Wärtsilä Oyj Abp is a Finnish corporation which manufactures and services power sources and other equipment in the marine and energy markets. The core products of Wärtsilä include technologies for the energy sector, including gas, multi-fuel, liquid fuel and biofuel power plants and energy storage systems. Ship design capabilities include ferries and vessels for the fishing, merchant and special segments. Services offerings include online services, underwater services, turbocharger services, solutions for the marine and oil and gas markets. At the end of June 2018, the company employed more than 19,000 workers. Wärtsilä has three main businesses. Wärtsilä operates globally; the company has signaled its intention to transform from an equipment maker, to a Smart Marine and Smart Energy company, following acquisitions of companies such as Transas, Guidance Marine, MSI, the setting up of Digital Acceleration Centres in Helsinki, Central Europe, North America. The company services the merchant, offshore and ferry, fishing, tugs and special vessel markets, the offering includes ship design and auxiliary engines, auxiliary power systems and automation packages, seals, gears, scrubbers and all related services, such as repair, upgrading, training and environmental services.
Customers comprise both shipyards and ship owners. The environmental products range from reduction of air emissions, such as NOx, SOx, CO, volatile organic compounds, to oily waste water treatment and other water solutions such as ballast water management systems. In November 2017, the company introduced its Smart Marine Ecosystem vision, with the promise of delivering value and optimisation for customers through the use of connectivity and digitalisation. Wärtsilä Marine was an important Finnish shipbuilder from 1935 until 1989, building cruiseferries, cruise ships and a large share of the icebreakers of the world; the former Wärtsilä Marine Turku Shipyard is now owned by Meyer Werft under its Meyer Turku subsidiary and the Helsinki shipyard is operated by Arctech. Wärtsilä is a provider of power plants in distributed and flexible power generation; the product portfolio consists of installations up to 600 MW, running on any gaseous or liquid fuels, such as Heavy fuel oil, natural gas, liquefied natural gas, different types and qualities of fuel oils, renewable fuels like biogas and biofuel.
In addition for the reliability of traditional base power generation, the engines have the capability to start and stop and they maintain their efficiency in part load, which makes them well suited for peaking power production, smart grids, emergency power systems. They can utilize the combined cycle and cogeneration to produce steam or hot water for heating, trigeneration for chilled water, which can be used for air conditioning. Wärtsilä provides products and services for grid stability management, utilization of gas flares, pumping applications, financial services, project management services for projects concerning power generation. In May 2017, Wärtsilä signed an agreement to acquire Greensmith Energy Management Systems Inc. In March 2018, the company announced that it had delivered the world's largest solar hybrid power plant], situated in Burkina Faso. Wärtsilä provides about 25 percent of Bangladesh's total grid capacity, with the company's total power supply to Bangladesh rising to more than 4200 MW when a 105MW power plant being built by Baraka Shikalbaha Power Ltd goes operational in spring 2019.
Wärtsilä's wide energy solutions and systems footprint includes the USA, the UK, Russia, Bangladesh, Indonesia, Senegal, the Dominican Republic, Saudi Arabia, Morocco, Sierra Leone, Finland, Rwanda, Honduras, El Salvador, Mexico and Oman. The wholly owned service network consist of over 4,500 field services professionals in more than 160 locations in over 70 countries globally, with the installed base of over 180 000 MW; the focus lies on optimising operations and life cycle performance of land based power plants and ship installations. Wärtsilä provides services, spare parts, maintenance and fuel conversions solutions for medium and low-speed gas and diesel engines and other related systems, propulsion systems, electrical & automation systems, boilers including environmental solutions regarding particulates and NOx, covering scrubber, selective catalytic reduction, oxidation catalysts, ballast water treatment systems and oily-water systems, long-term service agreements, condition monitoring, condition-based maintenance and advisory services.
