Sloviansk. It serves as the administrative center of the Sloviansk Raion, though it does not belong to the raion, it was founded in 1676. The city was one of the focal points in the early stages of the 2014 pro-Russian conflict in Ukraine as it was the first city to be seized by Russia-backed military troops, it was retaken by Ukrainian forces in July 2014. Population: 111,486 ; the history of Sloviansk dates back to the beginning of the 16th century when the first settlements formed by Ukrainian peasants appeared on its territory. On in 1645 was founded a border fortress against the Crimean attacks and slave raids on the southern suburbs of modern Ukraine and Russia. In 1664 the first salt plant for the extraction of salt was built that caused the appearance of housing for workers. In 1676, a fortress named Tor was built at the confluence of the Kazenyy Torets and Sukhyy Torets Rivers where they form the Torets River, a tributary of Donets River. Shortly thereafter, the town of Tor grew up next to the fortress.
As several salt lakes were located close by, the town became a producer of salt. During the sixteenth century, salt production was the principal local industry, but during the eighteenth century, it became unprofitable and ceased on December 21, 1782. In 1784, the city was renamed Sloviansk, it became a part of the Kharkov Governorate of the Russian Empire in 1797. A resort was established on the shores of Lake Ropne in 1832. In April 1918 troops loyal to the Ukrainian People's Republic took control of Sloviansk; the city was occupied by the Germans on October 28, 1941. In December 1941, SS Einsatzkommando 4b executed more than a thousand Jews; the Red Army temporarily expelled the Nazi occupiers on February 17, 1943. Germans retook it on 1 March 1943. Red Army liberated it on 6 September 1943. On April 12, 2014, during the ongoing crisis following the 2014 Ukrainian revolution, masked men in army fatigues and bulletproof vests armed with Kalashnikov assault rifles captured the executive committee building, the police department, SBU office in Sloviansk.
Ukrainian Interior Minister Arsen Avakov described the gunmen as "terrorists" and vowed to use the Ukrainian special forces to retake the building. On April 13, 2014, there were reports of fighting between the gunmen and Ukrainian troops, with casualties on both sides; the BBC's David Stern described the pro-Russian forces as carrying Russian weapons and resembling the soldiers that took over Crimean installations at the start of the 2014 Crimean crisis. On May 29, 2014, a helicopter carrying fourteen army soldiers, including General Serhiy Kulchytskiy - the head of combat and special training for the country's National Guard, crashed after being shot down by militants near Sloviansk. Ukraine's outgoing President Olexander Turchynov described the downing as a "terrorist attack," and blamed pro-Russian militants; the city was held by Russia-backed separatist until July 5, 2014, when pressed by the Ukrainian army they had to retreat from Sloviansk and pull back to Donetsk city. According to the 2001 Ukrainian Census: The climate in Sloviansk is a mild to warm summer subtype of the humid continental climate.
The principal industry of the city concerns machine building: The Slovvazhmash heavy-machinery production plant which produces chemical equipment for coke production and use for the businesses in Lipetsk and Cherepovets. Companies in Mariupol, Kryvyi Rih and Kamianske use their products; the Betonmash machine-building factory which produces concrete mixing plants, spare parts for mining equipment and metal works, parts for coke ovens. The factory provides foundry services for companies across Donetsk Oblast, Kharkiv Oblast, Dnipropetrovsk Oblast; the Sloviansk mechanical plant which employs four hundred people. It produces chemical equipment for coke production as well as other machinery; the Artem Armature-insulator factory. A factory producing high-voltage insulators for hydroelectric power stations and thermal power-stations; the city is an important health resort providing spa treatments and mud baths using mud from the bottom of salt lakes located nearby. The city is a nexus of a number of roads.
