Le Quesnoy is a commune in the Nord department in northern France. Le Quesnoys inhabitants are known as Quercitains, the town of Le Quesnoy has somehow missed much of the Industrial Revolution. Unlike the neighboring towns of Valenciennes or Maubeuge, iron/steel works did not take hold, the lack of wealth underground and of a major transportation route partly explains this. The authorities however took note of this weakness and proposed the Ecaillon canal from Sambre to Scheldt, there is a craft, firmly maintained until 1945 when a hundred shoemakers were still identifiable. Shoemakers worked at home for a company located in rue du Petit Valenciennes in a kind of cottage industry. A glassmaking factory installed near the track to the site of the former Intermarché collapsed after World War I. In the Bellevue district, the remains of a factory attest to the presence of a pottery factory. The post war boom or ‘trentes glorieuses’ saw develop an industrial outskirts of town, chemical company, economic activity is mainly based on tourism and local shops.
The town with its ramparts, its ponds and its history are major attractions. The Quesnoy is home to small traders and a trading area of more than respectable size for a town of less than 5,000 people. The closure of industrial enterprises and services remains problematic even though there have some new sources of work such as with the Emig company. The town comes alive on Friday morning still for its weekly market, Le Quesnoy is first attested in forms accompanied by the Latinized name of its alleged founder, called Haymon or Aymond, Haymon Quercitum. Despite this assertion, the historian Valenciennes d’Oultreman said he could be a character named Aymon, in the 9th century, the region was occupied by the Vikings who settled there along rivers. Around the year 842 at the time of King Charles the Bald, they were blocked at Valenciennes, the land at Le Queroy became a freehold belonging to the Episcopal mass at Cambrai and by the name ofNoflus, latinized from Novem fluctibus. Finally,1148, the freehold was sold by the Bishop of Cambrai and this castle had a tower which together with the rest make up a fortress.
Alice of Namur, wife of Baldwin IV endowed the castle with a dedicated to St. John the Baptist. The castle had a park called Bois du Gard in which encountered deer, fallow deer, the park extended to the southeast Margaret, in 1345, succeeded following the death in Friesland of her brother William II. In 1345, she granted to foreigners, of countries they might be
In botany, a bulb is structurally a short stem with fleshy leaves or leaf bases that function as food storage organs during dormancy. A bulbs leaf bases, known as scales, generally do not support leaves, at the center of the bulb is a vegetative growing point or an unexpanded flowering shoot. The base is formed by a stem, and plant growth occurs from this basal plate. Roots emerge from the underside of the base, and new stems, tunicate bulbs have dry, membranous outer scales that protect the continuous lamina of fleshy scales. Species in the genera Allium, Hippeastrum and Tulipa all have tunicate bulbs, non-tunicate bulbs, such as Lilium and Fritillaria species, lack the protective tunic and have looser scales. The technical term geophyte encompasses plants that form underground organs, including bulbs as well as tubers. Some epiphytic orchids form above-ground storage organs called pseudobulbs, that superficially resemble bulbs, nearly all plants that form true bulbs are monocotyledons, and include, Crinum, Hippeastrum and several other members of the amaryllis family Amaryllidaceae.
This includes onion and other alliums, members of the Amaryllid subfamily Allioideae, lily and many other members of the lily family Liliaceae. Two groups of Iris species, family Iridaceae, subgenus Xiphium, oxalis, in the family Oxalidaceae, is the only dicotyledon genus that produces true bulbs. Bulbous plant species cycle through vegetative and reproductive stages, the bulb grows to flowering size during the vegetative stage. Certain environmental conditions are needed to trigger the transition from one stage to the next, bulbs dug up before the foliage period is completed will not bloom the following year but should flower normally in subsequent years. After the foliage period is completed, bulbs may be dug up for replanting elsewhere, any surface moisture should be dried, the bulbs may be stored up to about 4 months for a fall planting. Storing them much longer than that may cause the bulbs to dry out inside, a bulbil is a small bulb, and may be called a bulblet, bulbet, or bulbel. Small bulbs can develop or propagate a large bulb, if one or several moderate-sized bulbs form to replace the original bulb, they are called renewal bulbs.
