Mechanical engineering is the discipline that applies engineering, engineering mathematics, materials science principles to design, analyze and maintain mechanical systems. It is one of the broadest of the engineering disciplines; the mechanical engineering field requires an understanding of core areas including mechanics, thermodynamics, materials science, structural analysis, electricity. In addition to these core principles, mechanical engineers use tools such as computer-aided design, computer-aided manufacturing, product life cycle management to design and analyze manufacturing plants, industrial equipment and machinery and cooling systems, transport systems, watercraft, medical devices and others, it is the branch of engineering that involves the design and operation of machinery. Mechanical engineering emerged as a field during the Industrial Revolution in Europe in the 18th century. In the 19th century, developments in physics led to the development of mechanical engineering science.
The field has continually evolved to incorporate advancements. It overlaps with aerospace engineering, metallurgical engineering, civil engineering, electrical engineering, manufacturing engineering, chemical engineering, industrial engineering, other engineering disciplines to varying amounts. Mechanical engineers may work in the field of biomedical engineering with biomechanics, transport phenomena, bionanotechnology, modelling of biological systems; the application of mechanical engineering can be seen in the archives of various ancient and medieval societies. In ancient Greece, the works of Archimedes influenced mechanics in the Western tradition and Heron of Alexandria created the first steam engine. In China, Zhang Heng improved a water clock and invented a seismometer, Ma Jun invented a chariot with differential gears; the medieval Chinese horologist and engineer Su Song incorporated an escapement mechanism into his astronomical clock tower two centuries before escapement devices were found in medieval European clocks.
He invented the world's first known endless power-transmitting chain drive. During the Islamic Golden Age, Muslim inventors made remarkable contributions in the field of mechanical technology. Al-Jazari, one of them, wrote his famous Book of Knowledge of Ingenious Mechanical Devices in 1206 and presented many mechanical designs. Al-Jazari is the first known person to create devices such as the crankshaft and camshaft, which now form the basics of many mechanisms. During the 17th century, important breakthroughs in the foundations of mechanical engineering occurred in England. Sir Isaac Newton formulated Newton's Laws of Motion and developed Calculus, the mathematical basis of physics. Newton was reluctant to publish his works for years, but he was persuaded to do so by his colleagues, such as Sir Edmond Halley, much to the benefit of all mankind. Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz is credited with creating Calculus during this time period. During the early 19th century industrial revolution, machine tools were developed in England and Scotland.
This allowed mechanical engineering to develop as a separate field within engineering. They brought with them manufacturing machines and the engines to power them; the first British professional society of mechanical engineers was formed in 1847 Institution of Mechanical Engineers, thirty years after the civil engineers formed the first such professional society Institution of Civil Engineers. On the European continent, Johann von Zimmermann founded the first factory for grinding machines in Chemnitz, Germany in 1848. In the United States, the American Society of Mechanical Engineers was formed in 1880, becoming the third such professional engineering society, after the American Society of Civil Engineers and the American Institute of Mining Engineers; the first schools in the United States to offer an engineering education were the United States Military Academy in 1817, an institution now known as Norwich University in 1819, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute in 1825. Education in mechanical engineering has been based on a strong foundation in mathematics and science.
