Steel is an alloy of iron and carbon, sometimes other elements. Because of its high tensile strength and low cost, it is a major component used in buildings, tools, automobiles, machines and weapons. Iron is the base metal of steel. Iron is able to take on two crystalline forms, body centered cubic and face centered cubic, depending on its temperature. In the body-centered cubic arrangement, there is an iron atom in the center and eight atoms at the vertices of each cubic unit cell, it is the interaction of the allotropes of iron with the alloying elements carbon, that gives steel and cast iron their range of unique properties. In pure iron, the crystal structure has little resistance to the iron atoms slipping past one another, so pure iron is quite ductile, or soft and formed. In steel, small amounts of carbon, other elements, inclusions within the iron act as hardening agents that prevent the movement of dislocations that are common in the crystal lattices of iron atoms; the carbon in typical steel alloys may contribute up to 2.14% of its weight.
Varying the amount of carbon and many other alloying elements, as well as controlling their chemical and physical makeup in the final steel, slows the movement of those dislocations that make pure iron ductile, thus controls and enhances its qualities. These qualities include such things as the hardness, quenching behavior, need for annealing, tempering behavior, yield strength, tensile strength of the resulting steel; the increase in steel's strength compared to pure iron is possible only by reducing iron's ductility. Steel was produced in bloomery furnaces for thousands of years, but its large-scale, industrial use began only after more efficient production methods were devised in the 17th century, with the production of blister steel and crucible steel. With the invention of the Bessemer process in the mid-19th century, a new era of mass-produced steel began; this was followed by the Siemens–Martin process and the Gilchrist–Thomas process that refined the quality of steel. With their introductions, mild steel replaced wrought iron.
Further refinements in the process, such as basic oxygen steelmaking replaced earlier methods by further lowering the cost of production and increasing the quality of the final product. Today, steel is one of the most common manmade materials in the world, with more than 1.6 billion tons produced annually. Modern steel is identified by various grades defined by assorted standards organizations; the noun steel originates from the Proto-Germanic adjective stahliją or stakhlijan, related to stahlaz or stahliją. The carbon content of steel is between 0.002% and 2.14% by weight for plain iron–carbon alloys. These values vary depending on alloying elements such as manganese, nickel, so on. Steel is an iron-carbon alloy that does not undergo eutectic reaction. In contrast, cast iron does undergo eutectic reaction. Too little carbon content leaves iron quite soft and weak. Carbon contents higher than those of steel make a brittle alloy called pig iron. While iron alloyed with carbon is called carbon steel, alloy steel is steel to which other alloying elements have been intentionally added to modify the characteristics of steel.
Common alloying elements include: manganese, chromium, boron, vanadium, tungsten and niobium. Additional elements, most considered undesirable, are important in steel: phosphorus, sulfur and traces of oxygen and copper. Plain carbon-iron alloys with a higher than 2.1% carbon content are known as cast iron. With modern steelmaking techniques such as powder metal forming, it is possible to make high-carbon steels, but such are not common. Cast iron is not malleable when hot, but it can be formed by casting as it has a lower melting point than steel and good castability properties. Certain compositions of cast iron, while retaining the economies of melting and casting, can be heat treated after casting to make malleable iron or ductile iron objects. Steel is distinguishable from wrought iron, which may contain a small amount of carbon but large amounts of slag. Iron is found in the Earth's crust in the form of an ore an iron oxide, such as magnetite or hematite. Iron is extracted from iron ore by removing the oxygen through its combination with a preferred chemical partner such as carbon, lost to the atmosphere as carbon dioxide.