Increase bulbs are small bulbs that develop either on each of the leaves inside a bulb, some lilies, such as the tiger lily Lilium lancifolium, form small bulbs, called bulbils, in their leaf axils. Several members of the family, including Allium sativum, form bulbils in their flower heads, sometimes as the flowers fade. The so-called tree onion forms small onions which are enough for pickling. Some ferns, such as Hen and Chicken Fern produce new plants at the tips of the fronds pinnae, Patricia The Curious History of the Bulb Vase
Leiden is a city and municipality in the Dutch province of South Holland. Leiden is located on the Oude Rijn, at a distance of some 20 kilometres from The Hague to its south, the recreational area of the Kaag Lakes lies just to the northeast of Leiden. A university city since 1575, Leiden houses Leiden University, the oldest university of the Netherlands, Leiden is a city with a rich cultural heritage, not only in science, but in the arts. One of the worlds most famous painters, was born, other famous Leiden painters include Lucas van Leyden, Jan van Goyen and Jan van Steen. The city has one of Europes most prominent scientific centres for more than four centuries. Modern scientific medical research and teaching started in the early 18th century in Leiden with Boerhaave, many important scientific discoveries have been made here, giving rise to Leiden’s motto, ‘City of Discoveries’. It is twinned with Oxford, the location of the United Kingdoms oldest university, Leiden University and Leiden University of Applied Sciences together have around 35,000 students.
Leiden is a university city, university buildings are scattered throughout the city. Leiden was formed on a hill at the confluence of the rivers Oude. In the oldest reference to this, from circa 860, the settlement was called Leithon, the name is said to be from Germanic *leitha- canal. Leiden has in the past erroneously been associated with the Roman outpost Lugdunum Batavorum and this particular castellum was thought to be located at the Burcht of Leiden, and the citys name was thought to be derived of the Latin name Lugdunum. However the castellum was in closer to the town of Katwijk. The landlord of Leiden, situated in a stronghold on the hill, was subject to the Bishop of Utrecht. This county got its name in 1101 from a domain near the stronghold, Leiden was sacked in 1047 by Emperor Henry III. Early 13th century, Countess of Holland took refuge here when she was fighting in a war against her uncle, William I. He besieged the stronghold and captured Ada, Leiden received city rights in 1266.
In 1389, its population had grown to about 4,000 persons, burgrave Filips of Wassenaar and the other local noblemen of the Hook faction assumed that the duke would besiege Leiden first and send small units out to conquer the surrounding citadels. But John of Bavaria chose to attack the citadels first and he rolled the cannons with his army but one which was too heavy went by ship
Founded in 920-925 and destroyed in the Reformation, it was re-founded in 1935 as the present Sint-Adelbertabdij, under the Diocese of Haarlem. The Benedictine abbey was founded by Dirk I, Count of Holland and it was a nunnery that, according to local tradition, had been there since Saints Adalbert and Willibrord landed in 760. In about 950 work began on a church to replace by the wooden one, as a gift from Dirk II, Count of Holland. The consecration of the new church took place in or shortly after 975. This was the oldest monastery of the Holland region. Dirk I, the founder, was buried there, as were many subsequent counts of Holland and members of their families, including Dirk II, Count of Holland, Dirk III, Floris I, Dirk V, and Floris II. The Count Lamoral, owner of the castle, was beheaded in 1568. Shortly afterwards, in 1573, the abbey was dissolved and laid waste just before the siege of Alkmaar on the orders of Diederik Sonoy to prevent it being used by the Spanish. The abbeys income was diverted by the stadtholder to the financing of his educational project, north of the abbey is the site of Egmond Castle in Egmond aan den Hoef.
