Oka is a river in central Russia, the largest right tributary of the Volga. It flows through the regions of Oryol, Kaluga, Ryazan and Nizhny Novgorod and is navigable over a large part of its total length, as far upstream as to the town of Kaluga, its length exceeds 1,500 kilometres. The Russian capital Moscow sits on one of the Oka's tributaries—the Moskva River; the Oka river is the homeland of the Eastern Slavic Vyatichi tribe. By 5th century the land around the Oka river was inhabited by different Slavic tribes; the Baltic tribe of Galindians lived in the western part of the Oka basin. Turkic tribes inhabited the Oka area. There is no common opinion. From the Mongol conquest until about 1633, the Oka was the last line of defense against steppe raiders; the river gave its name to the Upper Oka Principalities, situated upstream from Tarusa. In 1221 Grand Duke Yuri II of Vladimir founded Nizhny Novgorod to become one of the largest Russian cities, to protect the Oka's confluence with the Volga; the Qasim Khanate, a Muslim polity, occupied the middle reaches of the Oka in the 15th and 16th centuries.
Before the construction of the railways in the mid-19th century and the building of the Moscow Canal in the 1930s, the Oka, along with its tributary Moskva, served as an important transportation route connecting Moscow with the Volga River. Due to the Oka's and Moskva's meandering courses, travel was not fast: for example, it took Cornelis de Bruijn around 10 days to sail from Moscow down these two rivers to Nizhny Novgorod in 1703. Traveling upstream may have been slower, as the boats had to be pulled by burlaks; the banks of the river are dotted with historical and cultural sites, including the medieval monasteries of Murom, the mosques and minarets of Kasimov, the fortified kremlins of Kolomna and Serpukhov, the memorial houses of Vasily Polenov and Sergey Yesenin, the excavated ruins of Old Ryazan and the Oka Shukhov Tower. The Prioksko-Terrasny Biosphere Reserve lies along the left bank of the river opposite the town of Pushchino and is known for its wisent breeding nursery. Oryol Ugra Zhizdra Upa Protva Nara Moskva Pra Osyotr Pronya Para Moksha Tyosha Klyazma Besputa Oryol Belyov Chekalin Kaluga Aleksin Tarusa Serpukhov Stupino Kashira Protvino Pushchino Kolomna Ryazan Kasimov Murom Pavlovo Navashino Gorbatov Dzerzhinsk Nizhny Novgorod The River appears as the title and main theme in a popular, nostalgia filled song of the Polish 1st Tadeusz Kościuszko Infantry Division, formed nearby in 1943.
The unit fought all the way to Berlin alongside the Red Army. It was written by Leon Pasternak. Oka at GEOnet Names Server Media related to Oka River at Wikimedia Commons
Ugra National Park
Ugra National Park is a national park in central Russia, located in Kaluga Oblast, in the valley of the Ugra River. It was established on 10 February 1997 to protect typical landscapes of Central Russia. In 2002, it was designated a UNESCO biosphere reserve; the headquarters of the national park are located in Kaluga. The total area of the park is 986,245 square kilometres, it consists of seven clusters grouped into three areas, The northern part comprises the valley of the Ugra from the border with Smolensk Oblast downstream to the village of Kurovskoye. This part is split between Dzerzhinsky and Yukhnovsky Districts. Mammals in the park include moose, wild boar, roe deer, Eurasian beaver, muskrat. Russian desman is an endangered species; the rivers in the park are popular for kayaking. The park is located in a historical area with significant number of cultural attractions which include Optina Monastery and the location of the Great stand on the Ugra river which took place in 1480 between the armies of the Grand Duchy of Moscow and the Golden Horde.