In January 2017, Wärtsilä and Carnival Corporation announced a 12-year performance-based agreement worth 900 million euros. Acquisitions in the Services business include Eniram in 2016, Trident B. V in 2017, Lock-N-Stich. At the end of 2017, Wärtsilä’s market share in marine medium-speed main engines was 47% and in auxiliary engines 10%. Wärtsilä’s market share for gas and liquid fuel power plants was 19%. Wärtsilä’s biggest competitors in the marine market are MAN Diesel & Turbo, Caterpillar Inc. and Rolls-Royce plc. and in the energy market the biggest com
A cruise ship is a passenger ship used for pleasure voyages when the voyage itself, the ship's amenities, sometimes the different destinations along the way, form part of the passengers' experience. Transportation is not the only purpose of cruising on cruises that return passengers to their originating port. On "cruises to nowhere" or "nowhere voyages", cruise ships make 2-to-3 night round trips without any ports of call. In contrast, dedicated transport-oriented ocean liners do "line voyages" and transport passengers from one point to another, rather than on round trips. Traditionally, shipping lines build liners for the transoceanic trade to a higher standard than that of a typical cruise ship, including higher freeboard and stronger plating to withstand rough seas and adverse conditions encountered in the open ocean, such as the North Atlantic. Ocean liners usually have larger capacities for fuel and other stores for consumption on long voyages, compared to dedicated cruise-ships, but few ocean liners remain in existence—note the preserved liners and Queen Mary 2, which make scheduled North Atlantic voyages.
Although luxurious, ocean liners had characteristics that made them unsuitable for cruising, such as high fuel-consumption, deep draughts that prevented their entering shallow ports, enclosed weatherproof decks inappropriate for tropical weather, cabins designed to maximize passenger numbers rather than comfort. The gradual evolution of passenger-ship design from ocean liners to cruise ships has seen passenger cabins shifted from inside the hull to the superstructure and provided with private verandas. Modern cruise ships, while sacrificing some qualities of seaworthiness, have added amenities to cater to water tourists, recent vessels have been described as "balcony-laden floating condominiums"; the distinction between ocean liners and cruise ships has blurred with respect to deployment, although differences in construction remain. Larger cruise ships have engaged in longer trips, such as transoceanic voyages which may not return to the same port for months; some former ocean liners operate as cruise ships, such as Marco Polo, although this number is diminishing.
The only dedicated transatlantic ocean liner in operation as a liner as of December 2013 is Queen Mary 2 of the Cunard Line. She has the amenities of contemporary cruise ships and sees significant service on cruisesCruising has become a major part of the tourism industry, accounting for U. S.$29.4 billion, with over 19 million passengers carried worldwide as of 2011.. The industry's rapid growth has seen nine or more newly built ships catering to a North American clientele added every year since 2001, as well as others servicing European clientele. Smaller markets, such as the Asia-Pacific region, are serviced by older ships; these are displaced by new ships in the high-growth areas. As of 2019 the world's largest cruise-ship was Royal Caribbean International's Symphony of the Seas along with its three sister ships Harmony of the Seas, Allure of the Seas, Oasis of the Seas which round out the top 4 largest cruise liners in the world; the birth of leisure cruising began with the formation of the Peninsular & Oriental Steam Navigation Company in 1822.
The company started out as a shipping line with routes between England and the Iberian Peninsula, adopting the name Peninsular Steam Navigation Company. It won its first contract to deliver mail in 1837. In 1840, it began mail delivery to Alexandria, via Gibraltar and Malta; the company was incorporated by Royal Charter the same year, becoming the Peninsular and Oriental Steam Navigation Company. P&O first introduced passenger cruising services in 1844, advertising sea tours to destinations such as Gibraltar and Athens, sailing from Southampton; the forerunner of modern cruise holidays, these voyages were the first of their kind, P&O Cruises has been recognised as the world's oldest cruise line. The company introduced round trips to destinations such as Alexandria and Constantinople, it underwent a period of rapid expansion in the latter half of the 19th century, commissioning larger and more luxurious ships to serve the expanding market. Notable ships of the era include the SS Ravenna built in 1880, which became the first ship to be built with a total steel superstructure, the SS Valetta built in 1889, the first ship to use electric lights.