There are three railway stations in use, one defunct. Three railway lines leave the city in directions of Lozova and Kramatorsk. Ukrainian international highway M03 goes by the edge of the city and the national highway N-20 leaves from the city toward Mariupol. Local population is served by trolleybus network consisting of two permanent routes and one summer route. Marshrutkas are used. Christian churches: Cathedral of New Martyrs and Confessors of the Russian Orthodox Church Church of the Resurrection of Christ Church of the Andrew the Apostle Church of Oleksandr Nevskyi Church of Seraphim Sarovsky The "Kind New" Christian Center Church Church of Jesus Christ of the Protestant Church of Ukraine Mykhaylo Sokolovsky, a Soviet footballer, record holder of the games played for Shakhtar Donetsk Murder of Pentecostals in Slaviansk // Official website Unofficial website of Slavjansk Trolleybus system Marble sculpture of Nicolai Shmatko
The Ottoman Empire known in Western Europe as the Turkish Empire or Turkey, was a state that controlled much of Southeast Europe, Western Asia and North Africa between the 14th and early 20th centuries. It was founded at the end of the 13th century in northwestern Anatolia in the town of Söğüt by the Oghuz Turkish tribal leader Osman I. After 1354, the Ottomans crossed into Europe, with the conquest of the Balkans, the Ottoman beylik was transformed into a transcontinental empire; the Ottomans ended the Byzantine Empire with the 1453 conquest of Constantinople by Mehmed the Conqueror. During the 16th and 17th centuries, at the height of its power under the reign of Suleiman the Magnificent, the Ottoman Empire was a multinational, multilingual empire controlling most of Southeast Europe, parts of Central Europe, Western Asia, parts of Eastern Europe and the Caucasus, North Africa and the Horn of Africa. At the beginning of the 17th century, the empire contained numerous vassal states; some of these were absorbed into the Ottoman Empire, while others were granted various types of autonomy during the course of centuries.
With Constantinople as its capital and control of lands around the Mediterranean basin, the Ottoman Empire was at the centre of interactions between the Eastern and Western worlds for six centuries. While the empire was once thought to have entered a period of decline following the death of Suleiman the Magnificent, this view is no longer supported by the majority of academic historians; the empire continued to maintain a flexible and strong economy and military throughout the 17th and much of the 18th century. However, during a long period of peace from 1740 to 1768, the Ottoman military system fell behind that of their European rivals, the Habsburg and Russian empires; the Ottomans suffered severe military defeats in the late 18th and early 19th centuries, which prompted them to initiate a comprehensive process of reform and modernisation known as the Tanzimat. Thus, over the course of the 19th century, the Ottoman state became vastly more powerful and organised, despite suffering further territorial losses in the Balkans, where a number of new states emerged.
The empire allied with Germany in the early 20th century, hoping to escape from the diplomatic isolation which had contributed to its recent territorial losses, thus joined World War I on the side of the Central Powers. While the Empire was able to hold its own during the conflict, it was struggling with internal dissent with the Arab Revolt in its Arabian holdings. During this time, atrocities were committed by the Young Turk government against the Armenians and Pontic Greeks; the Empire's defeat and the occupation of part of its territory by the Allied Powers in the aftermath of World War I resulted in its partitioning and the loss of its Middle Eastern territories, which were divided between the United Kingdom and France. The successful Turkish War of Independence against the occupying Allies led to the emergence of the Republic of Turkey in the Anatolian heartland and the abolition of the Ottoman monarchy; the word Ottoman is a historical anglicisation of the name of Osman I, the founder of the Empire and of the ruling House of Osman.
Osman's name in turn was the Turkish form of the Arabic name ʿUthmān. In Ottoman Turkish, the empire was referred to as Devlet-i ʿAlīye-yi ʿOsmānīye, or alternatively ʿOsmānlı Devleti. In Modern Turkish, it is known as Osmanlı Devleti; the Turkish word for "Ottoman" referred to the tribal followers of Osman in the fourteenth century, subsequently came to be used to refer to the empire's military-administrative elite. In contrast, the term "Turk" was used to refer to the Anatolian peasant and tribal population, was seen as a disparaging term when applied to urban, educated individuals. In the early modern period, an educated urban-dwelling Turkish-speaker, not a member of the military-administrative class would refer to himself neither as an Osmanlı nor as a Türk, but rather as a Rūmī, or "Roman", meaning an inhabitant of the territory of the former Byzantine Empire in the Balkans and Anatolia; the term Rūmī was used to refer to Turkish-speakers by the other Muslim peoples of the empire and beyond.