Degrees in mechanical engineering are offered at various universities worldwide. Mechanical engineering programs take four to five years of study and result in a Bachelor of Engineering, Bachelor of Science, Bachelor of Science Engineering, Bachelor of Technology, Bachelor of Mechanical Engineering, or Bachelor of Applied Science degree, in or with emphasis in mechanical engineering. In Spain and most of South America, where neither B. Sc. nor B. Tech. Programs have been adopted, the formal name for the degree is "Mechanical Engineer", the course work is based on five or six years of training. In Italy the course work is based on five years of education, training, but in order to qualify as an Engineer one has to pass a state exam at the end of the course. In Greece, the coursework is based on a five-year curriculum and the requirement of a'Diploma' Thesis, which upon completion a'Diploma' is awarded rather than a B. Sc. In the United States, most undergraduate mechanical engineering programs are accredited by the Accreditation Board for Engineering and Technology to ensure similar course requirements and standards a
Continental climates have a significant annual variation in temperature. They tend to occur in the middle latitudes, where prevailing winds blow overland, temperatures are not moderated by bodies of water such as oceans or seas. Continental climates occur in the Northern Hemisphere, which has the kind of large landmasses on temperate latitudes required for this type of climate to develop. Most of northern and northeastern China and southeastern Europe and southeastern Canada, the central and upper eastern United States have this type of climate. In continental climates, precipitation tends to be moderate in amount, concentrated in the warmer months. Only a few areas—in the mountains of the Pacific Northwest of North America and in Iran, northern Iraq, adjacent Turkey, Afghanistan and Central Asia—show a winter maximum in precipitation. A portion of the annual precipitation falls as snowfall, snow remains on the ground for more than a month. Summers in continental climates can feature frequent hot temperatures.
The timing of intermediate spring-like or autumn-like temperatures in this zone vary depending on latitude and/or elevation. For example, spring may arrive as soon as early March in the southern parts of this zone or as late as May in the north. Annual precipitation in this zone is between 600 millimetres and 1,200 millimetres, most of it in the form of snow during winter, it has cold winters and warm summers. Most such areas fit Dwb. Dry summer continental climates exist in high altitude areas near Mediterranean climates. In some cases, the semi-arid climate classification of BSk can be considered to be continental as long as it has cold winters; the definition of this climate regarding temperature is as follows: the mean temperature of the coldest month must be below −3 °C and there must be at least four months whose mean temperatures are at or above 10 °C. Continental climates exist where cold air masses infiltrate during the winter and warm air masses form in summer under conditions of high sun and long days.
Places with continental climates are as a rule are either far from any moderating effect of oceans or are so situated that prevailing winds tend to head offshore. Such regions get quite warm in the summer, achieving temperatures characteristic of tropical climates but are colder than any other climates of similar latitude in the winter. In the Koppen climate system, these climates grade off toward temperate climates equator-ward where winters are less severe and semi-arid climates where precipitation becomes inadequate for tall-grass prairies. In Europe these climates may grade off into oceanic climates in which the influence of cool oceanic air masses is more marked toward the west; the subarctic climate, with cold and dry winters, but with at least one month above 10 °C, might be considered a sub-type of the continental climate. Canada: throughout much of Southern Canada from the Rocky Mountains to Atlantic Canada. Major cities: Whistler. Marie. While there are no major cities in South America that fall in to the classification of a continental climate, there are some remote places that have this climate.
Due to the influence of the Ocean, including cities such as Punta Arenas and Ushuaia, have an average winter temperature above 0°C, so are classified as an oceanic climate. Argentina: Moderately high elevations in the central Andes west of Mendoza, Argentina towards the Argentine Patagonia's internal areas (e.g.
Vehicle registration plates of Russia
Vehicle registration plates are the mandatory number plates used to display the registration mark of a vehicle, have existed in Russia for many decades. Most motor vehicles which are used on public roads are required by law to display them. Having them covered by snow or mud constitutes an administrative offense, that leads to a fine. So does covering them with a piece of paper, or any other tool that makes any of the digits and letters illegible; the current format uses a letter followed by two more letters. To improve legibility of the numbers for Russian cars abroad, only a small subset of Cyrillic characters that look like Latin characters are used; the region number and the international code RUS are included, as well as the national flag. There is a different format for trailers. Motorcycles and scooters plates are made of square reflective plates and its format is 4 digits at the top and two letters at the bottom; these plates lack national flag. The standard size for the license plate is 400 mm by 85÷120 mm.