This process, known as smelting, was first applied to metals with lower melting points, such as tin, which melts at about 250 °C, copper, which melts at about 1,100 °C, the combination, which has a melting point lower than 1,083 °C. In comparison, cast iron melts at about 1,375 °C. Small quantities of iron were smelted in ancient times, in the solid state, by heating the ore in a charcoal fire and welding the clumps together with a hammer and in the process squeezing out the impurities. With care, the carbon content could be controlled by moving it around in the fire. Unlike copper and tin, liquid or solid iron dissolves carbon quite readily. All of these temperatures could be reached with ancient methods used since the Bronze Age. Since the oxidation rate of iron increases beyond 800 °C, it is important that smelting take place in a low-oxygen environment. Smelting, using carbon to reduce iro
Umeå is a city in north east Sweden. It is the capital of Västerbotten County; the city is located on the Ume River. Umeå is the largest city in Norrland and the thirteenth biggest in Sweden, with 84,761 inhabitants in 2016; the municipality had 123,382 inhabitants as of 2017. When Umeå University was established in 1965, growth sped up, the amount of housing has doubled in the last 30 years; as of 2011, 700 to 800 new apartments are constructed each year. Umeå is a university town and centre of education and medical research in Sweden, with two universities and over 39,000 students. Umeå was the European Capital of Culture during 2014, along with Riga in Latvia; the first written mention of Umeå is from the 14th century. The northern parts of Sweden, including the counties of Västerbotten and Norrbotten, were settled by nomadic Sami people before this time but not forming any permanent settlement in the city's exact location; the name is believed to be derived from the Old Norse word Úma. The name of the town would therefore mean "The Roaring River.
Therefore, the coast came to be permanently settled by Germanic peoples moving upwards on the Bothnian Bay by boat, hence the Germanic names of towns and villages on the Westrobothnian coast. Some Kven people had permanent settlements in northern Westrobothnia but were assimilated with the Germanic tribes although some Finnish names of lakes and villages survived. Southern Westrobothnia has been a permanent Germanic settlement since at least the 14th century, but since the Viking ages or earlier. Umeå in its first form was a parish with a wooden church and trade post located in the section of town now known as Backen, its location near the coast and on a river was one of the reasons that people chose to settle there. For the next couple of centuries, Umeå was a place consisting of scattered parishes, where merchandise originating with the Sami people was traded, was the last inhabited place before the northern wilderness took over. However, no real city was built at the location selected by the king, it lost its town privileges in the 1590s.
In 1622, a city was again founded by Gustavus Adolphus of Sweden. In 1638, it had about 40 houses, it suffered from Russian attacks in 1714 and in 1720 when it was burnt to the ground during the Russian Pillage of 1719-1721. At the close of the Finnish War in 1809 the Russian army under Barclay de Tolly took Umeå and held it from June to August. In 1874 the town improved the plans for its structure. Umeå had started making these changes when on 25 June 1888, a fire devastated the eastern parts of Umeå and at least 2,300 of the 3,000 inhabitants became homeless. In the restoration following the fire, silver birch trees were planted along wide avenues to prevent future fires from spreading. For this reason Umeå is sometimes known as "Björkarnas Stad", the "City of Birches". and the name of the Umeå ice-hockey team, Björklöven, means "The Birch Leaves". Umeå is situated on the inlet of the Gulf of Bothnia at the mouth of the Ume River, in the south of Västerbotten. Umeå is about 400 km south of the Arctic Circle.
It is the largest city north of the Stockholm-Uppsala region, is sometimes referred to as the regional centre of northern Sweden. The nearby community of Holmsund serves as its port. From here a ferry line connects it with the neighbouring city of Vaasa in Finland; the near connections to Finland affects the population of the city - several Sweden Finns live in Umeå. The climate of Umeå is bordering on a humid continental and a subarctic climate, with short and warm summers. Winters are lengthy and freezing but considering the latitude mild due to the influence of the Gulf Stream. Average January temperature is about −8 °C, July is 16 °C. Considering its proximity to a major water body and its latitude, summers are warmer than would be expected; the record high of 32.2 °C was recorded on 23 July 2014, during a warm summer in Sweden. The record low of −38.2 °C was recorded on 15 February 1978. The population of Umeå has grown since the 1960s, when the university was built. In part because of the university, the town has attracted many residents from outside of Sweden, as well as students from other regions of Sweden.