In Western Europe, the two names "Ottoman Empire" and "Turkey" were used interchangeably, with "Turkey" being favoured both in formal and informal situations. This dichotomy was ended in 1920–23, when the newly established Ankara-based Turkish government chose Turkey as the sole official name. Most scholarly historians avoid the terms "Turkey", "Turks", "Turkish" when referring to the Ottomans, due to the empire's multinational character; as the Seljuk Sultanate of Rum declined in the 13th century, Anatolia was divided into a patchwork of independent Turkish principalities known as the Anatolian Beyliks. One of these beyliks, in the region of Bithynia on the frontier of the Byzantine Empire, was led by the Turkish tribal leader Osman I, a figure of obscure origins from whom the name Ottoman is derived. Osman's early followers consisted both of Turkish tribal groups and Byzantine renegades, many but not all converts to Islam. Osman extended the control of his principality by conquering Byzantine towns along the Sakarya River.
It is not well understood how the early Ottomans came to dominate their
In Slavic Mythology, Chernava is Morskoy Tsar's daughter and personification of the river of the same name. She is a mermaid, her head and upper body are human. Chernava is famous by the epic of Sadko, where she appears.. In the Sadko bylina, Chernava appears as the one of the 900 mermaids, she is described as small and young girl. When Morskoy Tsar offered Sadko a new bride, Sadko lay down beside her. On their wedding night he did not touch her; when Sadko was asleep, Chernava had transformed into a river, helping him to get into the human world. Sadko rejoined his first wife. Chernava Colles are named after her. Fedorovich, Alexander Hilferding, Onegsky byliny, recorded by Alexander Fedorovich Hilferding in the summer of 1871, The Imperial Academy of Sciences, ISBN 978-5-4460-3959-3Dixon-Kennedy, Encyclopedia of Russian and Slavic Myth and Legend, Santa Barbara, California: ABC-CLIO, ISBN 9781576070635Bailey, James, An Anthology of Russian Folk Epics, Routledge, ISBN 978-1317476924 Краткое содержание и история создания оперы Римского-Корсакова «Садко» на сайте «Belcanto.
Ru» Bylina «Садков корабль стал на море» Bylina «Садко» Sadko the bylina Prose version Sadko as collected by Arthur Ransome in Old Peter's Russian Tales Sadko as collected by Arthur Ransome in Old Peter's Russian Tales as a librivox.org audiobook
Lipetsk is a city and the administrative center of Lipetsk Oblast, located on the banks of the Voronezh River in the Don basin, 438 kilometers southeast of Moscow. As of the 2010 Census, its population was 508,887. Lipetsk was first mentioned in the 13th century chronicles; the name is cognate with Leipzig and Liepāja. In 1284, the city was destroyed by the Mongols; the foundation of the modern city dates back to 1703, when Peter the Great ordered construction of a cast iron factory in Lipetsk near the iron ore deposits for making artillery shells. On September 27, 1779, Lipetsk was granted town status, it became one of the principal towns of Tambov Governorate. In 1879, Lipetsk hosted a congress of members of Liberty. After the Treaty of Rapallo until 1933, the much-reduced German Army of the Weimar Republic secretly contracted with Soviet authorities to operate a clandestine military aviation base and test facility near Lipetsk – circumventing prohibitions of the Versailles Treaty; the base enabled technical collaboration by the two powers whose separate defeats in World War I left them isolated in post-war Europe.