The castle was built by the knight Berwout van Egmond in 1129 and this was the origin of the House of Egmond. The relationship quickly turned into a struggle between the Egmond family and the abbots that lasted for centuries. Just like the abbey, the castle was destroyed in 1573, the chapel was restored by the Dutch Protestant church, but the castle was never rebuilt. The foundations are visible and the land surrounding the old moat. In 1933 a new Benedictine community, the Sint-Adelbertabdij, was founded on the site of the former Egmond Abbey, the first buildings, designed by Alexander Kropholler were constructed in 1935. and the community was repopulated with monks. Buildings were refurbished and extended in the late 1940s and early 1950s, the farmlands were put back to use, though since 1989 however the agricultural lands have been let to a farmer since the monks were no longer able to do the heavy farmwork. A candle-making operation was started in 1945 to support the community, in 1984 the relics of Saint Adalbert were returned here, having been kept safe in Haarlem since the destruction of the previous monastery in the 16th century, and are enshrined beneath the altar.
In the spring of 2003 the monks had solar panels installed which were promptly stolen two weeks later, a loss of E20,000, an online collection was held to help pay for new panels. In recent decades the current monastery has been able to recover many lost relics, the old abbey had been of great importance to artists, and much of that art has survived, against all odds
Truus van Aalten
Geertruida Everdina Wilhelmina van Aalten was a Dutch actress who appeared in many German films in the 1920s and 1930s. Truus found a job with a milliner after school, trained as a salesgirl at a store in Amsterdam. She passionately wanted to be an actress, but very few films were made in the Netherlands at the time. In 1926, Truus entered a beauty competition in a Dutch magazine - if she won shed have the chance to audition for a part in a movie in Berlin. Not long after, she was summoned to the German capital for an audition - along with two hundred other girls, Truus had never had an acting lesson in her life, and was certain shed be sent home at once One after the other, the girls were filmed. They were all older than Truus, and she could see she hadnt a hope. When the director watched the tests, one stood out - where everyone else had gazed into the lens with expressions of the deepest sincerity. She was funny, it shone through, and she got the job, there were plasterers workshops, carpentry shops, prop stores and wardrobe departments, and publicity offices planning the release of completed movies.
Truus met the members of the cast - her six sisters. Fritsch was very well known and handsome, and Truus fell in love with him on the spot, Truus had to quickly get used to being made up and going through wardrobe, finding her place on the sets. She watched cameraman Carl Hoffmann and all the grips, plasterers, cable bashers, despite it all, Truus loved the work. Truuss German was wobbly at best, but she was sparkly and funny, if her father would sign a contract, Ufa would train Truus and put her in more films. Her future would depend on work and luck. Truus and her father talked it over, being an actress wasnt a secure job - it wasnt even a well-respected job - but it was all shed ever wanted to do. The contract was signed and Truus moved to Berlin, at Ufa Truus was introduced to a major figure in her life, highly respected actress Olga Tschechowa, who became her unofficial mentor and mother-figure in movieland. Olga was a woman, born in exotic Transcaucasia, part of the Russian Empire. Shed been acting since 1917, and had one of Germanys most popular stars.
Truus adored Olga, citing her as an influence both personally and professionally
Clay is a fine-grained natural rock or soil material that combines one or more clay minerals with traces of metal oxides and organic matter. Geologic clay deposits are composed of phyllosilicate minerals containing variable amounts of water trapped in the mineral structure. Clays are plastic due to water content and become hard, brittle. Depending on the content in which it is found, clay can appear in various colours from white to dull grey or brown to deep orange-red. Although many naturally occurring deposits include both silts and clay, clays are distinguished from other fine-grained soils by differences in size, which are fine-grained soils that do not include clay minerals, tend to have larger particle sizes than clays. There is, some overlap in size and other physical properties. The distinction between silt and clay varies by discipline and soil scientists usually consider the separation to occur at a particle size of 2 µm, sedimentologists often use 4–5 μm, and colloid chemists use 1 μm.
Geotechnical engineers distinguish between silts and clays based on the plasticity properties of the soil, as measured by the soils Atterberg limits, ISO14688 grades clay particles as being smaller than 2 μm and silt particles as being larger. These solvents, usually acidic, migrate through the rock after leaching through upper weathered layers. In addition to the process, some clay minerals are formed through hydrothermal activity. There are two types of deposits and secondary. Primary clays form as residual deposits in soil and remain at the site of formation, secondary clays are clays that have been transported from their original location by water erosion and deposited in a new sedimentary deposit. Clay deposits are associated with very low energy depositional environments such as large lakes. Depending on the source, there are three or four main groups of clays, montmorillonite-smectite and chlorite. Chlorites are not always considered to be a clay, sometimes being classified as a group within the phyllosilicates.