Vehicles used by certain organisations or categories of persons carry special plates: Special plates in the above categories never carry the Russian flag, except for trailers. There are special series reserved for government officials; the license plates for federal government officials had a larger flag instead of the regional code but this type has now been withdrawn as well. Rich businessmen, prominent politicians and crime lords use para-legally acquired special licence plates to get preferential treatment from the transport police and as a status symbol; this is used in conjunction with a flashing siren. The Society of Blue Buckets is a protest movement; as of 2014, there are new codes for Russian plates. The Russian Federation officially annexed Crimea from Ukraine and now administers it as two federal subjects: the Republic of Crimea and the federal city of Sevastopol. Ukraine, backed by most of the international community, refuses to accept the annexation and continues to assert its right over the peninsula.
As per GOST provision, only 1,726,272 combinations may be issued within one administration unit. In certain regions, the number of vehicles exceeds that number, the combination may not be reused after a vehicle was taken off the registration. All this creates an issue of running out of numbers. A short-term solution was introducing more codes for those regions. Thus, some regions have two codes issued to them, Republic of Tatarstan has three, the city of St. Petersburg have four, Moscow Oblast has five, the federal city of Moscow has eight codes, but this does not solve the problem, as the authorities may run out of three-numeral regional codes, a fourth digit will not fit without changing the standardized layout of the plate. Since October 2013, when vehicle is registered to a new owner, the registration plate could remain on the vehicle and new registration number is not required if vehicle is registered in another region. Introduction of new style license plate is being considered as a future solution.
The license plate regional codes from 01 to 89 matched the numerical order of the federal subjects of Russia as listed in the Article 65 of the Constitution of Russia at the moment of the creation of the standard. In the following years some codes were discontinued; as the populous regions started running out of license plate combinations, new codes past code 89 were assigned to them as well. Additional triple-digit codes were created by adding a "7" to the existing regional code; the most recent new number to be issued was code 761 for Rostov Oblast after code 161 ran out of all possible combinations on January 19, 2019. Those regions with an asterisk beside them were involved in mergers with other regions and have their codes listed with an asterisk with the region they are now a part of. Code 82 was put back into registration in June 2014 for the Republic of Crimea; the reason for the decision to use code 82 was because, between the beginning of this plate format and the merging of the district, Koryak AO only registered 1,548 civilian car license plates and far less of other types.
According to the Ministry of Internal Affairs Order 282 from March 28, 2002. Vehicle registration plate European vehicle registration plates
Power engineering called power systems engineering, is a subfield of electrical engineering that deals with the generation, transmission and utilization of electric power, the electrical apparatus connected to such systems. Although much of the field is concerned with the problems of three-phase AC power – the standard for large-scale power transmission and distribution across the modern world – a significant fraction of the field is concerned with the conversion between AC and DC power and the development of specialized power systems such as those used in aircraft or for electric railway networks. Power engineering draws the majority of its theoretical base from electrical engineering. Electricity became a subject of scientific interest in the late 17th century. Over the next two centuries a number of important discoveries were made including the incandescent light bulb and the voltaic pile; the greatest discovery with respect to power engineering came from Michael Faraday who in 1831 discovered that a change in magnetic flux induces an electromotive force in a loop of wire—a principle known as electromagnetic induction that helps explain how generators and transformers work.
In 1881 two electricians built the world's first power station at Godalming in England. The station employed two waterwheels to produce an alternating current, used to supply seven Siemens arc lamps at 250 volts and thirty-four incandescent lamps at 40 volts; however supply was intermittent and in 1882 Thomas Edison and his company, The Edison Electric Light Company, developed the first steam-powered electric power station on Pearl Street in New York City. The Pearl Street Station consisted of several generators and powered around 3,000 lamps for 59 customers; the power station operated at a single voltage. Since the direct current power could not be transformed to the higher voltages necessary to minimise power loss during transmission, the possible distance between the generators and load was limited to around half-a-mile; that same year in London Lucien Gaulard and John Dixon Gibbs demonstrated the first transformer suitable for use in a real power system. The practical value of Gaulard and Gibbs' transformer was demonstrated in 1884 at Turin where the transformer was used to light up forty kilometres of railway from a single alternating current generator.