This activity inside the U. S. S. R. took place away from the vigilant eyes of the victors. Lipetsk is the administrative center of the oblast and, within the framework of administrative divisions, it serves as the administrative center of Lipetsky District though it is not a part of it; as an administrative division, it is incorporated separately as Lipetsk City Under Oblast Jurisdiction—an administrative unit with a status equal to that of the districts. As a municipal division, Lipetsk City Under Oblast Jurisdiction is incorporated as Lipetsk Urban Okrug; the principal industries of Lipetsk include ferrous metallurgy, metalworking, machine tools, chemicals and clothing. The former steel combine was privatized in 1992 and Novolipetsk Steel with 48,000 employees and a 64% export ratio is one of the largest employers in the oblast. In 2008, the company's revenue was $11.7 billion. Other industry are another metallurgical plant "Svobodny Sokol", a tractor factory LTZ, solvent-extraction plant Liboil, pipe factory, a factory for refrigerators and household appliances, an ice factory, lathe factory, chemical factories, etc.
Industry is located south of the Voronezh River. Since 1868, there is a railway connection between Moscow. Trams and buses provide local public transportation; the municipality aspires to renovate the tramway network as it is segregated from motor traffic. It has negotiated a 10-year, RUR 30 billion loan from the European Bank of Reconstruction & Development for tramway renewal. Lipetsk is one of balneological resorts in Russia. Peat mud and chalybeate bicarbonate calcic springs are used to treat patients. Sulphate and chloride sodium water is used for therapeutic baths and drinking. Lipetsk is home of the Lipetsk State Technical University, Lipetsk State Pedagogical University, some other colleges. At the Lipetsk Air Base north of the town, the 4th Center of Combat Application and Conversion of Frontline Aviation named after Valery Chkalov is situated in Lipetsk; the Lipetsk Air Center's chief, colonel Kharchevsky, has become famous after trial air combats in the United States and being a personal pilot of President Putin.
The city is served by the smaller Lipetsk Airport. Lipetsk is twinned with: Andrei Gheorghe Alexandre Naoumenko Eugene Smurgis List of Chairmen of the Council of Deputies of Lipetsk Oblast Липецкий городской Совет депутатов. Решение №990 от 24 февраля 2015 г. «Устав городского округа город Липецк Липецкой области Российской Федерации», в ред. Решения №116 от 26 апреля 2016 г «О внесении изменений в Устав городского округа город Липецк Липецкой области Российской Федерации». Вступил в силу 21 марта 2015 г.. Опубликован: "Липецкая газета", №55, 21 марта 2015 г.. Липецкий областной Совет депутатов. Закон №382-ОЗ от 28 апреля 2010 г. «Об административно-территориальном устройстве Липецкой области и порядке его изменения», в ред. Закона №343-ОЗ от 5 декабря 2014 г. «О внесении изменений в некоторые Законы Липецкой области в связи с объединением сельских поселений Добринский сельсовет и Сафоновский сельсовет Добринского муниципального района Липецкой области». Вступил в силу по истечении 10 дней со дня официального опубликования.