As of 2015, 10.4% of the population in the municipality of Umeå were foreign-born. The largest national origin group is from Finland, followed by Iraq and Somalia. In April 2017 the Jewish association in Umeå closed after receiving multiple threats from neo-Nazis associated with the Nordic Resistance Movement; the road infrastructure includes two European highways. The local bus system is centred at Vasaplan in the city centre, has multiple routes travelling throughout the city. About 4 kilometres from the city centre is Umeå Airport, it is the 7th largest airport in Sweden by number of passengers, with 844,932 passengers in 2010. The Bothnia Line connects to Umeå from the south, it runs along the High Coast via Örnsköldsvik to Umeå; this railway was opened on 28 August 2010. The new railway line is 190 km long, containing 25 kilometres of tunnels, it provides Umeå with a fast train connection to Stockholm. A new railway station, Umeå East Station, was built in connection to Norrland's University Hospital and Umeå University.
The Wasaline fe
Belgium the Kingdom of Belgium, is a country in Western Europe. It is bordered by the Netherlands to the north, Germany to the east, Luxembourg to the southeast, France to the southwest, the North Sea to the northwest, it has a population of more than 11.4 million. The capital and largest city is Brussels; the sovereign state is a federal constitutional monarchy with a parliamentary system. Its institutional organisation is structured on both regional and linguistic grounds, it is divided into three autonomous regions: Flanders in the north, Wallonia in the south, the Brussels-Capital Region. Brussels is the smallest and most densely populated region, as well as the richest region in terms of GDP per capita. Belgium is home to two main linguistic groups or Communities: the Dutch-speaking Flemish Community, which constitutes about 59 percent of the population, the French-speaking Community, which comprises about 40 percent of all Belgians. A small German-speaking Community, numbering around one percent, exists in the East Cantons.
The Brussels-Capital Region is bilingual, although French is the dominant language. Belgium's linguistic diversity and related political conflicts are reflected in its political history and complex system of governance, made up of six different governments. Belgium was part of an area known as the Low Countries, a somewhat larger region than the current Benelux group of states that included parts of northern France and western Germany, its name is derived after the Roman province of Gallia Belgica. From the end of the Middle Ages until the 17th century, the area of Belgium was a prosperous and cosmopolitan centre of commerce and culture. Between the 16th and early 19th centuries, Belgium served as the battleground between many European powers, earning the moniker the "Battlefield of Europe", a reputation strengthened by both world wars; the country emerged in 1830 following the Belgian Revolution. Belgium participated in the Industrial Revolution and, during the course of the 20th century, possessed a number of colonies in Africa.
The second half of the 20th century was marked by rising tensions between the Dutch-speaking and the French-speaking citizens fueled by differences in language and culture and the unequal economic development of Flanders and Wallonia. This continuing antagonism has led to several far-reaching reforms, resulting in a transition from a unitary to a federal arrangement during the period from 1970 to 1993. Despite the reforms, tensions between the groups have remained, if not increased. Unemployment in Wallonia is more than double that of Flanders. Belgium is one of the six founding countries of the European Union and hosts the official seats of the European Commission, the Council of the European Union, the European Council, as well as a seat of the European Parliament in the country's capital, Brussels. Belgium is a founding member of the Eurozone, NATO, OECD, WTO, a part of the trilateral Benelux Union and the Schengen Area. Brussels hosts several of the EU's official seats as well as the headquarters of many major international organizations such as NATO.
Belgium is a developed country, with an advanced high-income economy. It has high standards of living, quality of life, education, is categorized as "very high" in the Human Development Index, it ranks as one of the safest or most peaceful countries in the world. The name "Belgium" is derived from Gallia Belgica, a Roman province in the northernmost part of Gaul that before Roman invasion in 100 BC, was inhabited by the Belgae, a mix of Celtic and Germanic peoples. A gradual immigration by Germanic Frankish tribes during the 5th century brought the area under the rule of the Merovingian kings. A gradual shift of power during the 8th century led the kingdom of the Franks to evolve into the Carolingian Empire; the Treaty of Verdun in 843 divided the region into Middle and West Francia and therefore into a set of more or less independent fiefdoms which, during the Middle Ages, were vassals either of the King of France or of the Holy Roman Emperor. Many of these fiefdoms were united in the Burgundian Netherlands of the 15th centuries.
