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A voltmeter is an instrument used for measuring electrical potential difference between two points in an electric circuit. Analog voltmeters move a pointer across a scale in proportion to the voltage of the circuit. A voltmeter in a circuit diagram is represented by the letter V in a circle. Voltmeters are made in a wide range of styles. Instruments permanently mounted in a panel are used to monitor other fixed apparatus. Portable instruments equipped to measure current and resistance in the form of a multimeter, are standard test instruments used in electrical and electronics work. Any measurement that can be converted to a voltage can be displayed on a meter, suitably calibrated. General purpose analog voltmeters may have an accuracy of a few percent of full scale, are used with voltages from a fraction of a volt to several thousand volts. Digital meters can be made with high accuracy better than 1%. Specially calibrated test instruments have higher accuracies, with laboratory instruments capable of measuring to accuracies of a few parts per million.

Meters using amplifiers can measure tiny voltages of less. Part of the problem of making an accurate voltmeter is that of calibration to check its accuracy. In laboratories, the Weston Cell is used as a standard voltage for precision work. Precision voltage references are available based on electronic circuits. A moving coil galvanometer can be used as a voltmeter by inserting a resistor in series with the instrument; the galvanometer has a coil of fine wire suspended in a strong magnetic field. When an electric current is applied, the interaction of the magnetic field of the coil and of the stationary magnet creates a torque, tending to make the coil rotate; the torque is proportional to the current through the coil. The coil rotates; the deflection of the coil is thus proportional to the current, which in turn is proportional to the applied voltage, indicated by a pointer on a scale. One of the design objectives of the instrument is to disturb the circuit as little as possible and so the instrument should draw a minimum of current to operate.

This is achieved by using a sensitive galvanometer in series with a high resistance, the entire instrument is connected in parallel with the circuit examined. The sensitivity of such a meter can be expressed as "ohms per volt", the number of ohms resistance in the meter circuit divided by the full scale measured value. For example, a meter with a sensitivity of 1000 ohms per volt would draw 1 milliampere at full scale voltage. For multi-range instruments, the input resistance varies as the instrument is switched to different ranges. Moving-coil instruments with a permanent-magnet field respond only to direct current. Measurement of AC voltage requires a rectifier in the circuit so that the coil deflects in only one direction; some moving-coil instruments are made with the zero position in the middle of the scale instead of at one end. Voltmeters operating on the electrostatic principle use the mutual repulsion between two charged plates to deflect a pointer attached to a spring. Meters of this type draw negligible current but are sensitive to voltages over about 100 volts and work with either alternating or direct current.

The sensitivity and input resistance of a voltmeter can be increased if the current required to deflect the meter pointer is supplied by an amplifier and power supply instead of by the circuit under test. The electronic amplifier between input and meter gives two benefits. Amplified voltmeters have an input resistance of 1, 10, or 20 megohms, independent of the range selected. A once-popular form of this instrument used a vacuum tube in the amplifier circuit and so was called the vacuum tube voltmeter, or VTVM; these were always powered by the local AC line current and so were not portable. Today these circuits use a solid-state amplifier using field-effect transistors, hence FET-VM, appear in handheld digital multimeters as well as in bench and laboratory instruments; these are now so ubiquitous that they have replaced non-amplified multimeters except in the least expensive price ranges. Most VTVMs and FET-VMs handle DC voltage, AC voltage, resistance measurements. A specialized form of the VTVM or FET-VM is the AC voltmeter.

These instruments are optimized for measuring AC voltage. They have better sensitivity than a typical multifunction device. A digital voltmeter measures an unknown input voltage by converting the voltage to a digital value and displays the voltage in numeric form. DVMs are designed around a special type of analog-to-digital converter called an integrating converter. DVM measurement accuracy is affected by many factors, including temperature, input impedance, DVM power supply voltage variations. Less expensive DVMs have input resistance on the order of 10 MΩ. Precision DVMs can have input resistances of 1 GΩ or higher for the lower voltage ranges. To ensure that a DVM's accuracy is within the manufacturer's specified tolerances, it must be pe

