The Volvo Group is a Swedish multinational manufacturing company headquartered in Gothenburg. While its core activity is the production and sale of trucks and construction equipment, Volvo supplies marine and industrial drive systems and financial services. In 2016, it was the world's second largest manufacturer of heavy-duty trucks. Automobile manufacturer Volvo Cars based in Gothenburg, was part of AB Volvo until 1999, when it was sold to the Ford Motor Company. Since 2010 it has been owned by the Chinese multinational automotive company Geely Holding Group. Both AB Volvo and Volvo Cars share the Volvo logo and cooperate in running the Volvo Museum in Sweden; the company was first listed on the Stockholm Stock Exchange in 1935, was on the NASDAQ indices from 1985 to 2007. Volvo was established in 1915 as a subsidiary of a ball bearing manufacturer; the building remains. The brand name Volvo was registered as a trademark in May 1911 with the intention to be used for a new series of SKF ball bearings.
It means "I roll" in Latin, conjugated from "volvere". The idea was short-lived, SKF decided to use its initials as the trademark for all its bearing products. In 1924, Assar Gabrielsson, an SKF sales manager, a KTH Royal Institute of Technology educated engineer Gustav Larson, the two founders, decided to start construction of a Swedish car, they intended to build cars that could withstand the rigors of the country's rough roads and cold temperatures. AB Volvo began activities on 10 August 1926. After one year of preparations involving the production of ten prototypes, the firm was ready to commence the car-manufacturing business within the SKF group; the Volvo Group itself considers it started in 1927, when the first car, a Volvo ÖV 4, rolled off the production line at the factory in Hisingen, Gothenburg. Only 280 cars were built that year; the first truck, the "Series 1", debuted in January 1928, as an immediate success and attracted attention outside the country. In 1930, Volvo sold 639 cars, the export of trucks to Europe started soon after.
AB Volvo was introduced at the Stockholm Stock Exchange in 1935 and SKF decided to sell its shares in the company. By 1942, Volvo acquired the Swedish precision engineering company Svenska Flygmotor. Pentaverken, which had manufactured engines for Volvo, was acquired in 1935, providing a secure supply of engines and entry into the marine engine market; the first bus, named B1, was launched in 1934, aircraft engines were added to the growing range of products at the beginning of the 1940s. In 1963, Volvo opened the Volvo Halifax Assembly plant, the first assembly plant in the company's history outside of Sweden in Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada. In 1950, Volvo acquired the Swedish construction and agricultural equipment manufacturer Bolinder-Munktell. Bolinder-Munktell was renamed as Volvo BM in 1973. In 1979, Volvo BM's agricultural equipment business was sold to Valmet. Through restructuring and acquisitions, the remaining construction equipment business became Volvo Construction Equipment. In 1977, Volvo tried to combine operations with rival Swedish automotive group Saab-Scania, but the latter company rejected it.
In the 1970s, French manufacturer Renault and Volvo started to collaborate. In 1978, Volvo Car Corporation was spun off as a separate company within the Volvo group and Renault acquired a minority stake, before selling it back in the 1980s after a restructuring. In the 1990s, Renault and Volvo deepened their collaboration and both companies partnered in purchasing and development and quality control while increasing their cross-ownership. Renault would assist Volvo with entry-level and medium segment vehicles and in return Volvo would share technology with Renault in upper segments. In 1993, a 1994 Volvo-Renault merger deal was announced; the deal was accepted in France, but it was opposed in Sweden, the Volvo shareholders and company board voted against it. The alliance was dissolved in February 1994 and Volvo sold off its minority Renault stake in 1997. In 1991, the Volvo Group participated in a joint venture with Japanese automaker Mitsubishi Motors at the former DAF plant in Born, Netherlands.