Emperor Charles V extended the personal union of the Seventeen Provinces in the 1540s, making it far more than a personal union by the Pragmatic Sanction of 1549 and increased his influence over the Prince-Bishopric of Liège. The Eighty Years' War divided the Low Countries into the northern United Provinces and the Southern Netherlands; the latter were ruled successively by the Spanish and the Austrian Habsburgs and comprised most of modern Belgium. This was the theatre of most Franco-Spanish and Franco-Austrian wars during the 17th and 18th centuries. Following the campaigns of 1794 in the French Revolutionary Wars, the Low Countries—including territories that were never nominally under Habsburg rule, such as the Prince-Bishopric of Liège—were annexed by the French First Republic, ending Austrian rule in the region; the reunification of the Low Countries as the United Kingdom of the Netherlands occurred at the dissolution of the First French Empire in 1815, after the defeat of Napo
Mack Trucks, Inc. is an American truck–manufacturing company and a former manufacturer of buses and trolley buses. Founded in 1900 as the Mack Brothers Company, it manufactured its first truck in 1907 and adopted its present name in 1922. Mack Trucks is a subsidiary of AB Volvo which purchased Mack along with Renault Trucks in 2000. After being founded in Brooklyn, New York, the company's headquarters were in Allentown, Pennsylvania from 1905 to 2009 when they moved to Greensboro, North Carolina; the entire line of Mack products is still produced in Lower Macungie, with additional assembly plants in Pennsylvania, Maryland and Venezuela. There was a Mack plant in Hayward, California; the company's manufacturing facilities are located at Lehigh Valley Operations formally known as the Macungie Assembly Operations Plant in Lower Macungie Township, Pennsylvania. Mack Trucks is one of the top producers in the vocational and on-road vehicle market, class 8 through class 13. Mack trucks have been sold in 45 countries.
Located near its former Allentown corporate headquarters, The Macungie, Pennsylvania manufacturing plant produces all Mack products including Mack MP-series engines. According to local historians, Mack transmissions, TC-15 transfer cases, rear engine power take-offs are designed and manufactured in Hagerstown, the original factory location. Parts for Mack's right-hand-drive vehicles are produced in Brisbane, Australia for worldwide distribution. Assembly for South America is done at Mack de Venezuela C. A. in Caracas, Venezuela. The Venezuela operation is a complete knock down facility. Components are shipped from the United States to Caracas for final assembly. In addition to its Macungie manufacturing facility, Mack has a remanufacturing center in Middletown, Pennsylvania. On August 14, 2008, Mack Trucks announced a major restructuring plan that included: Relocation of Mack's head office, product development, most support functions, purchasing functions to Greensboro, North Carolina, in 2009.
Mack's parent, Volvo Trucks has its North American base in Greensboro. Assembly of all produced Mack highway vehicles in Macungie, Pennsylvania from 2008 Mack's testing facility in Allentown, being converted into a "customer demonstration/reception center" in 2010 Restructuring the parts distribution network by 2010 ° This is a timeline of Mack Trucks history. Most of the information is taken from the Mack history page at MackTrucks.com, unless otherwise noted. 1890: John M. Mack gets a job at Fallesen & Berry, a carriage and wagon company in Brooklyn, New York. 1893: John Mack and his brother Augustus F. Mack buy Fallesen & Berry. 1894: A third Mack brother, William C. Mack joins his brothers in the company's operations; the Macks explore working with steam powered and electric motor cars. 1900: The Macks open their first bus manufacturing plant. Ordered by a sightseeing company, the first "Mack bus" is delivered. 1902: The Mack Brothers Company is established in New York. 1904: Mack Brothers introduces the brand name "Manhattan" on its products.
