The Storstrøm Bridge is a road and railway arch bridge that crosses Storstrømmen between the islands of Falster and Masnedø in Denmark. Together with Masnedsund Bridge it connects Falster and Zealand, it was the main road connection between the islands until the Farø Bridges were opened in 1985. It is still part of the railway connection between the islands of Lolland and Zealand, it is on the rail line between Hamburg, Germany. The bridge was designed by the bridge department at the Danish State Railways, headed by Anker Engelund and with the assistance of Danish company Christiani & Nielsen; the initial design proposal described a bridge with double-tracked railway, three steel-arch main spans, concrete deck arch approach spans. In the autumn of 1932, the British company Dorman, Long & Co. submitted a tender to build the Storstrøm Bridge as a steel bridge. As the submitted tender was not acceptable, the DSB prepared a new project proposal, granted to Dorman, Long & Co. without a public tender.
The contract for the work was signed on 13 May 1933, with the steel superstructure to be constructed by Dorman, Long & Co. while the substructure and earthworks were assigned to Christiani & Nielsen as subcontractor. Guy Anson Maunsell was appointed as managing director of the consortium; the Storstrøm Bridge was opened by King Christian X on 26 September 1937. The total cost of the Storstrøm Bridge amounted to DKK 28.5 million, or DKK 41.0 million if counting the Masnedsund Bridge and associated road and rail construction work. On 18 October 2011, Banedanmark announced the immediate cancellation of rail traffic across the bridge after a crack in one of the spans was discovered. Further investigation revealed a total of 11 cracks between 55 cm in length. One of the two road lanes was partially closed while repairs were being made; the bridge reopened to light rail traffic on 21 November 2011, to regular rail traffic on 23 January 2012. The Storstrøm Bridge is 9 metres wide; the three tied-arch main spans have lengths of 137.8 m and 103.9 m, respectively.
The central span has a clearance below of 26.0 metres, tapering off to 25.2 metres in the two others. The inter-arch bracing is built as a double Warren truss; the bridge has a total of 50 spans. The approach span configuration is somewhat unusual, with piers spaced alternately 57.8 m and 62.2 m apart and suspended spans placed in the longer spans. The road deck is 5.6 metres wide. The bridge has 49 piers of different heights, extending to a maximum water depth of 13.8 metres. Each pier rests upon concrete foundations cast inside a cofferdam; some piers could be excavated and cast with the cofferdam empty of water, where the soil was sufficiently waterproof, but others had to be excavated and cast underwater. Steel sheet piles were driven into the bed around the cofferdam; the foundations were continued upwards to a level 3 metres below the water surface. The section of pier from 3 metres below water level to 3 metres above was made from pre-cast and granite clad concrete shells; these were set into position and filled with concrete.
The remainder of the height of each pier was created using sliding steel forms. The upper sections of the piers are hollow. Piers full height extends to a maximum of 38 metres; as part of the planned Fehmarn Belt Fixed Link project, the railway from Ringsted to Rødbyhavn will be electrified, between Vordingborg and Rødbyhavn converted from single track to double track. Initial plans left the Storstrøm Bridge as an exception to the double-track conversion, but the expected increase in traffic in combination with the discovery of the poor condition of the bridge resulted in the decision to replace the Storstrøm Bridge entirely; as the bridge was found to be in poor condition in 2011, Banedanmark was tasked with investigating different long-term solutions. Their recommendation was to build a new bridge, in August 2012, the Danish government proposed allocation of funds for the construction of a new bridge. Parliamentary agreement to build a replacement for the Storstrøm bridge was reached on 21 March 2013, the construction act was passed on 26 May 2015.