Kaluga is a city and the administrative center of Kaluga Oblast, located on the Oka River 150 kilometers southwest of Moscow. Population: 324,698 . Kaluga, founded in the mid-14th century as a border fortress on the southwestern borders of the Grand Duchy of Moscow, first appears in the historical record in chronicles in the 14th century as Koluga. During the period of Tartar raids it was the western end of the Oka bank defense line; the Great stand on the Ugra River was fought just to the west. In the Middle Ages Kaluga was a minor settlement owned by the Princes Vorotynsky; the ancestral home of these princes lies southwest of the modern city. On 19 January 1777 the Kaluga drama theatre opened its first theatrical season, established with the direct participation of the Governor-General M. N. Krechetnikov. Kaluga is connected to Moscow by the ancient roadway, the Kaluga Road; this road offered Napoleon his favored escape route from the Moscow trap in the fall of 1812. But General Kutuzov repelled Napoleon's advances in this direction and forced the retreating French army onto the old Smolensk road devastated by the French during their invasion of Russia.
On several occasions during the Russian Empire Kaluga was the residence of political exiles and prisoners such as the last Crimean khan Şahin Giray, the Kyrgyz sultan Arigazi-Abdul-Aziz, the Georgian princess Thecla, the Avar leader Imam Shamil. Kaluga was occupied by the German army in Operation Barbarossa during the climactic Battle of Moscow, it was occupied from October 12, 1941 to December 30, 1941. In 1944 the Soviet Government used its local military buildings to intern hundreds of Polish POWs—soldiers of the Polish Underground Home Army—whom the advancing Soviet front had arrested by in the Vilno area. Kaluga is the administrative center of the oblast. Within the framework of administrative divisions, it is, together with seventy-two rural localities, incorporated as the City of Kaluga—an administrative unit with the status equal to that of the districts; as a municipal division, the City of Kaluga, together with one rural locality in Ferzikovsky District, is incorporated as Kaluga Urban Okrug.
In Kaluga, Kaluga Turbine Plant is located, is part of the company Power Machines. In recent years Kaluga has become one center of the Russian automotive industry, with a number of foreign companies opening assembly plants in the area: On November 28, 2007, Volkswagen Group opened a new assembly plant in Kaluga, further expanded by 2009; the investment has reached more than 500 million Euro. The plant assembles the Volkswagen Passat, Škoda Fabia and Škoda Rapid. On October 15, 2007, the Volvo Group broke ground on a new truck assembly plant, inaugurated on January 19, 2009; the plant has a yearly capacity of 5,000 Renault trucks. On December 12, 2007, PSA Peugeot Citroën announced its decision to build a new assembly plant in Kaluga. By March 2010 the plant was operational, building Peugeot 308s for the Russian market and would produce Citroën and Mitsubishi models; the city is served by the Grabtsevo Airport. Since 1899, there is a railway connection between Moscow. Public transportation is represented by the trolleybuses and marshrutkas.
Kaluga has a humid temperate continental, with humid summers. Winter extreme records can be as low as −45 °C, while summer heat may reach up +40 °C, but it's about between −5 °C and −20 °C during winter and between 15 °C and 30 °C during summer in Kaluga. Kaluga is known for its most famous resident, Konstantin Tsiolkovsky, a rocket science pioneer who worked here as a school teacher; the Tsiolkovsky State Museum of the History of Cosmonautics in Kaluga is dedicated to his theoretical achievements and their practical implementations for modern space research, hence the motto on the city's coat of arms: "The Cradle of Space Exploration". Other notable people include: Alexander Amfiteatrov Yuri Averbakh Mykola Azarov Pafnuty Chebyshev, mathematician Alexander Chizhevsky David Edelstadt Alexander Gretchaninov, Russian-American composer Jonah of Hankou Andrei Kalaychev Valery Kobelev, ski jumper Mikhail Linge Pavel Popovich, the only person to receive two honorary citizenships of Kaluga Nikolai Rakov Imam Shamil Nikolay Skvortsov, swimmer Yuliya Tabakova Georgy Zhukov Olesya Zykina, 400m athlete Bulat Okudzhava and taught Literature in public school in 1980th.
Serafim Tulikov Kaluga is twinned with: Suhl, Germany.