Опубликован: "Липецкая газета", №88, 7 мая 2010 г.. Липецкий областной Совет депутатов. Закон №114-ОЗ от 2 июля 2004 г. «О наделении муниципальных образований в Липецкой области статусом городского округа, муниципального района, городского и сельского поселения», в ред. Закона №343-ОЗ от 5 декабря 2014 г. «О внесении изменений в некоторые Законы Липецко
Lyman Krasnyi Lyman is a city in Donetsk Oblast of Ukraine. Administratively, it is incorporated as a city of oblast significance, it serves as the administrative center of Lyman Raion and Lyman United Territorial Community, though it is not a part of the raion. Population: 22,509 , it was founded in the 17th century by Cossacks as Liman. In the course of the administrative reform carried out in 1708 by Peter the Great, Liman was explicitly mentioned as one of the towns included to Azov Governorate; the town obtained the prefix Krasnyi in 1925. In June 2014, the city was the scene of fighting during the 2014 pro-Russian conflict in Ukraine. On 5 June the town was liberated by Ukrainian troops from pro-Russian separatists. Following the 2015 law on decommunization the city was renamed from Krasnyi Lyman to Lyman; the new name was approved by the Verkhovna Rada on 4 February 2016. As of the 2001 Ukrainian census: EthnicityUkrainians: 84.4% Russians: 13.8% Belarusians: 0.6% Krasnyi Lyman Promo Video
Tsardom of Russia
The Tsardom of Russia, or the Tsardom of Muscovy, was the centralized Russian state from the assumption of the title of Tsar by Ivan IV in 1547 until the foundation of the Russian Empire by Peter the Great in 1721. From 1551 to 1700, Russia grew 35,000 km2 per year; the period includes the upheavals of the transition from the Rurik to the Romanov dynasties, many wars with the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth and the Ottoman Empire as well as the Russian conquest of Siberia, leading up to the ground-changing reign of Peter the Great, who took power in 1689 and transformed the Tsardom into a major European power. During the Great Northern War, he implemented substantial reforms and proclaimed the Russian Empire after victory over Sweden in 1721. While the oldest endonyms of the Grand Duchy of Moscow used in its documents were Rus' and the Russian land, a new form of its name, Rusia or Russia and became common in the 15th century. In the 1480s Russian state scribes Ivan Cherny and Mikhail Medovartsev mention Russia under the name Росиа, Medovartsev mentions "the sceptre of Russian lordship".
In the following century Russia co-existed with the old name Rus' and appeared in an inscription on the western portal of the Transfiguration Cathedral of the Spaso-Preobrazhensky Monastery in Yaroslavl, on the icon case of the Theotokos of Vladimir, in the work by Maximus the Greek, the Russian Chronograph written by Dosifei Toporkov in 1516–22 and in other sources. In 1547, Ivan IV assumed the title of “Tsar and Grand Duke of all Rus'” and was crowned on 16 January, thereby turning the Grand Duchy of Moscow into Tsardom of Russia, or "the Great Russian Tsardom", as it was called in the coronation document, by Constantinople Patriarch Jeremiah II and in numerous official texts, but the state remained referred to as Moscovia throughout Europe, predominantly in its Catholic part, though this Latin term was never used in Russia; the two names "Russia" and "Moscovia" appear to have co-existed as interchangeable during the 16th and throughout the 17th century with different Western maps and sources using different names, so that the country was called "Russia, or Moscovia" or "Russia, popularly known as Moscovia".
In England of the 16th century, it was known both as Muscovy. Such notable Englishmen as Giles Fletcher, author of the book Of the Russe Common Wealth, Samuel Collins, author of The Present State of Russia, both of whom visited Russia, were familiar with the term Russia and used it in their works. So did numerous other authors, including John Milton, who wrote A brief history of Moscovia and of other less-known countries lying eastward of Russia, published posthumously, starting it with the words: "The Empire of Moscovia, or as others call it, Russia..."In the Russian Tsardom, the word Russia replaced the old name Rus' in official documents, though the names Rus' and Russian land were still common and synonymous to it, appeared in the form Great Russia, more typical of the 17th century, whereas the state was known as Great-Russian Tsardom. According to prominent historians like Alexander Zimin and Anna Khoroshkevich, the continuous use of the term Moscovia was a result of traditional habit and the need to distinguish between the Muscovite and the Lithuanian part of the Rus', as well as of the political interests of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, which competed with Moscow for the western regions of the Rus'.