The new bridge is commissioned by Vejdirektoratet and preliminary designed by Danish companies COWI, Dissing+Weitling and Hasløv & Kjærsgaard. In October 2017, it was announced that a joint venture of the Italian companies Itinera and Grandi Lavori Fincosit had been selected to build the bridge with the design of Studio de Miranda Associati; the new bridge will be a single-pylon cable-stayed bridge with an electrified double-tracked railway allowing speeds of 200 km/h, two road lanes allowing 80 km/h and a foot and bicycle path. It is scheduled to open to road traffic in 2022, to rail traffic in 2023; the construction budget for the new bridge is about DKK 2.1 billion, out of a total project budget of approx. DKK 4.1 billion. The current Storstrøm Bridge is set to be demolished. In 1950, Carl Th. Dreyer, one of Denmark's most famous filmmakers known for his drama productions, made a short documentary about the bridge. List of bridges in Denmark List of bridges in Denmark by length Storstrøm Bridge at Structurae The Storstrøm Bridge - Highways-Denmark.com Pictures of Storstrøm Bridge Pictures of and data about Storstrøm and Masnedsund Bridges Christiani and Nielsen page about the bridges Danish government short film about the bridge, written by Carl Dreyer Data on Danish bridges
Gedser is a town at the southern tip of the Danish island of Falster in the Guldborgsund Municipality in Sjælland region. It is the southernmost town in Denmark; the town has a population of 768. It is an important port town on the Baltic Sea. Gedser Church was designed by Peder Vilhelm Jensen-Klint and dates from 1915. Gedser was the first place German troops landed during the occupation of Denmark on April 9, 1940 at 3:55 in the morning. A number of armored cars and infantry troops hid in the ferry from Rostock and advanced into the harbor as soon as the ship docked, soon after followed by another ferry; until January 1, 2007, Gedser was a parish of the former municipality of Sydfalster in Storstrøm County. In the Kommunalreformen that municipality merged with Nykøbing Falster, Nysted, Nørre Alslev, Sakskøbing and Stubbekøbing to form Guldborgsund Municipality; the local museum is Det Sorte Museum, with elements of local geology, including Baltic ambar, occasional temporary exhibitions, such as dinosaurs.
Situated in the southernmost part of Denmark on the island of Falster, Gedser is a port town on the Baltic Sea. European route E55 passes through the town. Gedser Odde is the southernmost point in Denmark. A car ferry route has operated from Gedser to Rostock in Germany since 1995, served by Scandlines. There were train and car ferry routes to Großenbrode and Warnemünde and a car ferry route to Travemünde, all in Germany. A bridge linking Gedser to Rostock was proposed, although a decision was made in 2007 to support a planned fixed link across the Fehmarn Belt to the west of Gedser instead. Gedser travel guide from Wikivoyage Gedser website
N. F. S. Grundtvig
Nikolaj Frederik Severin Grundtvig, most referred to as N. F. S. Grundtvig, was a Danish pastor, poet, historian and politician, he was one of the most influential people in Danish history, as his philosophy gave rise to a new form of nationalism in the last half of the 19th century. It was supported by deep spirituality. Grundtvig holds a unique position in the cultural history of his country. Grundtvig and his followers are credited with being influential in the formulation of modern Danish national consciousness, he was active during the Danish Golden Age, but his style of writing and fields of reference are not accessible to a foreigner, thus his international importance does not match that of his contemporaries Hans Christian Andersen and Søren Kierkegaard. Called Frederik rather than Nikolaj by those close to him, N. F. S. Grundtvig was the son of a Lutheran pastor, Johan Ottosen Grundtvig, he was brought up in a religious atmosphere, although his mother had great respect for old Norse legends and traditions.
He was schooled in the tradition of the European Enlightenment, but his faith in reason was influenced by German romanticism and the ancient history of the Nordic countries. In 1791 he was sent to Thyregod in Sydjylland to study with pastor Laurids Svindt Feld, he subsequently studied at the Aarhus Katedralskole, the cathedral school of Aarhus, from 1798 until graduation. He left for Copenhagen in 1800 to study theology and was accepted to the University of Copenhagen in 1801. At the close of his university life, Grundtvig began to study the Icelandic Sagas. In 1805 Grundtvig took a position as tutor in a house on the island of Langeland; the next three years he used his free time to study writers Shakespeare and Fichte. In 1802 his cousin, the philosopher Henrich Steffens, returned to Copenhagen full of the teaching of Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph Schelling, his lectures and the early poetry of Adam Oehlenschläger opened Grundtvig's eyes to the new era in literature. His first work, On the Songs in the Edda, attracted no attention.
