1983 Birthday Honours

Queen's Birthday Honours are announced on or around the date of the Queen's Official Birthday in Australia, New Zealand and the United Kingdom. The dates vary, both from country to country. All are published in supplements to the London Gazette, many are formally conferred by the monarch some time after the date of the announcement for those service people on active duty; the 1983 Queen's Birthday honours lists were announced on 10 June 1983. At this time honours for Australians were still being awarded in the UK honours on the advice of the premiers of Australian states, as well as in the Australian honours system, established in 1975. Recipients of honours are displayed here; the Most Reverend and Right Honourable Stuart Yarworth Blanch. Archbishop of York. Sir James Edward Hanson. Chairman, Hanson Trust. George Anthony Geoffrey Howard, D. L. Chairman, British Broadcasting Corporation. Sir John Leonard King. Chairman, Babcock International PLC. Peter Allan Renshaw Blaker, Minister of State Foreign and Commonwealth Office, 1979-81.

Minister of State for the Armed Forces, Ministry of Defence, 1981-83. Sir Frank Cooper, G. C. B. C. M. G. Permanent Under-Secretary of State, Ministry of Defence, 1976-82. Sir Arthur Michael Palliser, G. C. M. G. Head of the Diplomatic Service, 1975-82. Peter Wynford Innes Rees, Q. C. Minister of State, H. M. Treasury, 1979-81. Minister of State, Department of Trade, 1981-83. Michael Francis Atiyah, Royal Society Research Professor, Mathematical Institute, University of Oxford. Basil Davenport Blackwell, Vice-Chairman and Chief Executive, Westland PLC. John Dennis Boles, M. B. E. Director-General, The National Trust. Robert Lewis Fullarton Boyd, C. B. E. Professor of Physics, University of London, Director of the Mullard Space Science Laboratory. Philip Antony Fyson Buck, Q. C. For Political and Public Service. Terence Burns, Chief Economic Adviser, H. M. Treasury. Geoffrey Chandler, C. B. E. Director-General, National Economic Development Office. Anthony Wakefield Cox, C. B. E. Architect. Hugh Guy Cubitt, C. B. E. Chairman, Housing Corporation.

Rustam Moolan-Feroze, Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists. Charles Keith Frossard, Bailiff of Guernsey. Abraham Goldberg, Regius Professor of the Practice of Medicine, University of Glasgow. James Duncan Goold. For Public and Political services. Harold Edward Gurden. For Political and Public Service. Michael Aubrey Hamilton. For Political and Public Service. Philip Welsby Holland. For Political and Public Service. Ian Bruce Hope Hunter, M. B. E. For services to the Arts. Brigadier Leonard Henry Lee, C. B. E. For Political and Public Service. Duncan McDonald, C. B. E. Chairman and Chief Executive, NEI Group PLC. For services to Export. Alexander McGregor Graham Macmillan. For Political Service. Kenneth Macmillan, Principal Choreographer, The Royal Ballet. James William Miskin, Q. C. Recorder of London. Francis Patrick Neill, Q. C. Chairman, Press Council. Joseph Nickerson, Nickerson Group. John Holbrook Osborn. For Political and Public Service. Leslie Porter and Chief Executive, Tesco Stores PLC. Alfred Sherman.

For Political Service. Norman Siddall, C. B. E. Chairman, National Coal Board. Clive Marles Sinclair, Sinclair Research Ltd. Professor Stephen Harold Spender, C. B. E. Poet and Critic. Alan Arthur Walters, Personal Economic Adviser to the Prime Minister. Malcolm George Wilcox, C. B. E. Chairman, Export Guarantees Advisory Council. Alwyn Williams and Vice-Chancellor, University of Glasgow. William Maxwell Harries Williams, The Law Society of England and Wales. Woodrow Lyle Wyatt, Horserace Totalisator Board. Roger William Young. For educational and public services in Scotland. State of Queensland Francis Thomas Moore. For service to the tourist industry and the community. Henry Sydney Williams, O. B. E. For services to the community. Military DivisionVice Admiral Sir David John Hallifax, K. B. E. Vice Admiral Peter Maxwell Stanford, M. V. O. Lieutenant General Martin Baker Farndale, C. B. Colonel Commandant Royal Regiment of Artillery, Colonel Commandant Army Air Corps. Acting Air Marshal Michael John Armitage, C. B. E. Royal Air Force.

Acting Air Marshal Patrick Bardon Hine, Royal Air Force. Acting Air Marshal Michael William Patrick Knight, C. B. A. F. C. Royal Air Force. Civil DivisionGeorge Lawrence Jose Engle, C. B. Q. C. First Parliamentary Counsel. Michael David Milroy Franklin, C. B. C. M. G. Permanent Secretary, Ministry of Agriculture and Food. Clive Anthony Whitmore, C. V. O. Permanent Secretary, Ministry of Defence. Military DivisionRear Admiral Anthony Sanderson George. Rear Admiral David Conrad Jenkin. Rear Admiral John Keith Robertson. Major General William Maurice Allen, late Royal Corps of Transport. Major General Eric Walter Barton, M. B. E. Colonel Commandant Corps of Royal Engineers. Major General Derek Thomas Crabtree, Colonel The Duke of Edinburgh's Royal Regiment. Major General Sir David Hughes-Morgan, Bt. C. B. E. Army Legal Corps. Major General Michael Frank Reynolds, late The Queen's Regiment. Air Vice-Marshal Herbert Brian Kelly, M. V. O. Royal Air Force. Air Vice-Marshal Leslie William Phipps, A. F. C. Royal Air Force. Air Vice-Marshal Robert George Price, Royal Air Force.

