Genmar Holdings, Inc. was the second largest manufacturer of recreational motor boats, founded in 1978. It was headquartered in Minneapolis, Minnesota with offices in Little Falls and Cadillac, Michigan. In 2009, the company filed for Chapter 11 Bankruptcy, it owned the Aquasport, Carver Yachts, Champion Boats, Glastron, Hatteras Yachts, Larson Boats, Lowe Boats, Scarab Boats, Trojan Yachts, Wellcraft brands. In 2001, Genmar sold Hatteras Yachts to Brunswick Corporation in an $80M cash transaction. In 2010, PBH Marine Group bought 11 brands, including Ranger Boats, Stratos Boats, Wellcraft, Four Winns and Glastron out of bankruptcy for $70 million. Platinum Equity bought the Ranger and Stratos lines of business in February 2010; the Carver Yachts and Marquis Yachts assets were purchased for $6.05 million by J&D Acquisitions LLC, a company created by former Genmar owner Irwin Jacobs, along with investor John Paul DeJoria