The operation, branded NedCar, began producing the first generation Mitsubishi Carisma alongside the Volvo S40/V40 in 1996. During the 1990s, Volvo partnered with the American manufacturer General Motors. In 1999, the European Union blocked a merger with Scania AB. In January 1999, Volvo Group sold Volvo Car Corporation to Ford Motor Company for $6.45 billion. The division was placed within Ford's Premier Automotive Group alongside Jaguar, Land Rover and Aston Martin. Volvo engineering resources and components would be used in various Ford, Land Rover and Aston Martin products, with the second generation Land Rover Freelander designed on the same platform as the second generation Volvo S80; the Volvo T5 petrol engine was used in the Ford Focus ST and RS performance models, Volvo's satellite navigation system was used on certain Aston Martin Vanquish, DB9 and V8 Vantage models. In November 1999, Volvo Group purchased a 5% stake in Mitsubishi Motors, as part of a partnership deal for the truck and bus business.
"The Whole Truth" is episode 50 of the American television anthology series The Twilight Zone. It aired on January 20, 1961 on CBS; the dealership of glib used-car salesman Harvey Hunnicut is visited by a mild-mannered elderly gentleman who offers to sell his vintage Model A car for a low price. When questioned about the car, the older man admits that the antique contraption is haunted and Hunnicut will not like it. Laughing this off, Hunnicut buys the jalopy, intending to unload it. To his dismay, he realizes, he tells a young couple, prospective buyers, that all the cars on his lot are lemons and they should buy from a respectable dealership instead. When explaining to his wife why he's going to be home late, he states that he intends to play poker with his friends, what he always does when he tells her he is "doing inventory"; when Irv, his employee, asks about the raise he was promised, Harvey confesses he always strings his workers along without giving raises. Irv quits. Hunnicut concludes that his livelihood depends on his ability to rid himself of this supernatural burden.
Just as he's losing hope of doing so, he sees a newspaper story about the U. S. playing host to visiting Soviet leader Nikita Khrushchev. Surmising that, like every totalitarian state, the Soviet Union owes its existence to a tissue of lies, the politically savvy Hunnicut calls the Soviet embassy and convinces its representatives to visit his dealership. By being half-truthful, he sells the car as a potential anti-American propaganda tool, exemplifying shoddy, outdated U. S. automobile workmanship. By the concluding scene, it seems that Hunnicut is about to change the course of history because the passenger watching the sale from the embassy limousine now has his name on paper as the haunted vehicle's owner, it appears to be none other than Khrushchev. Hunnicut telephones Washington, asking if he could get in touch with "Jack Kennedy". Jack Carson as Harvey Hunnicut Loring Smith as Honest Luther Grimbley George Chandler as car-selling, old man Jack Ging as young car buyer Nan Peterson as young car buyer's wife Arte Johnson as Irv Patrick Westwood as the premier's aide Lee Sabinson as the premier "The Whole Truth" was one of six Twilight Zone episodes shot on videotape instead of film in an attempt to cut costs.
By November 1960, The Twilight Zone's season two had broadcast five episodes and finished filming 16. However, at a cost of about $65,000 per episode, the show was exceeding its budget; as a result, six consecutive episodes were videotaped at CBS Television City and transferred to 16-millimeter film for syndicated rebroadcasts. Total savings on editing and cinematography amounted to around $30,000 for all six entries, not enough to justify the loss of depth of visual perspective, which made the shows look like stage-bound live TV dramas; the experiment was deemed a failure and never attempted again. This episode shows an unwanted effect of the image orthicon tube used in television cameras of the era; when the shiny fenders of the cars catch the light, the glint produces an unwanted dark halo around the glint. Such occurrences can be seen in "The Night of the Meek". John F. Kennedy was sworn in as the 35th president of the United States at the inaugural ceremonies held in Washington the afternoon of the day this episode aired.