Some sources mention Francesco I, flying the flag of the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies, as the first cruise ship. She was built in 1831 and sailed from Naples in early June 1833, preceded by an advertising campaign; the cruise ship was boarded by nobles and royal princes from all over Europe. In just over three months, the ship sailed to Taormina, Syracuse, Corfu, Delphi, Athens, Constantinople, delighting passengers with excursions and guided tours, card tables on the deck and parties on board. However, it was not a commercial endeavour; the cruise of the German ship Augusta Victoria in the Mediterranean and the Near East from 22 January to 22 March 1891, with 241 passengers including Albert Ballin and wife, popularized the cruise to a wider market. Christian Wilhelm Allers published an illustrated account of it as Backschisch; the first vessel built for luxury cruising, was Prinzessin Victoria Luise of Germany, designed by Albert Ballin, general manager of Hamburg-America Line. The ship was completed in 1900.
The practice of luxury cruising made steady inroads on the more established market for transatlantic crossings. In the competition fo
Royal Caribbean International
Royal Caribbean International known by its former name Royal Caribbean Cruise Line, is a cruise line brand founded in 1968 in Norway and organised as a wholly owned subsidiary of Royal Caribbean Cruises Ltd. since 1997. Based in Miami, United States, it is one of the largest cruise lines in the world. In 2018, Royal Caribbean International controlled 19.2% of the worldwide cruise market by passengers and 14.0% by revenue. It operates many of the world's largest ships. Royal Caribbean Cruise Line was founded in 1968 by three Norwegian shipping companies: Anders Wilhelmsen & Company, I. M. Skaugen & Company, Gotaas Larsen; the newly created line put the Song of Norway, into service two years later. A year the line added the Nordic Prince to the fleet and in 1972 it added the Sun Viking. In 1978, Song of Norway became Royal Caribbean's first passenger ship to be lengthened; this was accomplished via the insertion of an 85-foot section to the vessel's severed center. Following the success of this work, Nordic Prince was stretched in 1980.
During the stretching on both ships, their sterns were modified. However the Sun Viking remained the same size and shape. Royal Caribbean received widespread global recognition when in 1982 it launched the Song of America, over twice the size of Sun Viking and at the time the third largest passenger vessel afloat. In 1986, Royal Caribbean leased a coastal property in Labadie, Haiti to be used as a private destination for its guests, renamed as Labadee. After a corporate restructuring in 1988, the line launched Sovereign of the Seas, the largest passenger vessel afloat at the time; that same year, Royal Caribbean merged with Admiral Cruises. Two years in 1990, Nordic Empress and Viking Serenade entered service, while Royal Caribbean purchased a second private destination, Little Stirrup Cay, an island in the Bahamas, which they branded as CocoCay; the second and third Sovereign-class cruise ships Monarch of the Seas and Majesty of the Seas were delivered in 1991 and 1992 respectively. Royal Caribbean went public on the New York Stock Exchange in 1993.
Over the next two years, the company experienced rapid growth, it built a new corporate headquarters in Miami and replaced the Nordic Prince with a new vessel, the Legend of the Seas. Following these events, two new Vision-class vessels entered service, the Splendour of the Seas and Grandeur of the Seas. In 1996, the company contracted with Finland's Aker Finnyards for the construction of 130,000-ton vessels and, in 1997, the line's oldest ship, Song of Norway, was sold and two new Vision-class ships entered service, Rhapsody of the Seas and Enchantment of the Seas. In 1997, it merged with the Greek cruise line Celebrity Cruises and changed its name from Royal Caribbean Cruise Line to Royal Caribbean International; the next year marked a transition to a more "strictly modern line", when the last of the company's older vessels, Song of America and Sun Viking, were retired. In 1998, Vision of the Seas came into the last of the Vision-class ships. In 1999, the Voyager of the Seas, the line's newest and world's largest cruise ship entered service with much attention from the news media.