Despite the success of the system, the pair made some fundamental mistakes. The most serious was connecting the primaries of the transformers in series so that switching one lamp on or off would affect other lamps further down the line. Following the demonstration George Westinghouse, an American entrepreneur, imported a number of the transformers along with a Siemens generator and set his engineers to experimenting with them in the hopes of improving them for use in a commercial power system. One of Westinghouse's engineers, William Stanley, recognised the problem with connecting transformers in series as opposed to parallel and realised that making the iron core of a transformer a enclosed loop would improve the voltage regulation of the secondary winding. Using this knowledge he built the world's first practical transformer based alternating current power system at Great Barrington, Massachusetts in 1886. In 1885 the Italian physicist and electrical engineer Galileo Ferraris demonstrated an induction motor and in 1887 and 1888 the Serbian-American engineer Nikola Tesla filed a range of patents related to power systems including one for a practical two-phase induction motor which Westinghouse licensed for his AC system.
By 1890 the power industry had flourished and power companies had built thousands of power systems in the United States and Europe – these networks were dedicated to providing electric lighting. During this time a fierce rivalry in the US known as the "War of Currents" emerged between Edison and Westinghouse over which form of transmission was superior. In 1891, Westinghouse installed the first major power system, designed to drive an electric motor and not just provide electric lighting; the installation powered a 100 horsepower synchronous motor at Telluride, Colorado with the motor being started by a Tesla induction motor. On the other side of the Atlantic, Oskar von Miller built a 20 kV 176 km three-phase transmission line from Lauffen am Neckar to Frankfurt am Main for the Electrical Engineering Exhibition in Frankfurt. In 1895, after a protracted decision-making process, the Adams No. 1 generating station at Niagara Falls began transmitting three-phase alternating current power to Buffalo at 11 kV.
Following completion of the Niagara Falls project, new power systems chose alternating current as opposed to direct current for electrical transmission. The generation of electricity was regarded as important following the Bolshevik seizure of power. Lenin stated "Communism is Soviet power plus the electrification of the whole country." He was subsequently featured on stamps etc. presenting this view. The GOELRO plan was initiated in 1920 as the first Bolshevik experiment in industrial planning and in which Lenin became involved. Gleb Krzhizhanovsky was another key figure involved, having been involved in the construction of a power station in Moscow in 1910, he had known Lenin since 1897 when they were both in the St. Petersburg chapter of the Union of Struggle for the Liberation of the Working Class. In 1936 the first commercial high-voltage direct current line using mercury-arc valves was built between Schenectady and Mechanicville, New York. HVDC had been achieved by installing direct current generators in series (a system known as the Thury sy
Kursk Oblast is a federal subject of Russia. Its administrative center is the city of Kursk. Population: 1,127,081; the oblast occupies the southern slopes of the middle-Russian plateau, its average elevation is 177–225 meters. The surface is intersected by ravines; the central part of Kursk oblast is more elevated than the Seym Valley to the west. The Timsko-Shchigrinsky ridge contains the highest point in the oblast at 288 meters above the sea level; the low relief, gentler slopes, mild winter make the area suitable for farming, much of the forest has been cleared. The chernozem soils cover around 70% of the oblast's territory. Borders Internal: Bryansk Oblast, Oryol Oblast, Lipetsk Oblast, Voronezh Oblast, Belgorod Oblast. International: Sumy Oblast of Ukraine. Kursk Oblast contributes to two major drainage areas: the Don River. There are 902 rivers and streams in the oblast, with their total length of 8,000 kilometers. Major rivers are the Psyol; the inland waters of Kursk oblast consist of about 550 small ponds.
