Vorticism was a short-lived modernist movement in British art and poetry of the early 20th century inspired by Cubism. The movement was announced in 1914 in the first issue of BLAST, which contained its manifesto and the movement's rejection of landscape and nudes in favour of a geometric style tending towards abstraction, it was their witnessing of unfolding human disaster in World War I that "drained these artists of their Vorticist zeal". Vorticism was international in make-up and ambition; the Vorticism group began with the Rebel Art Centre which Wyndham Lewis and others established after disagreeing with Omega Workshops founder Roger Fry, has roots in the Bloomsbury Group and Futurism. Lewis himself saw Vorticism as an independent alternative to Cubism and Expressionism. Though the style grew out of Cubism, it is more related to Futurism in its embrace of dynamism, the machine age and all things modern. However, Vorticism diverged from Futurism in the way. In a Vorticist painting modern life is shown as an array of bold lines and harsh colours drawing the viewer's eye into the centre of the canvas.

The name Vorticism was given to the movement by Ezra Pound in 1913, although Lewis seen as the central figure in the movement, had been producing paintings in the same style for a year or so previously. The eleven signatories of the Vorticist manifesto were: Richard Aldington Malcolm Arbuthnot Lawrence Atkinson Jessica Dismorr Henri Gaudier-Brzeska Cuthbert Hamilton Wyndham Lewis Ezra Pound William Roberts Helen Saunders Edward WadsworthOther contributors to the development of the movement were David Bomberg, Alvin Langdon Coburn, Jacob Epstein, Frederick Etchells, Christopher Nevinson and Dorothy Shakespear; the Vorticists published two issues of the literary magazine BLAST, edited by Lewis, in June 1914 and July 1915. It contained work by T. S. Eliot as well as by the Vorticists themselves. In the first issue, Ford Madox Ford, writing under his real name, Ford Madox Hueffer, submitted "The Saddest Story", a ten-page excerpt from the beginning of his novel,'The Good Soldier', its typographical adventurousness was cited by El Lissitzky as one of the major forerunners of the revolution in graphic design in the 1920s and 1930s.

Experimental paintings and sculpture using angular simplification and abstraction, by Lewis, Wadsworth and others, were shown at the Rebel Art Centre in 1914, before the formation of the Vorticist Group. This work was contemporary with and comparable to abstraction by European artists such as Wassily Kandinsky, František Kupka and the Russian Rayist Group; the Vorticists held only one exhibition, at the Doré Gallery in London. The main section of the exhibition included work by Jessica Dismorr, Frederick Etchells, Gaudier-Brzeska, William Roberts, Helen Saunders and Edward Wadsworth. There was a smaller section area titled "Those Invited To Show". Jacob Epstein was notably not represented, although did have his drawings reproduced in BLAST. After this, the movement broke up due to the onset of World War I and public apathy towards the work. Gaudier-Brzeska was killed in military service, while leading figures such as Epstein distanced themselves stylistically from Lewis. A brief attempt by Lewis to revive the movement in 1920 under the name Group X proved unsuccessful.

Pound, through his correspondence with Lewis, was understood to hold a commitment to the goals of the movement as much as forty years after its demise. While Lewis is seen as the central figure in the movement, it has been suggested that this was more due to his contacts and ability as a self-publicist and polemicist than the quality of his works. A 1956 exhibition at the Tate Gallery was called Wyndham Lewis and Vorticism, highlighting his prominent place in the movement; this angered other members of the group. Bomberg and Roberts both protested the assertion of Lewis, printed in the exhibition catalogue: "Vorticism, in fact, was what I did, said, at a certain period." The Vorticists: Rebel Artists in London and New York, 1914–18, Nasher Museum of Art at Duke University, 30 September 2010 – 2 January 2011 The Vorticists: Rebel Artists in London and New York 1914–18, Peggy Guggenheim Collection, 29 January – 15 May 2011 Vorticists: Manifesto for a Modern World, Tate Britain, 14 June – 4 September 2011 Grosvenor School Modernism Monad Antcliffe and Green, Vivien.

The Vorticists. Tate Publishing, 2010. Cork, Richard. Vorticism and Abstract Art in the First Machine Age. University of California Press, 1976. ISBN 0-520-03154-7 & ISBN 0-520-03269-1. Gott, Laurie Benson, Sophie Matthiesson et al, Modern Britain 1900 - 1960: Masterworks from Australian and New Zealand Collections, Exhibition Catalogue, 2007 National Gallery of Victoria, Melbourne. ISBN 9780724102921 Haycock, David Boyd. A Crisis of Brilliance: Five Young British Artists and the Great War. Old Street Publishing, 2009. Pound, Ezra. "Vorticism" in Fortnightly Review 96, no. 573:461–471, 1914. Workshop, a Vorticist painting circa 1914–15 by Wyndham Lewis, information about Vorticism Ezra Pound's 1914 Vorticism essay in The Fortnightly Review Ezra Pound: Vorticism, Wyndham Lewis exhibition at the National Portrait Gallery, London, 3 July – 19 October 2008 Tate glossary A review of the 2011 Vorticism exhibit at the Tate Britain by Prof. Andrew Thacker

Klip River

The Klip River is the main river draining the portion of Johannesburg south of the Witwatersrand, its basin includes the Johannesburg CBD and Soweto. The mouth of the river is at Vereeniging where it empties into the Vaal River, a tributary to the Orange River. Besides Vereeniging, other towns along the river include Henley on Meyerton; the Kidson Weir is a weir located in the village of Henley on Klip on the Klip river in South Africa, was named after Fenning Kidson, the grandson of an 1820 settler. Fenning was educated in England, but returned to South Africa as a young man and became a transport rider, a contemporary of Sir Percy Fitzpatrick. Soon after the outbreak of the Anglo Boer War, news came to Kidson that a commando was on his way to his farm to arrest him. Under the noses of the Boers he escaped, riding sidesaddle, his burly frame crammed into his wife’s riding habit, he made his way to Natal, but returned to the Transvaal after the war, settling in Henley on Klip with his wife, Edith.

The family home was named Tilham, the manor house on the river at the corner of Regatta and Shillingford Roads. In December 2010, the village of Henley on Klip experienced heavy floods, after which, it was decided to do some work on improving the weir. In January 2012 work has started on the repairs to the pipes on the western side of the weir. In March 2012 plans were being drawn up to build a new bridge across the weir. List of rivers of South Africa Jukskei River HENLEY-ON-KLIP HENLEY-ON-KLIP Community pages - Henley on Klip Media related to Klip River, Gauteng at Wikimedia Commons


Carignano is a comune in the Metropolitan City of Turin in the Italian region Piedmont, located about 20 kilometres south of Turin. Carignano borders the following municipalities: Moncalieri, Vinovo, La Loggia, Piobesi Torinese, Castagnole Piemonte, Osasio and Carmagnola; the Sanctuary of Valinotto, a masterwork by the architect Bernardo Vittone, lies within the territory of the town. Carignane Media related to Carignano at Wikimedia Commons "Carignano". Encyclopædia Britannica. 5. 1911. Official website