Two years the line took delivery of a second Voyager-class ship, Explorer of the Seas, the first of a new Radiance class of more environmentally friendly cruise liners, Radiance of the Seas. In 2000, Royal Caribbean operated a series of land-and-sea-based "cruise tours" in Alaska, featuring glass-domed train cars to scenic destinations within the state and Canada. Over the next two years, they introduced cruise tours to destinations throughout Europe; the Voyager-class Navigator of the Seas and the Radiance-class Brilliance of the Seas were put into service in 2002. Mariner of the Seas and Serenade of the Seas, another pair of Voyager and Radiance-class ships, were introduced the next year, rock-climbing walls were made a feature of every Royal Caribbean ship that year. A fourth Radiance-class ship, Jewel of the Seas, followed in 2004, the line's Nordic Empress was reconditioned and re-christened as Empress of the Seas, sold to Pullmantur Cruises in 2008. In 2005, Enchantment of the Seas underwent a massive renovation including enlarging the ship with a 74-foot midsection.
Construction commenced on Freedom of the Seas, the line's newest ship, at Aker Finnyards in 2005, the vessel launched the next year as the largest passenger vessel in the world. Freedom of the Seas's sister ship, Liberty of the Seas, was launched in 2007, Independence of the Seas was delivered in 2008. An larger class, the Oasis class, featuring Oasis of the Seas and Allure of the Seas, was launched in 2009 and 2010, guaranteeing Royal Caribbean the ship size lead for years to come. In December 2012, Royal Caribbean announced that they had ordered a third Oasis-class cruise ship from STX France, which would be larger than the previous ships in the class. In March 2014 Royal Caribbean announced that they had ordered a fourth Oasis-Class ship from STX France. In February 2013, Royal Caribbean announced the first two ships of their newest Quantum class, Quantum of the Seas and Anthem of the Seas, which were being built at the Meyer Werft shipyard. In May of that year, Royal Caribbean announced that they had signed a contract for a third Quantum-class ship for delivery in mid-2016.
In September 2014, Royal Caribbean announced that the third Quantum-class ship would be named Ovation of the Seas, in February 2015 they announced that the third Oasis-class ship would be named Harmony of the Seas. In Ma
Navigator of the Seas
Navigator of the Seas is the fourth Voyager-class cruise ship operated by Royal Caribbean International, the first second-generation Voyager-class ship. She was once the largest ship in the fleet and still ranks among the largest passenger ships in the world. Constructed at Kværner Masa-Yards Turku New Shipyard, the ship measured 138,279 gross tons and carried 3,807 passengers plus additional crew. A refurbishment in 2014 added 81 additional staterooms, increasing the ship's tonnage to 139,570 GT, her length is 1,020 feet with a breadth of 157.5 feet. The ship contains US $8.5 million in art, displayed in public areas. Navigator of the Seas' main Atrium sculpture spans over seven decks and is based on the bubbles a scuba diver makes when swimming under water, her promenade features lighting that changes color based on the time of day and with events occurring on the ship. Navigator of the Seas is the first of the second generation of Voyager-class vessels, she was from 2002 to 2005 the world's largest cruise ship.
Navigator of the Seas is scheduled to undergo the next dry dock in January 2019. The ship has a diesel-electric powertrain; each propeller is driven by a double-wound 3-phase synchronous motor with 4-bladed fixed-pitch bronze propellers. The motors are mounted outside the hull directly on the propeller shaft inside the pod; the three propellers are arranged so that the center propeller is a pushing on–azimuthing Fixipod-type and the two wing ones are of pulling-azimuthing–type steering propellers. Motors: three 14,000 kW at 145 rpm each Total: 42,000 kW Stabilizers: 4 ACH stabiliser fins Bow Thrusters: 4 KAMEWA 3000 kW each Maximum speed: 24 knots Fuel consumption at full speed: 10,637 kg/h Six Wärtsilä Diesel 12V46 generators producing 12,600 kilowatts each for a total of 75,000 kilowatts or 103,000 bhp. All gensets are monitored by the Wärtsilä CBM group by using Wärtsilä automatic data sending concept; the ship has three ways in which to produce fresh water—Two Alfa Laval Desalt Flash and Energy Recovery Evaporators and one Pall Rochem seawater desalination unit "Rosmarin" 80404-50/300-A-SW Steam evaporator: 230,000 gallons per day Seawater desalination unit: 80,000 gal per day Total freshwater production: 540,000 gal per day Water consumption: 58 U.