Kursk Oblast is one of the nation's major producers of iron ore. The area of Kursk Magnetic Anomaly has one of the richest iron-ore deposits in the world. Rare earths and base metals occur in commercial quantities in several locations. Refractory loam, mineral sands, chalk are quarried and processed in the region. Oblast's sufficient reserves of artesian well water are proving useful for medical purposes; the oblast's location at the center of the European part of Russia gives the region a medium continental climate: warm summers and mild winters. In July, the average daytime high temperature is +19.3 °C. In January the average high is −8.6 °C. The average number of frost-free days ranges from 150 in the north to 160 in the south; the growing season in Kursk Oblast varies, from 180 days in the north to 195 days in the southwest. The average annual precipitation for the oblast is 584 millimeters, but it ranges from 634 millimeters in the northwest, to about 500 millimeters or less in the southeastern corner.
The maximum of the rain falls during July. The snow depth in Kursk Oblast differs from 300–400 mm in the north of the oblast, to 150–250 mm in the south. Annual sunshine is 1775 hours. Kursk Oblast is a part of the Eastern European forest-steppe. One-quarter of Kursk oblast was once wooded. Hardwood timbers included oak and elm. Now forests cover only 10% of the oblast. Animals native to the area are numerous. Pike and perch are abundant in local rivers. Otter and badger, as well as wild boar, red deer, roe deer remain numerous in many parts of the area. Population: 1,127,081. 2012Births: 13 318 Deaths: 18 529 Total fertility rate:2009 - 1.53 | 2010 - 1.55 | 2011 - 1.61 | 2012 - 1.70 | 2013 - 1.67 | 2014 - 1.70 | 2015 - 1.72 | 2016 - 1.64 Ethnic composition: Russians - 96.5% Ukrainians - 1.3% Armenians - 0.5% Others - 1.7% 52,722 people were registered from administrative databases, could not declare an ethnicity. It is estimated that the proportion of ethnicities in this group is the same as that of the declared group.
According to the 1897 census, there were 77.3% Russians and 22.3% Ukrainians in the Kursk Governorate. The 1932 forced end to Ukrainization in southern Russia led to a massive decline of reported Ukrainians in these regions in the 1937 Soviet Census compared to the 1926 First All-Union Census of the Soviet Union; the annual growth rate of the oblast's population is negative. According to a 2012 survey 68.7% of the population of Kursk Oblast adheres to the Russian Orthodox Church. In addition, 24% of the population declares to be "spiritual but not religious", 4% is atheist, 3.3% follows other religions or did not give an answer to the question. Slavic tribes of the Severians inhabited the area. From 830 the Kursk was part of Kievan Rus' states. Although territory of Kursk Oblast had been populated since the end of the last Ice Age, information about the cities was scanty until 1596 when the Kursk stronghold was built, it was part of Grand Duchy of Lithuania under the Jagiellonian dynasty. It was lost in the Muscovite–Lithuanian Wars to the Muscovite Rus'.
A real growth of the area around Kursk began soon after that, with a large migration from Central Russia after famine in the beginning of the 17th century. Between 1708 and 1719, Kursk was a part of the newly created Kiev Governorate. From 1719 to 1727 it was a part of Belgorod province of Kiev Governorate. Kursk uyezd was a part of Belgorod Governorate. On May 23, 1779, Kursk Governorate was established; the latter subdivision existed until 1928, when the territory of Kursk Governorate became a part of Central Black Earth Oblast. As Central Chernozem Oblast was large its administration was difficult, on June 13, 1934 it was divided into two oblasts: Kursk Oblast and Voronezh Oblast. In the period between 1934 and 1954, oblasts' borders were adjusted. However, the area and borders of the oblast have remained stable from 1954. During World War II, the territory of Kursk Oblast was occupied by the German troops from fall of 1941 until summer of 1943; the Battle of Kursk, one of the major battles of World War II, took place in the region between Jul
The Mari El Republic is a federal subject of Russia. It is geographically located in the European Russia region of the country, along the northern bank of the Volga River, is administratively part of the Volga Federal District; the Mari El Republic has a population of 696,459. Yoshkar-Ola is the largest city of the Republic. Mari El is one of Russia's ethnic republics representing the indigenous Mari people, a Finno-Ugric ethnic group who have traditionally lived along the Volga River and Kama River; the majority of the Republic's population are ethnic Russians and Mari, with minority populations of Tatars and Chuvash. The official languages of Mari El are the Mari language. Mari El is bordered by Nizhny Novgorod Oblast to the west, Kirov Oblast to the north, Tatarstan to the east, Chuvashia to the south; the Republic is located in the eastern part of the East European Plain of Russia, along and to the north of the Volga River. The swampy Mari Depression is in the west of the Republic, contrasted by more hilly landscapes in the east where the highest point of the Republic is located.