1905: Allentown is selected as the home of main manufacturing operations, headquarters. A fourth Mack brother, Joseph Mack becomes a stockholder. Mack begins making rail cars and locomotives. 1910: The "Manhattan" brand trucks are redesignated "Mack" trucks. A fifth Mack brother Charles Mack joins the company. 1911: Headed by C. P. Coleman, The Saurer Motor Truck Company acquires rights to manufacture and sell heavy trucks under the Saurer brand name at its plant in Plainfield, New Jersey. On September 23, 1911, the Saurer Motor Truck Company merges with the Mack Brothers Motor Car Company of Allentown headed by J. M. Mack, forming the International Motor Truck Company. IMTC continues to make and sell trucks using the Saurer name until 1918. In 1911, IMTC is capitalized at $2.6 million total. 1912: Brothers John and Joseph Mack leave the company. 1919: The United States Army conducts a transcontinental project using Mack Trucks to study the need for and feasibility of a new interstate highway system.
1922: The company name is changed to Mack Trucks, Inc. The bulldog is established as the company's corporate symbol. 1924: John Mack dies in a car crash in Weatherly, Pennsylvania. 1932: While recuperating from an operation, Mack's chief engineer Alfred Fellows Masury carves Mack's first bulldog hood ornament. Masury applies for and receives a U. S. patent for his design. 1933: Mack Trucks are used in building of many ambitious construction projects for the Work Projects Administration including the Hoover Dam. 1941: Fire Apparatus manufacturing is moved from Allentown, Pennsylvania, to Long Island City, in Queens, New York. 1951: Fire Apparatus manufacturing is moved from Long Island City back to Allentown 1956: Mack Trucks, Inc. buys Brockway Motor Company.. 1966: Mack begins production at its new assembly plant in Oakville, Canada. The facility is closed in 1993. 1967: Mack Trucks becomes a part of the Signal Oil and Gas Company in a one-for-one exchange for cumulative convertible preferred stock.
That year Signal changes its name to Signal Companies. 1970: Mack moves into its new Allentown world headquarters. 1979: Renault buys a 10% shareholding 1982: Renault increases its shareholding to 20%, Signal reduces its stake to 10%. 1983: Mack Trucks conducts an IPO, issuing 15.7 million shares of common stock. Renault increases its holdings to 40% and Signal reduces its stake to 10.3% ownership. 1987: Renault reorganizes.
Overhead camshaft abbreviated to OHC, is a valvetrain configuration which places the camshaft of an internal combustion engine of the reciprocating type within the cylinder heads and drives the valves or lifters in a more direct manner compared with overhead valves and pushrods. Compared with OHV pushrod systems with the same number of valves, the reciprocating components of the OHC system are fewer and have a lower overall mass. Though the system that drives the camshafts may be more complex, most engine manufacturers accept that added complexity as a trade-off for better engine performance and greater design flexibility; the fundamental reason for the OHC valvetrain is that it offers an increase in the engine's ability to exchange induction and exhaust gases. Another performance advantage is gained as a result of the better optimised port configurations made possible with overhead camshaft designs. With no intrusive pushrods, the overhead camshaft cylinder head design can use straighter ports of more advantageous cross-section and length.
The OHC design allows for higher engine speeds than comparable cam-in-block designs, as a result of having lower valvetrain mass. The higher engine speeds thus allowed increases power output for a given torque output. Disadvantages of the OHC design include the complexity of the camshaft drive, the need to re-time the drive system each time the cylinder head is removed, the accessibility of tappet adjustment if necessary. In earlier OHC systems, including inter-war Morrises and Wolseleys, oil leaks in the lubrication systems were an issue. Single overhead camshaft is a design. In an inline engine, this means there is one camshaft in the head, whilst in an engine with more than one cylinder head, such as a V engine or a horizontally-opposed engine – there are two camshafts, one per cylinder bank. In the SOHC design, the camshaft operates the valves traditionally via a bucket tappet. SOHC cylinder heads are less expensive to manufacture than double overhead camshaft cylinder heads. Timing belt replacement can be easier since there are fewer camshaft drive sprockets that need to be aligned during the replacement procedure.