Due to the propaganda of the Commonwealth, as well as of the Jesuits, the term Moscovia was used instead of Russia in many parts of Europe where prior to the reign of Peter the Great there was a lack of direct knowledge of the country. In Northern Europe and at the court of the Holy Roman Empire, the country was known under its own name, Russia or Rossia. Sigismund von Herberstein, ambassador of the Holy Roman Emperor in Russia, used both Russia and Moscovia in his work on the Russian tsardom and noted: "The majority believes that Russia is a changed name of Roxolania. Muscovites refute this, saying that their country was called Russia". Pointing to the difference between Latin and Russian names, French captain Jacques Margeret, who served in Russia and left a detailed description of L’Empire de Russie of the early 17th century, presented to King Henry IV, stated that foreigners make "a mistake when they call them Muscovites and not Russians; when they are asked what nation they are, they respond'Russac', which means'Russians', when they are asked what place they are from, the answer is Moscow, Vologda and other cities".
The closest analogue of the Latin term Moscovia in Russia was “Tsardom of Moscow”, or “Moscow Tsardom”, used along with the name "Russia", sometimes in one sentence, as in the name of the 17th century Russian work On the Great and Glorious Russian Moscow State. By the 16th century, the Russian ruler had emerged as a Tsar. By assuming that title, the sovereign of Moscow tried to emphasize that he was a major ruler or emperor on par with the Byzantine emperor or the Mongol khan. Indeed, after Ivan III's marriage to Sophia Palaiologina, the niece of Constantine XI Palaiologos, the Moscow court adopted Byzantine terms, rituals and emblems such as the double-
Izium, is a city situated on the Donets River in Kharkiv Oblast of eastern Ukraine. Serving as the administrative center of Izium Raion, Izium is administratively incorporated as a city of oblast significance and does not belong to the raion, it is located 75 miles southeast of the oblast capital, Kharkiv. Population: 49,370 First mentioned in 1571 in connection with the Izium Warpath of the Crimean Tatars. In 1639 was mentioned as small outpost. In 1681 Russian fortress was built here, in 1684 - the five-domed Baroque cathedral of the Saviour's Transfiguration. Izyum was a significant centre of the Sloboda Ukraine and home to a regiment of Cossacks between 1688 and 1765. In 1765 Izyum became a city. In 1780 Izyum became an uyezd city; the churches of Ascension and of St. Nicholas rank among the finest Neoclassical buildings in the region. During World War II, the Red Army held a large bridgehead here, allowing for a salient, cut off by counterattacking German forces and eliminated in one of the most expensive learning errors for the Red Army.
Izium was occupied by the German Army from 24 June 1942 to 5 February 1943. The town was the site of sporadic fighting during the 2014–15 Russian military intervention in Ukraine. In April 2014 Russian separatist forces occupied the city of Sloviansk 30 miles south of Izium. An operation by Ukrainian forces to remove these forces bogged down and checkpoints around the Izium were formed to stop possible intrusion into the city. On June 15 a Ukrainian checkpoint outside the city was attacked by Russian forces. On 19 June 2014 Ukrainian forces defeated a large group of Russian separatists at Yampil 40 miles southwest of Izium, signaling the furthest north the Russian forces would advance; as part of the Siege of Sloviansk and Battle of Kramatorsk both cities were recaptured by Ukrainian forces. Due to its proximity to the front line the city, along with the Kramatorsk Airfield which the Ukrainian military was able to control through the battles, served as a staging area for Ukrainian troops prior to Sloviansk and Kramatorsk being recaptured.
European route E40 passes through Izium, connecting Luhansk-Sloviansk-Kharkiv, three important cities to both pro Russia and Ukrainian forces. Controlling the highway was instrumental as it was the fastest access route into Sloviansk, as well as allowing for possible expansion of separatist territory into Kharkiv region; the Sloviansk-Izium highway was referred to as the "highway of death" by locals during the summer of 2014, however large scale fighting halted once Ukrainian forces captured Sloviansk. Early April 2016 the Security Service of Ukraine arrested an alleged saboteur, accused of wanting to explode the railway near Izium to aid the separatists. In order to comply with decommunization laws the local ‘Soviet Square' was renamed ‘John Lennon Square' in February 2016; the Köppen Climate Classification subtype for this climate is "Dfb".. Second Battle of Kharkov / History of the city Encyclopædia Britannica Online