The Republic borders with Kirov Oblast in the north and east, the Republic of Tatarstan in the southeast and south, the Chuvash Republic in the south, with Nizhny Novgorod Oblast in the west and north. There are 476 rivers in the Republic, with the Volga and its tributaries being the major water arteries. Most rivers are considered to be minor—10–50 meters wide and 0.5–1.4 meters deep—and freeze between mid-November and mid-April. There are over ponds. Lake Yalchik, occupying 150 hectares, is the largest by area, while Lake Tabashinskoye is the deepest. Swamps cover large areas—10–70 square kilometers and up to 100 square kilometers —and freeze in December. While swamps tend to be shallow, with an average depth of 0.5–1.5 meters, they are impassable in fall and spring due to flooding. Climate is moderately continental, with moderately cold and snowy winters and warm and rainy summers; the average temperatures range from 18–20 °C in summer to −18 – −20 °C in winter. November is the windiest month of the year.
Annual precipitation varies from 450 to 500 millimeters. There are no natural resources of industrial significance in the Republic. Other resources include peat, mineral waters, limestone. About 50% of the Republic's territory is forested, although the level of forestation varies from one district to another. Ancient Mari tribes were known since the 5th century, though archaeologists suspect that the Mari culture is much older in its roots, their area was a tributary of Volga Bulgaria and the Golden Horde. In the 1440s it was incorporated into the Khanate of Kazan and was occupied by the Tsardom of Russia after the fall of Kazan in 1552. After the Russian Revolution, under the Bolshevik regime, the Mari Autonomous Oblast was established on November 4, 1920, it was re-organized into the Mari ASSR on December 5, 1936, at the same time as the enactment of the 1936 Soviet Constitution. In its present form, the Mari El Republic was formed on December 22, 1990; the head of government in the Mari El Republic is the Head.
As of 2017, the Head is Alexander Yevstifeyev, appointed in April 2017. The government of Mari El has been pursuing Russification in recent years, with the former head of the republic, Leonid Markelov, ordering many Mari language newspapers to close. Many ethnic Mari activists live in fear of violence; the Mari activist and chief editor Vladimir Kozlov was badly beaten after he criticized Markelov's government. Other Mari leaders have been subject to violence, legal persecution, intimidation; the Mari people's native religion has encountered hostility as well. Vitaly Tanakov was charged with inciting religious, national and linguistic hatred after publishing the book The Priest Speaks; the International Helsinki Federation for Human Rights and the Moscow Helsinki Group,in an exhaustive 2006 report Russian Federation: The Human Rights Situation of the Mari Minority of the Republic of Mari El, found widespread evidence of political and cultural persecution of Mari people, of "a broader trend of repression of dissidents in the republic".