SOHC designs offer reduced complexity compared with overhead valve designs when used for multivalve cylinder heads, in which each cylinder has more than two valves. An example of an SOHC design using shim and bucket valve adjustment was the engine installed in the Hillman Imp, a small, early-1960s two-door saloon car with a rear-mounted aluminium-alloy engine based on the Coventry Climax FWMA race engines. Exhaust and inlet manifolds were both on the same side of the engine block; this did, offer excellent access to the spark plugs. In the early 1980s, Toyota and Volkswagen Group used a directly actuated SOHC parallel valve configuration with two valves for each cylinder; the Toyota system used hydraulic tappets. The Volkswagen system used bucket tappets with shims for valve-clearance adjustment; the multivalve Sprint version of the Triumph Slant-4 engine used a system where the camshaft was placed directly over the inlet valves, with the same cams that opened the intake valves directly opening the exhaust valves via rocker arms.
Honda used a similar valvetrain system in their motorcycles, using the term "Unicam" for the concept. This system uses one camshaft for each bank of cylinder heads, with the cams operating directly onto the inlet valve, indirectly, through a short rocker arm, on the exhaust valve; this allows a light valvetrain to operate valves in a flat combustion chamber. The Unicam valve train was first used in single cylinder dirt bikes and has been used on the Honda VFR1200 since 2010. A dual overhead camshaft valvetrain layout is characterised by two camshafts located within the cylinder head, one operating the intake valves and the other one operating the exhaust valves; this design reduces valvetrain inertia more than is the case with an SOHC engine, since the rocker arms are reduced in size or eliminated. A DOHC design exhaust valves than in SOHC engines; this can give a less restricted airflow at higher engine speeds. DOHC with a multivalve design allows for the optimum placement of the spark plug, which in turn improves combustion efficiency.
Engines having more than one bank of cylinders with two camshafts in total remain SOHC and "twin cam" unless each cylinder bank has two camshafts. Although the term "twin cam" is used to refer to DOHC engines, it is imprecise, as it includes designs with two block-mounted camshafts. Examples include the Harley-Davidson Twin Cam engine, Riley car engines from 1926 to the mid 1950s, Triumph motorcycle parallel-twins from the 1930s to the 1980s, Indian Chief and Scout V-twins from 1920 to the 1950s; the terms "multivalve" and "DOHC" do not refer to the same thing: not all multivalve engines are DOHC and not all DOHC engines are multivalve. Examples of DOHC engines with two valves per cylinder include the Alfa Romeo Twin Cam engine, the Jaguar XK6 engine and the Lotus Ford Twin Cam engine. Most recent DOHC engines are multivalve, with between five valves per cylinder. More than two overhead camshafts are not known to have been tried in a production engine. However, MotoCzysz has designed a motorcycle engine with a triple overhead camshaft configuration, with the intake ports descending through the cylind
Gothenburg is the second-largest city in Sweden, fifth-largest in the Nordic countries, capital of the Västra Götaland County. It is situated by Kattegat, on the west coast of Sweden, has a population of 570,000 in the city center and about 1 million inhabitants in the metropolitan area. Gothenburg was founded as a fortified Dutch, trading colony, by royal charter in 1621 by King Gustavus Adolphus. In addition to the generous privileges given to his Dutch allies from the then-ongoing Thirty Years' War, the king attracted significant numbers of his German and Scottish allies to populate his only town on the western coast. At a key strategic location at the mouth of the Göta älv, where Scandinavia's largest drainage basin enters the sea, the Port of Gothenburg is now the largest port in the Nordic countries. Gothenburg is home to many students, as the city includes the University of Gothenburg and Chalmers University of Technology. Volvo was founded in Gothenburg in 1927; the original parent Volvo Group and the now separate Volvo Car Corporation are still headquartered on the island of Hisingen in the city.