Therefore, Jack Carson's final line was not only a topical one, it was one of the rare times that a current president was mentioned during a Twilight Zone episode. In the Twilight Zone radio drama adaption of this episode, the character of the Soviet premier was replaced with an emir from the Middle East. List of The Twilight Zone episodes Liar Liar DeVoe, Bill.. Trivia from The Twilight Zone. Albany, GA: Bear Manor Media. ISBN 978-1-59393-136-0 Grams, Martin.. The Twilight Zone: Unlocking the Door to a Television Classic. Churchville, MD: OTR Publishing. ISBN 978-0-9703310-9-0 "The Whole Truth" on IMDb "The Whole Truth" at TV.com
"Don't Panic" is a song by the British rock band Coldplay. Titled "Panic", the earliest known version of the song existed in 1998, performed live during the band's first gig in the same year, it had a different melody, was included in the band's third EP, The Blue Room. The track was reproduced by Coldplay and British producer Ken Nelson for the band's debut album, Parachutes. Following their successful releases in 2000, Coldplay and their record label Parlophone thought there was enough exposure of the album in the United Kingdom. Thus, the decision of releasing a fourth single would be for regions that had not been overdosed by the hit singles "Yellow" and "Trouble", they settled on "Don't Panic". The single was released in some European regions, the United Kingdom only received a promo edition; the critical reception of the song was positive. "Don't Panic" came into existence while Coldplay was still in its infancy and composed by singer Chris Martin. In the time, the band had written 10 songs including an early version of "Don't Panic", used it in recruiting the band's drummer.
It was called "Panic", was one of six songs played at Coldplay's first gig in 1998 at Camden's Laurel Tree. This version has a different melody, the lyrics are an account of a "slightly disastrous evening Chris had spent entertaining a young lady called Alice Hill"; the title became "Don't Panic." The original version of "Don't Panic" was recorded in 1999, different from the version featured in Parachutes. First, lead singer Chris Martin plays the piano during the bridge; as well, there is a feedback-distorted introduction. This version was included in The Blue Room EP, released in October 1999. For Coldplay's debut album Parachutes, British record producer Ken Nelson re-produced "Don't Panic"; the track was recorded live, like many other tracks featured in the album. Guitarist Jonny Buckland recorded twice his overdubbed guitars, used parts of the two during the mixing; the band subtly used the acoustic guitar and bass, a pump organ. Buckland provides vocals for the second verse of the song; the song was recorded in Rockfield Studios and Parr Street Studio, Liverpool."Don't Panic" is the opening track to Parachutes.
A guitar-based song, it begins with strummed acoustic guitar riffs followed by the vocals of Chris Martin. A review claims; the verse melody is similar to'Things' by Split Enz. The band planned to release "Don't Panic" as Parachutes' fourth single. However, it was abandoned. Following the successful single releases of the album in 2000, the band thought that Parachutes had gained enough exposure in significant regions in the United Kingdom; when they decided to release a fourth single, it would be for countries yet not "overdosed" by the hit singles "Yellow" and "Trouble". Coldplay and their record label, settled on "Don't Panic", which at the time was an audience favourite; the single was released on 19 March 2001 in some European regions. The single is accompanied by the live tracks "You Only Live Twice", a theme song for the James Bond film of the same name, "Bigger Stronger", a song taken from the band's first EP release. Like their other songs, Coldplay has refused several offers to use "Don't Panic" for promotional tools.
In 2004, the band rejected a multi-million Euro offer from Diet Coke and Gap to use "Don't Panic" and "Trouble", another song featured in the album. The band asked then-manager Phil Harvey to not refer them to such offers because "a discussion might lead to compromise". Despite this, the song has been used in many promotional tools and featured in several films and television series. In 2002, the song was featured in the comedy-drama film Igby Goes Down, appeared on the film's soundtrack album, released on 25 February 2003 by Spun Records. In 2003, the song was featured on Coldplay's live album Live 2003. In 2004, it was on the romantic comedy film Garden State; the song was featured on the debut episode of the FX television series Rescue Me as well as the pilot episode of the short-lived show Odyssey 5. Additionally, the song was featured in episode nine of the first series on the British TV series Sugar Rush in 2005. On 19 July 2011, the song was played as a wake-up call to STS-135 Space Shuttle Atlantis Pilot Doug Hurley as a tribute from his wife and family, marking the last wake-up call for a crew visiting the International Space Station from the Space Shuttle fleet.