Upper Oka Principalities
In Russian historiography the term Upper Oka Principalities traditionally applies to about a dozen tiny and ephemeral polities situated along the upper course of the Oka River at the turn of the 14th and 15th centuries. Nowadays, the areas concerned lie within the bounds of the Tula Kaluga Oblast of Russia. Following the Mongol invasion of Russia of 1223-1240, the mighty Principality of Chernigov degenerated to a point where the descendants of Mikhail of Chernigov ruled dozens of quasi-sovereign entities; as the principalities were wedged in between the ever-expanding Grand Duchy of Lithuania to the west and the nascent Grand Duchy of Muscovy to the north, their rulers were constricted to continually fluctuate between these two major powers as buffer states. By the end of the 14th century, they were obliged to pay annual tribute to Lithuania; the strengthening alliance of Lithuanian rulers with Roman Catholic Poland caused shifts in the balance of power in the region. Most Orthodox rulers of the Upper Principalities, started to look to Moscow for protection against Lithuanian expansionism.
Towards the end of the 15th century, most of these princelings had moved to the Muscovite court. In 1494 Lithuania renounced her claims to the region. Belyov - the seat of Princes Belyovsky Novosil and Odoyev - the seats of the Princes Odoyevsky, retained by them as an appanage until the Oprichnina of 1565-1572 Vorotynsk - the seat of Princes Vorotynsky, retained by them as an appanage until the Oprichnina Mosalsk - the seat of Princes Mosalsky Zvenigorod-on-the-Oka - the seat of Princes Zvenigorodsky and Nozdrevaty Karachev - the seat of Princes Khotetovsky Kozelsk and Peremyshl - the seats of Princes Gorchakov Tarusa and Meshchevsk - the seats of Princes Mezetsky with their cadet branches of Teterin, Shcherbatov Boryatino - the seat of Princes Boryatinsky Obolensk - the seat of Princes Obolensky with their cadet branches of Repnin, Dolgorukov, etc. Lubawski M. K. Regional Division and Local Administration in the Lithuanian-Russian State. Moscow, 1892. Bazilewicz K. V. Foreign Affairs of the Russian Centralized State.
Ugra River (Oka)
Ugra is a river in Smolensk and Kaluga Oblasts in Russia, left tributary of the Oka River. The east-flowing Ugra joins the north-flowing Oka at Kaluga and the united river, called the Oka, continues east to the Volga. In the 16th century, the Ugra-Oka juncture was the western end of a line of forts protecting Muscovy from Tatar raids; the river is known for the Great stand on the Ugra River. Its length is its basin 15,700 square kilometres, it is frozen from late November until the end of March. 60% of its annual flow is snowmelt in April. A part of the valley of the Ugra located in Kaluga Oblast belongs to Ugra National Park; the Ugra River: photos
A cloister is a covered walk, open gallery, or open arcade running along the walls of buildings and forming a quadrangle or garth. The attachment of a cloister to a cathedral or church against a warm southern flank indicates that it is part of a monastic foundation, "forming a continuous and solid architectural barrier... that separates the world of the monks from that of the serfs and workmen, whose lives and works went forward outside and around the cloister."Cloistered life is another name for the monastic life of a monk or nun. The English term enclosure is used in contemporary Catholic church law translations to mean cloistered, some form of the Latin parent word "claustrum" is used as a metonymic name for monastery in languages such as German; the early medieval cloister had several antecedents, the peristyle court of the Greco-Roman domus, the atrium and its expanded version that served as forecourt to early Christian basilicas, certain semi-galleried courts attached to the flanks of early Syrian churches.
Walter Horn suggests that the earliest coenobitic communities, which were established in Egypt by Saint Pachomius, did not result in cloister construction, as there were no lay serfs attached to the community of monks, thus no separation within the walled community was required. In the time of Charlemagne the requirements of a separate monastic community within an extended and scattered manorial estate created this "monastery within a monastery" in the form of the locked cloister, an architectural solution allowing the monks to perform their sacred tasks apart from the distractions of laymen and servants. Horn offers as early examples Abbot Gundeland's "Altenmünster" of Lorsch abbey, as revealed in the excavations by Frederich Behn. Another early cloister, that of the abbey of Saint-Riquier, took a triangular shape, with chapels at the corners, in conscious representation of the Trinity. A square cloister sited against the flank of the abbey church was built at Inden and the abbey of St. Wandrille at Fontenelle.