There are approximately 30 different types of clays in these categories. Varve is clay with visible annual layers, which are formed by deposition of those layers and are marked by differences in erosion. This type of deposit is common in glacial lakes
Holland is a region and former province on the western coast of the Netherlands. The name Holland is used informally to refer to the whole of the country of the Netherlands. From the 10th to the 16th century, Holland proper was a political region within the Holy Roman Empire as a county ruled by the Counts of Holland. By the 17th century, Holland had risen to become a maritime and economic power, the name Holland first appeared in sources in 866 for the region around Haarlem, and by 1064 was being used as the name of the entire county. By this time, the inhabitants of Holland were referring to themselves as Hollanders, Holland is derived from the Middle Dutch term holtland. This spelling variation remained in use until around the 14th century, a popular folk etymology holds that Holland is derived from hol land and was inspired by the low-lying geography of Holland. The proper name of the area in both Dutch and English is Holland, Holland is a part of the Netherlands. Holland is informally used in English and other languages, including sometimes the Dutch language itself, the people of Holland are referred to as Hollanders in both Dutch and English.
Today this refers specifically to people from the current provinces of North Holland, strictly speaking, the term Hollanders does not refer to people from the other provinces in the Netherlands, but colloquially Hollanders is sometimes used in this wider sense. In Dutch, the Dutch word Hollands is the form for Holland. In English, Dutch refers to the Netherlands as a whole, the word Hollandish is no longer in common use. Hollandic is the name give to the dialect spoken in Holland, and is occasionally used by historians. Initially, Holland was a corner of the Holy Roman Empire. Gradually, its importance increased until it began to have a decisive. Until the start of the 12th century, the inhabitants of the area that became Holland were known as Frisians, the area was initially part of Frisia. At the end of the 9th century, West-Frisia became a county in the Holy Roman Empire. The first Count known about with certainty was Dirk I, who ruled from 896 to 931 and he was succeeded by a long line of counts in the House of Holland.
When John I, count of Holland, died childless in 1299, by the time of William V the count of Holland was the count of Hainaut and Zealand
Dirk II, Count of Holland
Dirk II or Theoderic II was Count in Frisia and Holland. He was the son of Count Dirk I and Geva, Count Dirk II built a fortress near Vlaardingen, which was the site of a battle between his grandson Dirk III and an Imperial army under Godfrey II, Duke of Lower Lorraine. Dirk II rebuilt Egmond Abbey and its church in stone to house the relics of Saint Adalbert. Adalbert was not well known at time, but he was said to have preached Christianity in the immediate surroundings two centuries earlier. The abbey was given to a community of Benedictine monks from Ghent and his daughter Erlint, Erlinde or Herlinde, who was abbess at the time, was made abbess of the newly founded Bennebroek Abbey instead. Dirk married Hildegarde, and had three known children and his son Arnulf became Count of Holland and Frisia after Dirks death. The younger son Egbert became Archbishop of Trier in 977 and his daughter Erlinde was abbess of Egmond Abbey, until that institution was changed by her father from a nunnery into a monastery, after which she became abbess of Bennebroek.