It was referenced in the 2016 movie The 5th Wave as a lullaby to the main character's little brother. In February 2016, a cover of the song by Clairity was used in the trailer for the 2016 film X-Men: Apocalypse, as well as the film's TV spot for the Super Bowl 50; this same cover was used in the seventh season finale of The CW series The Vampire Diaries. During the band's 2003 A Rush of Blood to the Head Tour, "Don't Panic" contained an different introduction. In addition, Martin played Buckland in harmonica solo during the bridge, he threw the harmonica into the crowd after the solo. In 2001, a dance cover version of "Don't Panic" was released by Logo featuring Dawn Joseph. During performances of "Don't Panic", Martin would stop the song after Buckland performs his verse and make him perform it a second time. Buckland jokingly state
Monica Galetti is a Samoan-born New Zealand chef. She is chef proprietor of Mere in London, she was senior sous-chef at the prestigious Le Gavroche restaurant in London. Galetti has been a judge on the BBC competitive cooking program MasterChef: The Professionals since 2009 and has presented Amazing Hotels: Life Beyond the Lobby with Giles Coren since 2017. Galetti was born in Samoa, was raised by two aunts as her mother had moved to Auckland, New Zealand, for work. At the age of eight, Galetti moved from Samoa to Wellington, New Zealand, lived there with her parents and five siblings. In the early 1990s, she studied for a diploma in hospitality at Central Institute of Technology, Upper Hutt. After completing her studies, Galetti worked at Lower Hutt restaurant Timothy's; the owner sent her to cooking competitions in Australia and Europe, she began to look for a position in London by sending her CV to top restaurateurs. The first offer she received was from Michel Roux Jr – a beginning position as first commis at his two-Michelin-starred restaurant Le Gavroche, well below her position in Wellington as chef de partie.
However, she accepted the offer and moved to London in 1999. She worked through the sections of the kitchen and became senior sous-chef, a position she held until 2015, she was the first woman to hold such a senior position at the restaurant. While working for Roux, she launched, was Head Chef of, the restaurant Le Gavroche des Tropiques in Mauritius, she has been a judge on the BBC series MasterChef: The Professionals since 2009, as well as a presenter on other food-related television programmes. In January 2017, it was announced that along with her husband David she will be opening a new restaurant in London called'Mere'; this was achieved with backing from WSH chairman Alastair Storey. Galetti serves Samoa as its UK Tourism Ambassador. Galetti, Monica's Kitchen, Quadrille Publishing, ISBN 978-1849491037 In 2004, Galetti married French-born sommelier David Galetti, the Head Sommelier at Le Gavroche, they have one daughter, born in 2006
Maria Louise Baldwin was an African-American educator and civic leader born in Burlington and raised in Cambridge, Massachusetts. She lived all her life in Boston. Writing in 1917, W. E. B. Du Bois claimed she had achieved the greatest distinction in education to that time of any African-American not working in segregated schools. Baldwin was born to Mary E. Baldwin in Cambridge, Massachusetts, she received all of her education in the city's public schools. In 1874, Baldwin graduated from Cambridge High School and a year from the Cambridge training school for teachers. Despite her obvious talents as a teacher, she was not hired by the Cambridge public schools but instead first taught in a segregated school in Chestertown Maryland. After her father's death in 1880, she returned to Cambridge. Protests from the Cambridge African American community led to her being hired to teach at the Agassiz school, a well regarded public school attended by middle class white children, she was an outstanding educator and in 1889 was appointed principal, the first African-American female principal in Massachusetts and the Northeast.