Plaza de toros de San Roque

The Plaza de toros de San Roque is a bull ring in San Roque, a town in the province of Cádiz at the southern edge of Spain, close to the British territory of Gibraltar, was opened in 1853. The Feria Real de San Roque, is the city's main yearly Street fair, held on the second Tuesday of August; the fair begins with the coronation ceremony of the juvenile and child queens and their respective courts, although the stands and attractions located in the Fairground El Ejido do not open until Wednesday, the day of the inaugural cavalcade. The Royal Fair closes on a Sunday night with a fireworks show and at 7am on the Monday with the Running of the Bulls known locally as Toro del Aguardiente which has occurred yearly since 1649, named as terrified participants are given a shot of the strong alcoholic spirit ‘Aguardiente’ for courage, before running with the bulls to the Plaza de toros de San Roque, marking the end of the fair

International cricket in 2019

The 2019 international cricket season was from May 2019 to September 2019. The 2019 Cricket World Cup in England and Wales took place during this time, starting on 30 May 2019. 10 Test matches, 78 One Day Internationals and 109 Twenty20 Internationals, as well as 1 Women's Test, 9 Women's One Day Internationals and 130 Women's Twenty20 Internationals, were played during this period. The season started with India leading the Test cricket rankings, England leading the ODI rankings and Pakistan leading the Twenty20 rankings. On 3 May, the International Cricket Council expanded the men's T20I rankings to include all current Full Member and Associate members of the ICC, featuring 80 teams. In the women's rankings, Australia women lead both the WT20I tables. Concussion replacements were allowed to be used in all international cricket matches from 1 August 2019, after the ICC approved changes to the Playing Conditions to this effect. A concussion substitute was used for the first time in international cricket when Steve Smith was replaced by Marnus Labuschagne after being struck on the neck by a bouncer in the second Test of the Ashes.

International men's cricket started with a one-off ODI between England and Ireland, which England won. The 2019 Cricket World Cup was held starting in May. England won their first World Cup, beating New Zealand in a Super Over, after the final finished in a tie. Following the World Cup, the 71st Ashes series was played in this season; the Ashes Tests were the first Test -- 21 ICC World Test Championship. Australia retained the Ashes, after winning the fourth Test of the series; the series was drawn 2–2, the first drawn Ashes series since 1972. In the one-off test between England and Ireland, Ireland were bowled out for 38 in their second innings; this was the seventh lowest innings total in Test history, the lowest since England bowled New Zealand out for 26 in 1955. In the third Test of the Ashes, England were bowled out for 67 in their first innings and went on to win the Test; the 2019 Romania T20 Cup saw several records set in men's T20Is. The match between Czech Republic and Turkey saw the Czech Republic equal the record for the highest innings total in T20Is, Turkey bowled out for the lowest total in T20Is, the largest margin of defeat in terms of runs.

In addition, several qualification events for the 2020 ICC T20 World Cup took place in this season. In the Africa qualifier, both Namibia and Kenya progressed to the 2019 ICC T20 World Cup Qualifier tournament. Jersey progressed from the Europe qualifier tournament and Singapore progressed from the Asia qualifier tournament. In the final qualifier tournament was the Americas group, which saw Canada and Bermuda progress. Qualification started for the 2023 Cricket World Cup this season, with the Scotland Tri-Nation Series kicking off Cricket World Cup League 2. In July 2019, the ICC suspended Zimbabwe Cricket, for breach of the ICC Constitution, with the team barred from taking part in ICC events, it was the first time. As a result of Zimbabwe's suspension, the ICC replaced them in the 2019 ICC T20 World Cup Qualifier with Nigeria and the 2019 ICC Women's World Twenty20 Qualifier tournament with Namibia. In addition, the ICC suspended the Croatian Cricket Federation and the Zambia Cricket Union for non-compliance issues, expelled the Royal Moroccan Cricket Federation as they continued to remain non-compliant with the ICC Membership Criteria.