Dirk died in 988 and was buried in the church at Egmond Abbey. Hildegard died two years and was buried there. Geerts. com, History of Holland Cawley, Medieval Lands Project and Frisia, Medieval Lands database, Foundation for Medieval Genealogy
Arnhem /ˈɑːrnəm/ or /ˈɑːrnhɛm/ is a city and municipality, situated in the eastern part of the Netherlands. It is the capital of the province of Gelderland and located on banks of the rivers Nederrijn and Sint-Jansbeek, which was the source of the citys development. Arnhem had a population of 151,356 in 2014 and is one of the cities of the Netherlands. The municipality is part of the city region Arnhem-Nijmegen, which has a combined 736,500 inhabitants, Arnhem is home to the Hogeschool van Arnhem en Nijmegen, ArtEZ Institute of the Arts, Netherlands Open Air Museum, Royal Burgers Zoo and National Sports Centre Papendal. The oldest archeological findings of human activity around Arnhem are two firestones of about 70,000 years ago and these come from the stone age, when the Neanderthals lived in this part of Europe. In Schuytgraaf, remnants of a camp from around 5000 BC have been discovered. In Schaarsbergen,12 grave mounds were found from 2400 BC, the earliest settlement in Arnhem dates from 1500 BC, of which traces have been found on the Hoogkamp, where the Van Goyenstraat is currently located.
Arnhem arose on the location where the road between Nijmegen and Utrecht/Zutphen split, Seven streams provided the city with water, and only when the flow of the Rhine was changed in 1530, was the city located on the river. Arnhem was first mentioned as such in 893 as Arneym or Arentheym, in 1233 Count Otto II of Guelders from Zutphen, conferred city rights on the town, which had belonged to the abbey of Prüm, settled in, and fortified it. Arnhem entered the Hanseatic League in 1443, in 1473, it was captured by Charles the Bold of Burgundy. In 1514, Charles of Egmond, duke of Guelders, took it from the dukes of Burgundy, in 1543, as capital of the so-called Kwartier van Veluwe it joined the Union of Utrecht during the Eighty years war in 1579. After its capture from the Spanish forces by Dutch and English troops in 1585 the city part of the Republic of the Seven United Provinces of the Netherlands. The French occupied the town 1672–74, from 1795 to 1813, it was reoccupied by the French, by both revolutionary and imperial forces.
In the early 19th century, the fortifications were almost completely dismantled. The Sabelspoort is the remaining part of the medieval walls. In the 19th century, Arnhem was a resort town famous for its picturesque beauty. It was known as het Haagje van het oosten, mainly because a number of former sugar barons or planters from the Indies settled there. Even now the city is famous for its parks and greenery, the urbanization in the north on hilly terrain is quite unusual for the Netherlands
Noordwijkerhout is a town and municipality in the western Netherlands, in the province of South Holland. The municipality covers an area of 23.42 km2 of which 0.81 km2 is water and had a population of 15,976 in 2014, the town is in the bulb growing region of the Netherlands, famed for its tulips. The municipality of Noordwijkerhout includes the towns and townships. The coastal dunes where Noordwijkerhout is located have been inhabited since prehistoric times, archaeological digs in the area just north outside of town have found items and implements from before Christ. During the Roman era, this region was inhabited by a Germanic tribe, Noordwijkerhout is about 5 kilometers from the North Sea and provides access to the beach and nearby hiking opportunities through the dunes. Just north of town is the Oosterduinse meer which is used for swimming and windsurfing, the center is historical and have a church Witte kerkje. Noordwijkerhout is located in a called the Dune and Bulb Region. In the spring when the bulb fields are in bloom.
The towns fair is held during the first week of September
The Hague is a city on the western coast of the Netherlands, and the capital city of the province of South Holland. With a population of 520,704 inhabitants and more than one million including the suburbs, it is the third-largest city of the Netherlands. The Rotterdam The Hague Metropolitan Area, with a population of approximately 2.7 million, is the 12th-largest in the European Union and the most populous in the country. Located in the west of the Netherlands, The Hague is in the centre of the Haaglanden conurbation and lies at the southwest corner of the larger Randstad conurbation. The Hague is the seat of the Dutch government, the Supreme Court, and the Council of State, but the city is not the capital of the Netherlands, which constitutionally is Amsterdam. King Willem-Alexander of the Netherlands plans to live at Huis ten Bosch and works at Noordeinde Palace in The Hague, the Hague is home to the world headquarters of Royal Dutch Shell and numerous other major Dutch companies. The Hague originated around 1230, when Count Floris IV of Holland purchased land alongside a pond, in 1248, his son and successor William II, King of the Romans, decided to extend the residence to a palace, which would be called the Binnenhof.