Returning to Copenhagen in 1808, Grundtvig achieved greater success with his Northern Mythology, again in 1809 with a long drama, The Fall of the Heroic Life in the North. Grundtvig boldly denounced the clergy of the city in his first sermon in 1810; when Grundtvig published the sermon three weeks it offended the ecclesiastical authorities, they demanded him punished. In 1810 Grundtvig underwent a religious crisis and converted to a held Lutheranism, he retired to his father's country parish in Udby as his chaplain. His new-found conviction was expressed in his The First World Chronicle of 1812, a presentation of European history in which he attempted to explain how belief in God has been viewed throughout human history and in which he criticized the ideology of many prominent Danes, it won him notoriety among his peers and cost him several friends, notably the historian Christian Molbech. Upon his father's death in 1813, Grundtvig applied to be his successor in the parish but was rejected. In the following years his rate of publication was staggering: aside from a continuing stream of articles and poems, he wrote a number of books, including two more histories of the world.
From 1816 to 1819 he was editor of and sole contributor to a philosophical and polemical journal entitled Danne-Virke, which published poetry. From 1813 to 1815, he attempted to form a movement to support the Norwegians against the Swedish government, he preached on how the weakness of the Danish faith was the cause of the loss of Norway in 1814. His sermon was met by an enthusiastic congregation in Copenhagen. Grundtvig withdrew from the pulpit because of lacking his own parish, being barred by other churches. In 1821 he resumed preaching when granted the country living of Præstø, returned to the capital the year after. In 1825 Grundtvig published a pamphlet, The Church's Rejoinder, a response to Henrik Nicolai Clausen's work on the doctrines and constitutions of Protestantism and Roman Catholicism. A professor of theology at the University of Copenhagen, Clausen argued that although the Bible was the principal foundation of Christianity, it was in itself an inadequate expression of its full meaning.
He described the church as a "community for the purpose of advancing general religiousness." In his reply, Grundtvig denounced Clausen as an anti-Christian teacher and argued that Christianity was not a theory to be derived from the Holy Bible and elaborated by scholars. He questioned the right of theologians to interpret the Bible. Grundtvig was publicly fined; the Church of Denmark forbade him to preach for seven years. During this time he published a collection of theological works, visited England three times, studied Anglo-Saxon. In 1832 Grundtvig obtained permission to again enter active ministry. In 1839 he was called as pastor of the workhouse church of Vartov hospital in Copenhagen, a post he held until his death. Between 1837 and 1841 he published Sang-Værk til den Danske Kirke, a rich collection of sacred poetry. In 1843 he visited England for a fourth time. From 1844 until after the First Schleswig War, Grundtvig took a promine
Denmark the Kingdom of Denmark, is a Nordic country and the southernmost of the Scandinavian nations. Denmark lies southwest of Sweden and south of Norway, is bordered to the south by Germany; the Kingdom of Denmark comprises two autonomous constituent countries in the North Atlantic Ocean: the Faroe Islands and Greenland. Denmark proper consists of a peninsula, an archipelago of 443 named islands, with the largest being Zealand and the North Jutlandic Island; the islands are characterised by flat, arable land and sandy coasts, low elevation and a temperate climate. Denmark has a total area of 42,924 km2, land area of 42,394 km2, the total area including Greenland and the Faroe Islands is 2,210,579 km2, a population of 5.8 million. The unified kingdom of Denmark emerged in the 10th century as a proficient seafaring nation in the struggle for control of the Baltic Sea. Denmark and Norway were ruled together under one sovereign ruler in the Kalmar Union, established in 1397 and ending with Swedish secession in 1523.