Women's cricket in this season saw the conclusion of qualification for the 2020 ICC Women's T20 World Cup, with many of these events being part of the 2021 Women's Cricket World Cup qualification process. Regional qualification groups saw teams progress to both the 2019 ICC Women's World Twenty20 Qualifier and 2020 Women's Cricket World Cup Qualifier tournaments. Zimbabwe qualified from the Africa group, before being replaced by Namibia. Papua New Guinea qualified from the EAP group, the United States qualified from the Americas group and the Netherlands qualified from the Europe group; the 2019 ICC Women's World Twenty20 Qualifier took place during the season. Bangladesh and Thailand reached the final of the Qualifier to progress to the 2020 ICC Women's T20 World Cup, it was the first time. Bangladesh beat Thailand in the final of the Qualifier to win the tournament; the 2019 Kwibuka Women's T20 Tournament saw. Mali scored four of the five lowest innings totals in WT20Is, the lowest of, six. In addition, the two highest innings totals in WT20Is was set this tournament, with Uganda's 314/2 being the highest.

In addition, four bilateral series were played, including the 23rd Women's Ashes, won by Australia. The following were the rankings at the beginning of the season. Host, Qualified to qualifying tournament Host, Qualified to qualifying tournament Host, Qualified Host, Qualified Qualified to qualifying tournament, Scotland advance automatically as host of the qualifying tournament Zimbabwe Women were scheduled to tour Ireland to play three 50-over matches and three WT20Is. However, the tour was cancelled due to funding issues from Zimbabwe Cricket. Host, Qualified Host, Qualified; the country was scheduled to host Afghanistan for five ODIs and three T20I fixtures. On 20 August 2019, the Afghan Cricket Board announced the Test and T20I squads for its first fixtures of the 2019–20 season, with no reference to the tour of Zimbabwe

The Dreaded P. D. Q. Bach Collection

The Dreaded P. D. Q. Bach Collection is a collection of works by Peter Schickele under the pseudonym of P. D. Q. Bach recorded on the Vanguard Records label by the composer, it includes the complete contents of the first five P. D. Q. Bach albums, plus the never-before-released "Sanka" Cantata. Disc 1 1 In the Vanguard Vault, Part 1 2–19 Peter Schickele Presents an Evening with P. D. Q. Bach 20–31 An Hysteric Return: P. D. Q. Bach at Carnegie HallDisc 2 1–9 An Hysteric Return continued 10–33 Report from Hoople: P. D. Q. Bach on the AirDisc 3 1–20 P. D. Q. Bach's Half-Act Opera, "The Stoned Guest"Disc Four 1–29 The Intimate P. D. Q. Bach 30 In the Vanguard Vault, Part 2 31 The "Sanka" Cantata 32 In the Vanguard Vault, Part 3

Pottsgrove Mansion

Pottsgrove Manor known as the John Potts House, is a historic home located at Pottstown, Montgomery County, Pennsylvania. It was built in 1752 by John Potts, is a large two-story, rectangular and fieldstone building in the Georgian style, it has a five-bay front facade, gable roof, a center hall plan. The service wing was added 1790–1805, the rebuilt east wing was built 1941–1952 during a restoration, it is open to the public as an 18th-century historic house museum owned by Montgomery County. It was added to the National Register of Historic Places in 1974, it is located in the Old Pottstown Historic District. Pottsgrove Manor website

2018–19 Luxembourg National Division

The 2018–19 Luxembourg National Division was the 105th season of top-flight association football in Luxembourg. The season began on 5 August 2018 and ended on 19 May 2019. F91 Dudelange were the defending champions from the previous season. Rodange 91 and Esch were relegated at the end of the previous season. Etzella Ettelbruck and Rumelange joined the league this season after earning promotion from the Luxembourg Division of Honour. Source: Scoresway Each team played every other team in the league home-and-away for a total of 26 matches each. A play-off was played between the twelfth-placed team in the 2018–19 Luxembourg National Division and the third-placed team in the 2018–19 Luxembourg Division of Honour for one place in the 2019–20 Luxembourg National Division. US Hostert remained in 2019–20 Luxenbourg National Division and FC Swift Hesperange remained in 2019–20 Luxenbourg Division d'Honneur 2018–19 Luxembourg Cup 2018–19 Luxembourg Division of Honour Official website