As principal, Baldwin supervised a predominantly white student body. In 1916 when a new Agassiz school was erected, Baldwin was made master, she was one of only two women in the Cambridge school system who held the position of master and the only African American in New England to hold such a position. Baldwin served as master of Agassiz school for forty years. Under her leadership, it became one of the best schools in the city, attended by children of Harvard professors and many of the old Cambridge families, she began art classes. She was the first to introduce the practice of hiring a school nurse, her school was the only one in the city of Cambridge to establish an "open-air" classroom. Poet E. E. Cummings was one of her students and described her thus in his book Six Nonlectures: Miss Baldwin, the dark lady mentioned in my first nonlecture was blessed with a delicious voice, charming manners, a deep understanding of children. Never did any demidivine dictator more gracefully and rule a more unruly and less graceful populace.
Her presence emanated an honour and a glory: the honour of spiritual freedom—not mere freedom from—and the glory of being, not undead but alive. From her I marvellingly learned, she lectured to both Euro-American and African American organizations. Her best-known presentation was her lecture on Harriet Beecher Stowe, which she first delivered as the Annual Washington's Birthday celebration at the Brooklyn Institute of Arts and Sciences in 1897, she was the first woman to be invited to present this annual lecture. She taught summer courses for teachers at the Hampton Institute in Virginia and the Institute for Colored Youth in Cheyney and was a supporter of Charlotte Hawkins Brown's Palmer Institute in Sedalia, North Carolina, her home was the central meeting place for the African American community. Beginning in the early 1890s she led a literary group for black Harvard students, among them William Monroe Trotter, William Lewis, W. E. B. DuBois, she organized and led the Omar Khayyam Circle, a black literary and intellectual group.
Notable members included Clement G. Morgan, William Monroe Trotter, others who became active in working for civil rights, she belonged to numerous civic and educational organizations, both white. Among the white-dominated organizations were the Twentieth Century Club, the Cantabrigia Club, the Boston Ethical Society, she was a leader of the black community. In 1893, along with her close friends Josephine St. Pierre Ruffin and Flora Ruffin Ridley she founded the Woman's Era Club, one of the first African American women's clubs; the club published The Woman's Era the first periodical published by black women. She was a member of the board of directors and in 1903 was elected President of the Boston Literary and Historical Association, an organization of leading black activists who supported black civil rights, she was one of the first women members of the Niagara Movement and a member of the Committee of Forty which organized the founding of the NAACP. She was an early member of the board of the Boston Branch of the NAACP.
She was active in supporting a settlement house in South Boston. During the First World War, she was central in founding the Soldiers Comfort Unit, which supported black soldiers stationed at Fort Devens. After the war, the group changed its name to the League of Women for Community Service, she served as President of the League until her death in 1922. While was addressing the council of the Robert Gould Shaw House Association at the Copley Plaza Hotel in Boston, on January 9, 1922, she collapsed and died of heart disease, her home from 1892 on has been preserved as the Maria Baldwin House and was designated as a National Historic Landmark. It is owned and not open to the public. On February 12, 2004, Agassiz School was renamed as the Maria L. Baldwin School; the campaign was initiated by an eighth-grade student at the school and supported by other students and the principal. Baldwin is noted on the Boston Women's Heritage Trail for her connection with the League of Women for Community Service.
Maria Baldwin House The African American Registry: Maria L. Baldwin, graceful educator Agassiz Neighborhood Council: Agassiz Neighborhood Notables Maria L. Baldwin School: Maria L. Baldwin Biography Mark Schneider, Boston Confronts Jim Crow (Northeastern University Pre
The Bristol Lodekka was a half-cab low-height step-free double-decker bus built by Bristol Commercial Vehicles in England. It was the first production bus design to have no step up from the passenger entrance throughout the lower deck, although Gilford and Leyland Motors had developed low floor city buses in the 1930s, these did not enter production; the point of its design and introduction was to end the uncomfortable and inconvenient Lowbridge double-deck bus layout, replacing it by lowering the chassis frame and integrating it with the body, fitting a drop-centre rear axle, so that there were no steps from the rear entrance platform to the front of the passenger gangway, itself sunk about 10 cm below the seating platforms on the LDX, LD and first five LDLs. A full flat floor was developed on the last LDL used on the LDS and the F series Lodekkas. Bristol Commercial Vehicles, Eastern Coach Works and some of their employees obtained a number of patents relating to the design. Bristol manufactured over 5,200 Lodekkas from 1949 to 1968, as a standard double-deck vehicle for the UK state-owned bus sector.