The areas of Denmark and Norway remained under the same monarch until Denmark -- Norway. Beginning in the 17th century, there were several devastating wars with the Swedish Empire, ending with large cessions of territory to Sweden. After the Napoleonic Wars, Norway was ceded to Sweden, while Denmark kept the Faroe Islands and Iceland. In the 19th century there was a surge of nationalist movements, which were defeated in the 1864 Second Schleswig War. Denmark remained neutral during World War I. In April 1940, a German invasion saw brief military skirmishes while the Danish resistance movement was active from 1943 until the German surrender in May 1945. An industrialised exporter of agricultural produce in the second half of the 19th century, Denmark introduced social and labour-market reforms in the early 20th century that created the basis for the present welfare state model with a developed mixed economy; the Constitution of Denmark was signed on 5 June 1849, ending the absolute monarchy, which had begun in 1660.
It establishes a constitutional monarchy organised as a parliamentary democracy. The government and national parliament are seated in Copenhagen, the nation's capital, largest city, main commercial centre. Denmark exercises hegemonic influence in the Danish Realm, devolving powers to handle internal affairs. Home rule was established in the Faroe Islands in 1948. Denmark negotiated certain opt-outs, it is among the founding members of NATO, the Nordic Council, the OECD, OSCE, the United Nations. Denmark is considered to be one of the most economically and developed countries in the world. Danes enjoy a high standard of living and the country ranks in some metrics of national performance, including education, health care, protection of civil liberties, democratic governance and human development; the country ranks as having the world's highest social mobility, a high level of income equality, is among the countries with the lowest perceived levels of corruption in the world, the eleventh-most developed in the world, has one of the world's highest per capita incomes, one of the world's highest personal income tax rates.
The etymology of the word Denmark, the relationship between Danes and Denmark and the unifying of Denmark as one kingdom, is a subject which attracts debate. This is centered on the prefix "Dan" and whether it refers to the Dani or a historical person Dan and the exact meaning of the -"mark" ending. Most handbooks derive the first part of the word, the name of the people, from a word meaning "flat land", related to German Tenne "threshing floor", English den "cave"; the -mark is believed to mean woodland or borderland, with probable references to the border forests in south Schleswig. The first recorded use of the word Danmark within Denmark itself is found on the two Jelling stones, which are runestones believed to have been erected by Gorm the Old and Harald Bluetooth; the larger stone of the two is popularly cited as Denmark's "baptismal certificate", though both use the word "Denmark", in the form of accusative ᛏᛅᚾᛘᛅᚢᚱᚴ tanmaurk on the large stone, genitive ᛏᛅᚾᛘᛅᚱᚴᛅᚱ "tanmarkar" on the small stone.
The inhabitants of Denmark are there called "Danes", in the accusative. The earliest archaeological findings in Denmark date back to the Eem interglacial period from 130,000–110,000 BC. Denmark has been inhabited since around 12,500 BC and agriculture has been evident since 3900 BC; the Nordic Bronze Age in Denmark was marked by burial mounds, which left an abundance of findings including lurs and the Sun Chariot. During the Pre-Roman Iron Age, native groups began migrating south, the first tribal Danes came to the country between the Pre-Roman and the Germanic Iron Age, in the Roman Iron Age; the Roman provinces maintained trade routes and relations with native tribes in Denmark, Roman coins have been found in Denmark. Evidence of strong Celtic cultural influence dates from this period in Denmark and much of North-West Europe and is among other things reflected in the finding of the Gundestrup cauldron; the tribal Danes came from the east Danish islands and Scania and spoke an early form of North Germanic.
Historians believe that before their arrival, most of Jutland and the nearest islands were settled by tribal J
Valdemar IV of Denmark
Valdemar IV Atterdag, or Waldemar, was King of Denmark from 1340 to 1375. He was the youngest son of King Christopher II of Euphemia of Pomerania, he spent most of his childhood and youth in exile at the court of Louis IV, Holy Roman Emperor in Bavaria, after the defeats of his father and the death and imprisonment of his two older brothers and Otto, at the hand of the Holsteiners. Here he acted as a pretender. Following the assassination of Gerhard III, Count of Holstein-Rendsburg, by Niels Ebbesen and his brothers, Valdemar was proclaimed King of Denmark at the Viborg Assembly on St John's Day on 24 June 1340, led by Ebbesen. By his marriage with Helvig of Schleswig, the daughter of Eric II, Duke of Schleswig, with what was left to him by his father, he controlled about one quarter of the territory of Jutland north of the Kongeå river, he was not compelled to sign a charter as his father had done because Denmark had been without a king for years, no one expected the twenty-year-old king to be any more trouble to the great nobles than his father had been.