Other key companies are Astra Zeneca. Gothenburg is served by Göteborg Landvetter Airport 30 km southeast of the city center; the smaller Göteborg City Airport, 15 km from the city center, was closed to regular airline traffic in 2015. The city hosts the Gothia Cup, the world's largest youth football tournament, alongside some of the largest annual events in Scandinavia; the Gothenburg Film Festival, held in January since 1979, is the leading Scandinavian film festival with over 155,000 visitors each year. In summer, a wide variety of music festivals are held in the city, including the popular Way Out West Festival; the city was named Göteborg in the city's charter in 1621 and given the German and English name Gothenburg. The Swedish name was given after the Göta älv, called Göta River in English, other cities ending in -borg. Both the Swedish and German/English names were in use before 1621 and had been used for the previous city founded in 1604 and burned down in 1611. Gothenburg is one of few Swedish cities to still have an official and used exonym.
Another example is the province of Scania in southern Sweden. The city council of 1641 consisted of four Swedish, three Dutch, three German, two Scottish members. In Dutch, Scots and German, all languages with a long history in this trade and maritime-oriented city, the name Gothenburg is or was used for the city. Variations of the official German/English name Gothenburg in the city's 1621 charter existed or exist in many languages; the French form of the city name is Gothembourg, but in French texts, the Swedish name Göteborg is more frequent. "Gothenburg" can be seen in some older English texts. In Spanish and Portuguese the city is called Gotemburgo; these traditional forms are sometimes replaced with the use of the Swedish Göteborg, for example by The Göteborg Opera and the Göteborg Ballet. However, Göteborgs universitet designated as the Göteborg University in English, changed its name to the University of Gothenburg in 2008; the Gothenburg municipality has reverted to the use of the English name in international contexts.
In 2009, the city council launched a new logotype for Gothenburg. Since the name "Göteborg" contains the Swedish letter "ö" the idea was to make the name more international and up to date by "turning" the "ö" sideways; as of 2015, the name is spelled "Go:teborg" on a large number of signs in the city. In the early modern period, the configuration of Sweden's borders made Gothenburg strategically critical as the only Swedish gateway to the North Sea and Atlantic, situated on the west coast in a narrow strip of Swedish territory between Danish Halland in the south and Norwegian Bohuslän in the north. After several failed attempts, Gothenburg was founded in 1621 by King Gustavus Adolphus; the site of the first church built in Gothenburg, subsequently destroyed by Danish invaders, is marked by a stone near the north end of the Älvsborg Bridge in the Färjenäs Park. The church was built in 1603 and destroyed in 1611; the city was influenced by the Dutch and Scots, Dutch planners and engineers were contracted to construct the city as they had the skills needed to drain and build in the marshy areas chosen for the city.
The town was designed like Dutch cities such as Amsterdam and New Amsterdam. The planning of the streets and canals of Gothenburg resembled that of Jakarta, built by the Dutch around the same time; the Dutchmen won political power, it was not until 1652, when the last Dutch politician in the city's council died, that Swedes acquired political power over Gothenburg. During the Dutch period, the town followed Dutch town laws and Dutch was proposed as the official language in the town. Robust city walls were built during the 17th century. In 1807, a decision was made to tear down most of the city's wall; the work started in 1810, was carried out by 150 soldiers from the Bohus regiment. Along with the Dutch, the town was influenced by Scots who settled down in Gothenburg. Many became people of high-profile. William Chalmers, the son of a Scottish immigrant, donated his fortunes to set up what became the Chalmers University of Technology. In 1841, the Scotsman Alexander Keiller founded the Götaverken shipbuilding company, in business until 1989.
His son James Keiller donated Keiller Park to the city in 1906. The Gothenburg coat of arms was based on the lion of the coat of arms of Sweden, symbolically holding a shield w
Skövde is a locality and urban centre in Skövde Municipality and Västra Götaland County, in the Västergötland in central Southern Sweden. Skövde is situated some 150 km northeast of Gothenburg, between Sweden's two largest lakes, Vänern and Vättern, it lies on the eastern slope of a low mountain ridge, which cuts through the plain between the lakes. The Western Main Railway was built through Skövde in the 1850s, which gave the town a dramatic industrial and population boost. Today, Skövde is home to the headquarters for Skaraborg's District Court and is the Västra Götaland's fourth-largest urban area as well as Sweden's 32nd biggest locality with 34,466 inhabitants in 2010. Skövde traces its history back to the Medieval Age. In Skövde's city coat of arms is the image of Saint Elin, considered a pious woman from Skövde, she was born about 1101, was canonized in 1164. Of the medieval houses that once existed nothing remains, as a fire in 1759 burned down the entire city except for some houses called Helensgården.