At Fulda, a new cloister was sited to the liturgical west of the church "in the Roman manner" familiar from the forecourt of Old St. Peter's Basilica because it would be closer to the relics. Coomans, Thomas. "Life Inside the Cloister. Understanding Monastic Architecture: Tradition, Adaptive Reuse". Leuven University Press. ISBN 9789462701434. Horn, Walter. "On the Origins of the Medieval Cloister". Gesta. 2: 13–52. Doi:10.2307/766633. JSTOR 766633; the Code of Canon Law, cf canons 667 ff. New Advent Encyclopaedia III ff. on "Nuns, properly so called "Cloister" in the New Advent encyclopaedia New Advent Encyclopaedia on "Religious Life Photos and information on cloisters in France and Spain
A tented roof is a type of polygonal hipped roof with steeply pitched slopes rising to a peak. Tented roofs, a hallmark of medieval religious architecture, were used to cover churches with steep, conical roof structures. In the Queen Anne Victorian style, it took the form of a wooden turret with an octagonal base with steeply pitched slopes rising to a peak topped with a finial. A distinctive local adaptation of this roof style was used in 16th- and 17th-century Russian architecture for churches, although there are examples of this style in other parts of Europe, it took the form of a polygonal spire but differed in purpose in that it was used to roof the main internal space of a church, rather than as an auxiliary structure. The same architectural form is applied to bell towers; the term "tent roof" may be applied in modern architecture to membrane and thin shell structures comprising roofs of modern materials and actual tents. The "tent-like church" is a national type of church, developed in late medieval Russia.
It marks a sharp departure from the traditions of Byzantine architecture which never put emphasis on verticality. Sergey Zagraevsky has argued; this architectural development has been described as a Russian parallel to the Gothic architecture of Western Europe. In this local adaptation of the tent roof it took the form of either: a polygonal roof made of wood, where wood logs are laid both parallel to the sides of the roof, across the corners to form squinches, which makes the roof high and rather pointed. A roof of similar shape, made of stone; the lower sections of such a roof are constructed of a series of roofed small dormers with gables of semi-circular or onion shape. Tented roofs are thought to have originated in the Russian North, as they prevented snow from piling up on wooden buildings during long winters. In wooden churches this type of roof is still popular; the earliest specimen of such a church was transported to an abbey in Vologda. Another notable example is an 18th-century church in Karelia.
The Ascension church of Kolomenskoye, built in 1532 to commemorate the birth of the first Russian Tsar Ivan IV is considered the first tented roof church built in stone. However, Zagraevsky has argued that the earliest use of the stone tented roof was in the Trinity Church in Alexandrov, built in 1510s. Tented roof design has been prone to most unusual interpretations; some scholars, for example, view hipped roofs of this variety as phallic symbols. It's more however, that this type of design symbolised high ambitions of the nascent Russian state and liberation of the Russian art from Byzantine canons after Constantinople's fall to the Turks. Tented churches were exceedingly popular during the reign of Ivan the Terrible. Two prime examples dating from his reign employ several tents of exotic shapes and colours arranged in a complicated design; these are the Church of St. John the Baptist in Kolomenskoye and Saint Basil's Cathedral on the Red Square; the latter church unites nine hipped roofs in a striking circular composition.
In the 17th century tented roofs were placed in a row, sometimes producing astonishing decorative effects. The first instance of this type is the Marvellous Church in Uglich, whose three graceful tents remind one of three burning candles, they became a typical architectural solution for church bell towers. In the Nativity church at Putinki this trend was pushed to its limit, as there are five major and three minor tents used in the construction, it is said that Patriarch Nikon, who passed near Putinki church on his way to the Trinity, considered the monument to be in violation of canonical rules of Byzantine architecture and proscribed building tented churches altogether. During his time at office, many beautiful tented churches were demolished, notably the ones in Staritsa and the Moscow Kremlin. Only in the late 19th century was the ban lifted, the tented roof design was revived in such remarkable monuments as the Church of the Savior on Blood in Saint Petersburg and St. Peter and Paul's Cathedral in Peterhof