But Valdemar was a clever and determined man and realized that the only way to rule Denmark was to get control of its territory. Ebbesen attempted to liberate central Jutland from the Holsteiners at the siege of Sønderborg Castle on 2 November 1340, but Ebbesen and his brothers were killed. Under his father, King Christopher II, Denmark was mortgaged out in parcels. King Valdemar IV sought to reclaim the lands of Denmark; the first opportunity came with his wife Helvig's dowry. The mortgage on the rest of northern Jutland was paid off by taxes collected from King Valdemar's peasants above the Kongeå. In 1344, he recovered North Friesland, which he taxed to pay off the debt on southern Jutland; the over-taxed peasants grew restive under the constant demands for money. Valdemar next set his sights on Zealand; the bishop of Roskilde, who owned Copenhagen Castle and town, gave both to Valdemar, providing a secure base from which to gather taxes on trade through the Sound. He was the first Danish king to rule a possession of the Bishop of Roskilde.
Valdemar was able to capture or buy other castles and fortresses until he could force the Holsteiners out. When he ran out of money, he took Søborg Castles by force. While in the midst of that campaign, he went to Estonia to negotiate with the Teutonic Knights who controlled Estonia. Danes had never migrated there in any numbers, so for 19,000 marks Valdemar gave up Danish Estonia, a far-off eastern province, which allowed him to pay off mortgages of parts of Denmark which were more important to him. Around 1346 Valdemar IV initiated a crusade against Lithuania. Franciscan chronicler Detmar von Lübeck noted that Valdemar IV traveled to Lübeck in 1346 turned to Prussia together with Erich II of Saxony in order to fight the Lithuanians. However, the crusade against the Lithuanians came to nothing, instead Valdemar went on a pilgrimage to Jerusalem, he was made a Knight of the Holy Sepulchre in honor of his accomplishment. He was censured by Pope Clement VI for not getting prior approval for such a journey.
Upon his return, Valdemar gathered an army. In 1346, he took back the main headquarters of the Holsteiners. By the end of the year, Valdemar could claim all of Zealand as his own, he made Vordingborg his personal residence, expanded the castle, built the Goose Tower which has become the symbol of the town. Valdemar's reputation for ruthlessness against those who opposed him made many think about switching sides, his tax policy pay up. By 1347 Valdemar had thrown out the Germans and once again Denmark was a nation. With his increased income, Valdemar was able to pay for a larger army and by treachery came into possession of Nyborg Castle and eastern Funen Island and the smaller islands. Valdemar's attention had just turned to Skåne, held by Sweden,when disaster struck the entire region. In 1349 Bubonic Plague arrived unexpectedly. Tradition has it that plague came to Denmark on a ghost ship that beached itself on the coast of northern Jutland; those who went aboard found the dead swollen and black faced, but stayed long enough to take everything of value from it and thereby introduced the fleas that carried the disease into the population.
People began to die by the thousands. During the next two years plague swept through Denmark like a forest fire. In Ribe twelve parishes ceased to exist in a single diocese. A few towns died with no one left alive; the general figures for plague in 1349–50 ranges between 33% and 66% of the people of Denmark. City dwellers were harder hit than farm folk leading many people to abandon towns altogether. Valdemar remained untouched and took advantage of the deaths of his enemies to add to his growing lands and properties, he refused to reduce the taxes the following year. Nobles, felt their incomes shrink and the tax burdens fell heavier on them as well. Uprisings flared up in the following years. In 1354 the King and nobles met together as the Danish Court and worked out a peace settlement among the parties; the terms of the charter said that the Danehof was to meet at least once a year on St. John's Day, 24 June; the old system established in 1282 was reinstated and everyone's rights reverted to the traditional ones from before Christopher II's charter which gutted the powers of the king.
Valdemar responded by raising an army and ma