Population: 696,459 . Source: Russian Federal State Statistics ServiceNote: Total fertility rate source. Though the Mari people have lived in the area for millennia, they did not have a designated territory before the Russian Revolution of 1917. According to the 2002 Census, only 51.7% of the Mari within Russia live in the Mari El Republic, while 17.5% live in the Republic of Bashkortostan. During the last Soviet Census, 4% of the Mari of the Soviet Union lived outside of Russia. Since World War II, more ethnic Russians and Tatars have moved into the area. According to the 2010 Census, Russians make up 47.4% of the republic's population, while the ethnic Mari make up 43.9%. Other groups include Tatars, Ukrainians, a host of smaller groups, each accounting for less than 0.5% of the total population. The religions with the most adherents in the republic are Russian Orthodoxy, the Mari native religion, the Old Believers, Islam; the traditional Mari religio
Tambov Oblast is a federal subject of Russia. Its administrative center is the city of Tambov; as of the 2010 Census, its population was 1,091,994. Tambov Oblast is situated in forest steppe, it borders on the Ryazan, Saratov and Lipetsk Oblasts. The oldest known population of the Tambov region, the Mordovians-Moksha, formed as a nation of local ethnic groups from the 6th century BCE; the first Russian settlers arrived in the pre-Mongol period, but the final settlement occurred in the 17th century. To protect the southern borders of Russia from the raids of the Tatars and the further development of the Black Soil region, the Russian government built the walled cities of Kozlov and Tambov; the cities protected the main path of nomad raids on Russian land and paved the way for a quick settlement of the region. Kozlovsky Uyezd existed in the Tambov area. In the course of the administrative reforms of Peter the Great in 1708 and 1719, it became part of Azov Governorate. New administrative divisions established the Tambov Viceroyalty in 1779 and from 1796 Tambov Governorate, with an area of 66.5 thousand km2 divided into 12 uyezds.
With no change to its boundaries, the Governorate remained in existence until 1928. An attempt to establish Soviet control over the Tambov area led to the defeat and execution of "Red Sonya" in the spring of 1918. During the Russian Civil War an anti-Bolshevik uprising, the Tambov Rebellion, broke out in Tambov Governorate in 1920–1921. Tambov Oblast was created from the Voronezh and Samara Oblasts on September 27, 1937; the oblast attained its present form after the separation of Penza Oblast on February 4, 1939. Population: 1,091,994 . 2012Births: 10,394 Deaths: 17,386 Total fertility rate2009: 1.31 2010: 1.34 2011: 1.33 2012: 1.42 2013: 1.42 2014: 1.49 2015: 1.51 2016: 1.49Ethnic composition Russians: 97% Ukrainians: 0.7% Armenians: 0.4% Romani people: 0.4% Others: 1.5% 22,708 people were registered from administrative databases, could not declare an ethnicity. It is estimated that the proportion of ethnicities in this group is the same as that of the declared group. According to a 2012 survey, 78.4% of the population of Tambov Oblast adheres to the Russian Orthodox Church, making it the federal subject with the highest percentage of this religion in the whole country.
In addition, 1% are unaffiliated generic Christians, 7% of the population declares to be "spiritual but not religious", 10% is atheist, 3.6% follows other religions or did not give an answer to the question. Southeastern Railway passes through Michurinsk and connects the central regions with the southern regions. Breeding cattle, sheep and chicken is a product of animal husbandry. List of Chairmen of the Tambov Oblast Duma Тамбовская областная Дума. Закон №27-З от 24 мая 2002 г. «О гимне Тамбовской области», в ред. Закона №378-З от 10 февраля 2014 г. «О внесении изменений в отдельные законодательные акты Тамбовской области по вопросам использования официальных символов Тамбовской области». Вступил в силу со дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Тамбовская жизнь", №115, 15 июня 2002 г.. Тамбовская областная Дума. Постановление №84 от 30 ноября 1994 г. «Устав Тамбовской области Российской Федерации», в ред. Закона №591-З от 7 декабря 2015 г. «О внесении поправок к Уставу Тамбовской области Российской Федерации».
Вступил в силу со дня официального опубликования в областной газете "Тамбовская жизнь". Опубликован: "Тамбовская жизнь", №233, 6 декабря 1994 г.. Official website of Tambov Oblast Photos of Tambov and Tambov Oblast Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Tambov". Encyclopædia Britannica. Cambridge University Press