Civil DivisionJohn Anthony Christopher, Chief Valuer, Board of Inland Revenue. Roy Henry Francis Croft, Deputy Secretary, Department of Industry. Ivor John Guest Davis, Comptroller-General, Patent Office, Department of Trade. Professor George Alfred Hugh Elton, Chief Scientist, Ministry of Agriculture and Food. Kenneth Frederick John Ennals, Deputy Secretary, Department of the Environment. Miss Susan Winthrop Fogarty, Under Secret

Nike sweatshops

Since the 1970's, Inc. has been accused of using sweatshops to produce footwear and apparel. Nike has denied the claims in the past, suggesting the company has little control over sub-contracted factories. Beginning in 2002, Nike began auditing its factories for occupational safety issues. Nike has been accused of using sweatshops since the early 1970s, when it produced goods in South Korea, Mainland China, Taiwan; as these areas' economies developed, workers became more productive, wages rose, many moved on to higher paying jobs. Throughout the 1990s, Nike was criticised for selling goods produced in sweatshops, they denied claims against them. However, in 2001, Nike director Todd McKean stated in an interview that the "initial attitude was,'Hey, we don't own the factories. We don't control what goes on there.' Quite frankly, a sort of irresponsible way to approach this. We had people there every day looking at quality. We had leverage and responsibility with certain parts of the business, so why not others?"

In 2005, protesters at over 40 universities demanded that their institutions endorse companies who use "sweat-free" labor. Many anti-sweatshop groups were student-led, such as the United Students Against Sweatshops. At Brown University, Nike went so far as to pull out from a contract with the women’s ice hockey team because of efforts by a student activist group that wanted a code of conduct put in place by the company. Team Sweat is one of the largest groups that tracks and protests against Nike. Team Sweat is "an international coalition of consumers and workers committed to ending the injustices in Nike’s sweatshops around the world" founded in 2000 by Jim Keady. While Keady was conducting his research about Nike at St. John’s University, the school signed a $3.5 million deal with Nike, forcing all athletes and coaches to endorse Nike. Keady publicly refused to support Nike and was forced to resign his position as soccer coach in 1998. Since resigning, Keady has done original research into the conditions in Nike's Sweatshops.

He traveled to Indonesia and for a month lived among the Nike factory workers, surviving on $1.25 per day like they do. In 2016, the Worker Rights Consortium and Fair Labor Association issued reports on working conditions at the Hansae Vietnam factory complex; the reports detailed various violations of labor standards. In response, students at Georgetown University held a sit-in in December to protest their school's contract with Nike; the university allowed the contract to expire. In July 2017, USAS organized a Global Day of Action Against Nike on which protests were held at numerous Nike stores. In August, Nike reached a new agreement with Georgetown University which granted the WRC full access to Nike's factories. In 2020, the Washington Post reported that Nike purchases from a factory that relies on forced labor from Uyghurs in Xinjiang, China. Advocacy groups engaged in looking at the conditions of the factories in which Nike, Inc. products are made as a way to understand the problems more fully.

Throughout the 1990s, Nike experienced rapid growth after they moved their primary branches of production overseas. Record breaking profits were reported and the number of factories increased to fulfill the consumers’ demand for Nike products; the employees were the poor inhabitants of the area surrounding the factory looking for any sort of income. The heads of the factories were Nike contractors who lived in United States or Europe and did not have any sort of relations with their employees; the duty of supervision was given to an upper-level factory worker. The authority of the supervisor included enforcing rules the workers must follow and making sure that they were performing to optimal standards; the findings of factory investigations show that the supervisor oversteps their duties. The laws protecting the workers are ignored in favor of lowering health standards; this is because political leaders are paid off by factory supervisors in order to limit governmental interference. The leaders relayed messages to military and police units to overlook the conditions in factories so that the illegal environment could remain open and functioning.

They were warned to watch for signs of labor activism near the factories to prevent workers from aligning with one another for better conditions. Women represent a large proportion of factory employees. 75 to 80% of workers are women and a majority of those are in their teens or early twenties. Factory jobs may require women to work long hours, ranging from nine to thirteen hours per day, six days a week, they are limited in the amount of time they can take off and are forced to work overtime on several occasions during the week. Although there are more women employed at the factories, they represent the minority in the higher paid supervisor positions; the goals of transnational advocacy groups working on behalf of Nike factory workers are to allow workers to obtain higher wages, improve the working conditions of the factories, enable them to organize, gain the respect of their employers. Global efforts have increased the information being spread about Nike sweatshop conditions. Countries such as the Netherlands, Germany and Belgium, where no Nike factories exist, have branches of organizations that work to better factory conditions.

In countries like Indonesia, Thailand and Cambodia, where factories are common, non-governmental organizations push anti-Nike efforts by informing the public through the media of the work environment within the plants. Several well-known advocacy groups are the Global Exchange, Christian Aid, The Ethical Shopper, the Clean Clothes Campaign. There are