He died in 1256 before this palace was completed but parts of it were finished by his son Floris V, of which the Ridderzaal and it is still used for political events, such as the annual speech from the throne by the Dutch monarch. From the 13th century onwards, the counts of Holland used The Hague as their administrative centre, the village that originated around the Binnenhof was first mentioned as Haga in a charter dating from 1242. In the 15th century, the smarter des Graven hage came into use, literally The Counts Wood, with connotations like The Counts Hedge, s-Gravenhage was officially used for the city from the 17th century onwards. Today, this name is used in some official documents like birth. The city itself uses Den Haag in all its communication and their seat was located in The Hague. At the beginning of the Eighty Years War, the absence of city walls proved disastrous, in 1575, the States of Holland even considered demolishing the city but this proposal was abandoned, after mediation by William of Orange.
From 1588, The Hague became the seat of the government of the Dutch Republic, in order for the administration to maintain control over city matters, The Hague never received official city status, although it did have many of the privileges normally granted only to cities. In modern administrative law, city rights have no place anymore, only in 1806, when the Kingdom of Holland was a puppet state of the First French Empire, was the settlement granted city rights by Louis Bonaparte. After the Napoleonic Wars, modern-day Belgium and the Netherlands were combined in the United Kingdom of the Netherlands to form a buffer against France, as a compromise and Amsterdam alternated as capital every two years, with the government remaining in The Hague. After the separation of Belgium in 1830, Amsterdam remained the capital of the Netherlands, when the government started to play a more prominent role in Dutch society after 1850, The Hague quickly expanded. The growing city annexed the rural municipality of Loosduinen partly in 1903, the city sustained heavy damage during World War II
Rob van Dijk
Robert Rob van Dijk is a Dutch retired footballer who played as a goalkeeper. Over the course of exactly 20 seasons as a professional, he appeared in 364 Eredivisie games, mainly with RKC and he retired at the age of 43. Van Dijk was born in Voorhout, South Holland, in his youth, he never thought he would make it to become a professional footballer. He only enjoyed playing football with his friends on amateur level, van Dijk started his career at local team Foreholte, as a meritorious sweeper, who roamed around the back line. Goalkeeper in his team was two-year younger Edwin van der Sar, I was the last man to all the balls away. I still talk to him occasionally, at the age of 19, van Dijk started playing futsal with some friends in a recreational team. As someone had to be the goalkeeper, he made the sacrifice, when van der Sar left Foreholte for vv Noordwijk, van Dijk switched his position on the field and became the goalkeeper of the clubs reserves, being promoted to the first team after one season.
Quickly various professional sides were interested in the goalkeeper, and van Dijk had a short trial at Ajax Amsterdam. Only three years after the position switch, van Dijk made his goalkeeping debut in Feyenoords first team. On 5 December 1992, he replaced Dean Gorré in the 59th minute of the first division match against Vitesse Arnhem, phillip Cocu scored the penalty kick and became the first player to score against van Dijk on professional level. After four seasons playing only four matches for Feyenoord, van Dijk decided to request a transfer. Ive been a substitute behind Ed for four years, at the moment I had the chance, it didnt look like De Goey would leave any time soon. At RKC Waalwijk I could become the first goalkeeper, van Dijk stayed at RKC Waalwijk for seven consecutive seasons, playing a total of 214 Eredivisie matches for the club. Just before the fixture of 2002–03, it was announced the goalkeeper would strengthen PSV Eindhovens squad during the next season. For 2004–05, he would become fourth-choice, behind Heurelho Gomes, Edwin Zoetebier, van Dijk had one year left of his contract in Eindhoven, but was able to leave the club on a free transfer by mutual agreement.
On 9 July 2004, he left the club and signed with De Graafschap. Van Dijk signed for two years at De Graafschap, but missed the majority of his first year, due to a knee injury, De Graafschap finished on the 17th place and relegated to the second level. Subsequently, van Dijk returned to RKC in the summer of 2005, becoming first choice, however, he had a less successful season 2006–07 as, due to bad results, RKC Waalwijk coach Adrie Koster was fired on 27 November 2006