After the fire, the city was rebuilt according to a grid pattern. The city only had a small population until the railway between Stockholm and Gothenburg was laid through the city, leading to an industrial and population boost. Skövde's patron saint, Saint Elin, lived in the 12th century. According to legend, she was murdered on the way to a church consecration, she was canonized on 30 July 1164 by Pope Alexander Archbishop Stefan of Sweden. During the Middle Ages, people made pilgrimages to Elin's grave, this contributed to the city's development and growth. During the Middle Ages Skövde was a successful city, the economy thriving and Skövde developed into a city of significant importance. Adjacent to the city were three churches: The City Church, The Elin Chapel directly south of the city, Holy Birgitta's Chapel in the north; the city was at this time not great in area or population, rather its greatness lay in that it was once home to the Patron Saint of the Diocese, St. Elin; the pilgrims travelled here to visit the Saint's origin and burial place, the commerce around the pilgrims came to be an important prerequisite for Skövde's development in the ensuing century.
The exact year when Skövde got its town charter is unknown, but it can be assumed to be sometime around the year 1400 when the city was mentioned in a tax roll. At the beginning of the 16th century, King Gustav Vasa confirmed the town's charter in a letter. If the 15th century was marked by success the 16th century saw an emergent decline for the city; the main reason for this was the transition to the Lutheran faith. They wanted to cleanse out all forms of idol worship in the form of saintly cults from the churches. Pilgrims ceased to travel here and a large part of the city's revenue disappeared overnight. King Gustav Vasa had plans to move the city together with some other cities of the West Göta region to Hornborgasjön in order to build a great city. In 1520 the first documented setback took place for Skövde; the Danish King, Kristian II, undertook his third military campaign against Sweden. One of the Danish armies swept through Västergötland and burned down Skövde, Falköping and Bogesund.
It was only in the 17th century that figures of how many people lived in Skövde could be estimated with any fair degree of certainty. For the year 1655, the city presented a census of 134 people, 34 farmers, 38 housewives, 12 sons, 3 daughters, 2 farmhands, 8 maids, 10 boarders, 14 boatmen, 13 described as'63 years old', i.e. contemporary retirees. During the 1660s there was some growth, in 1669 the city had a population of 168 people. At the beginning of the 18th century, Skövde was one of the county's smallest towns. In 1700, the town has just 154 inhabitants, but only 50 years had the population risen to 381. In 1770 the population had risen up to 500 people. At the beginning of the 18th century, the Swedish towns and country districts had to take care of prisoners of war captured by Karl XII's armies, it was the Saxons, Danes, Norwegians and Cossacks who lived in enforced internship in Skövde. In 1708, there were up to 56 prisoners of war in Skövde. In the town hall's civil rules one can read that the number of prisoners was now so great that every citizen had to now take care of a prisoner.
In 1718, there were up to 90 Danish prisoners, in other words, the number of prisoners of war came to dominate the small Skövde. In 1746, Carl von Linné was out on his journey through Västra Götaland, where he visited tracts of Skövde, he talks in detail about the pollarded meadows in Berg, beeches on Ingasäter and Mölltorp's alum works. When on 27 June he reached Skövde, he did not have much positive to say,'Skövde town, quarter before six from Berg, was a small spot, located on the east side of Billingen, without any lake or particular feature, the houses were small, streets irregular and Cemetery on set with lovely boxes; this city has once been the seat of St. Helena.' His journey continued the next stop being Skultorp. Once again Linnaeus was compelled to share his experiences, describing women's hats, farmhands' courtship and the magnificent view from Skultorp's Nabbe; the year 1759 saw the destruction of central Skövde in a large fire. A block of old wooden houses are preserved, together with a botanical garden, form the cultural reserve Helénsparken.
The oldest house in the park, Helénsstugan is from the early 18th cent