With all examples bodied by Eastern Coach Works in Lowestoft, they have a traditional half-cab design and a lower floor level allowing a low overall height. The earlier LD-series and the FL and FS had a rear platform, but the FSF and FLF had a forward entrance. Most were powered by 5 or 6-cylinder Gardner engines, with fewer having a Bristol or Leyland power unit. An engineering option was designed to reduce the power loss due to engine radiator fan operation and to increase the heat available for heating of the passengers. After experiments by Wing-Commander T. R. Cave-Browne-Cave, Professor of Engineering at Southampton University, a satisfactory design was produced. The'CBC' system involved two small engine radiators being placed above the driver's cab roof level at the front outer corners of the double deck to give maximum aerodynamic air flow; the engine coolant water was pumped around these instead of the traditional radiator. In cold weather, all or a portion of the air passing through these radiators, was diverted by flaps, the left into the upper saloon and the right to the lower deck.
In hot weather, the flaps could be changed by push-pull levers in the driver's cab roof to divert all the hot air to the outside of the vehicle. The movement of the vehicle was adequate to cool the engine without the need for a fan or radiator at the traditional position in front of the engine; the traditional'radiator' grille at the front of the vehicle was not required, but was retained and blanked off behind.'Varivane' wax capsule operated shutters were fitted in front of the upper radiators to keep the coolant at optimum temperature. There were some disadvantages to the scheme and customers stopped specifying it; the first prototype vehicle was operated by Bristol Tramways & Carriage Company Ltd Ltd who designed and made the chassis at its'MCW' which at that time was still an integral part of the company. It was allocated fleet no. LC5000 and registered LHY 949. There is a story that the first vehicle had two separate propshafts, one to each side rear wheel with the differential at the front of the vehicle.
This was soon changed to incorporate the differential into the off-side gear train - a concept still used today by several international bus manufacturers. West Yorkshire Road Car Company had the second prototype Lodekka fleet number 822 but renumbered DX1 under the April 1954 renumbering scheme, registered JWT 712, which operated in the Harrogate area and lacked the distinctively stylish fairing of the production models; this was displayed at the Festival of Britain in 1951. Lodekka users in the UK included: Brighton Hove & District, Crosville, Eastern Counties, Eastern National, Hants & Dorset, Lincolnshire Road Car, Red & White Services, Scottish Omnibuses, Southern Vectis, South Wales, Luton & District, Thames Valley & Aldershot, United Counties, United Welsh, West Yorkshire Roadcar Co, Western National, Western Welsh, Central SMT and Wilts & Dorset. Whilst no Lodekkas were bought by any London based companies, they worked into the capital on services operated by Thames Valley and Eastern National.
With the arrival of more modern "OMO" or one person operated buses, such as the Leyland Atlantean and Bristol VRT, many Lodekkas found themselves relegated to driver training duties. The urgency with which the National Bus Company wanted to convert operations to one man operated double deck vehicles led to the unusual exchange of 91 Lodekkas of the newest FLF type with a similar number of older Bristol VRT double decks from the Scottish Bus Group, keen to have the more reliable older design; the exchange took place at the Carlisle depot of Ribble Motor Services. The Bristol Lodekka was manufactured by Dennis under licence, was sold as the Dennis Loline; this arrangement was necessary because the Bristol company was prohibited by law from selling its products at the time to anyone other than similar government owned undertakings. The design, was attractive to other operators, so this arrangement allowed them to purchase vehicles to the same design. Sometimes the Bristol Lodekka can be offered as an open-top bus.
In accordance with Bristol Commercial Vehicles practice, chassis were designated by a two or three letter code, followed by the number of engine cylinders and engine manufacturer. LDX: Low'Deck