S. gallons per person per day Ice cube production: 65,000 lb per day The ship was christened in a ceremony by its godmother, German former tennis player Steffi Graf. As of November 2014 Navigator of the Seas was sailing Caribbean itineraries year-round out of Galveston, TX. Navigator of the Seas was sailing Mediterranean cruises based out of Civitavecchia, Italy until November 2012. In November 2012, she began to depart from New Orleans, Louisiana where she sailed 7-night Western Caribbean cruises until early April 2013, she returned to Civitavecchia for the Summer of 2013 before moving to Galveston, TX to sail 7-night Mexico cruises. In January 2014, Navigator of the Seas was modified while dry docked, this included increasing the number of cabins by removing some of the public facilities and adding a Wave Loch FlowRider surfing simulator, an outdoor movie screen and two new lounges. In November 2015, after two seasons sailing from Galveston, Navigator of the Seas began sailing winter itineraries out of Port Everglades in Fort Lauderdale, where she sailed 6- and 8-night Eastern and Western Caribbean itineraries, summer itineraries out of Southampton, where she sails to the Mediterranean and Northern Europe.
From November 2016, Navigator of the Seas will transition to sailing her winter itineraries out of Miami, Florida. In December of 2018, Navigator entered Dry Dock at the Grand Bahama Shipyard for a multi million dollar renovation that added water slides, new restaurants, a new pool deck, new cabins, more; as of March of 2019, Navigator is now sailing Royal Caribbean’s 3 and 4 night itineraries in the Bahamas out of Miami. Official website Navigator of the Seas Images & Info
An azimuth thruster is a configuration of marine propellers placed in pods that can be rotated to any horizontal angle, making a rudder unnecessary. These give ships better maneuverability than a fixed rudder system. There are two major variants, based on the location of the motor: Mechanical transmission, which connects a motor inside the ship to the outboard unit by gearing; the motor may be diesel-electric. Depending on the shaft arrangement, mechanical azimuth thrusters are divided into L-drive and Z-drive. An L-drive thruster has a vertical input shaft and a horizontal output shaft with one right-angle gear. A Z-drive thruster has a horizontal input shaft, a vertical shaft in the rotating column and a horizontal output shaft, with two right-angle gears. Electrical transmission, more called pods, where an electric motor is fitted in the pod itself, connected directly to the propeller without gears; the electricity is produced by an onboard engine diesel or gas turbine. Invented in 1955 by Friedrich W. Pleuger and Friedrich Busmann, ABB Group's Azipod was the first product using this technology.
The most powerful podded thrusters in use are the four 21.5 MW Rolls-Royce Mermaid units fitted to Queen Mary 2. Mechanical azimuth thrusters can be fixed retractable or underwater-mountable, they may have fixed pitch propellers or controllable pitch propellers. Fixed installed thrusters are used for tugboats and supply-boats. Retractable thrusters are used as auxiliary propulsion for dynamically positioned vessels and take-home propulsion for military vessels. Underwater-mountable thrusters are used as dynamic positioning propulsion for large vessels such as semi-submersible drilling rigs and drillships. Primary advantages are maneuverability, electrical efficiency, better use of ship space, lower maintenance costs. Ships with azimuth thrusters do not need tugboats to dock, though they may still require tugs to maneuver in difficult places. English inventor Francis Ronalds described what he called a “Propelling Rudder” in 1859 that combined the propulsion and steering mechanisms of a boat in a single apparatus.
The propeller was placed in a frame having an outer profile similar to a rudder and attached to a vertical shaft that allowed the device to rotate in plane while spin was transmitted to the propeller. The modern azimuth thruster using the Z-drive transmission was invented in 1950 by Joseph Becker, the founder of Schottel in Germany, marketed as the Ruderpropeller. Becker was awarded the 2004 Elmer A. Sperry Award for the invention; this kind of propulsion was first patented in 1955 by Pleuger. In the late 1980s, ABB Group developed the Azipod thruster with the motor located in the pod itself. Pleuger rudder Voith-Schneider Saildrive Z-drive Voith Turbo Marine, Voith Radial Propeller Rolls-Royce plc, including videos of operation Azimuth Thrusters Types and Configurations, Thrustmaster Flowserve Thruster - promotional video showing L-drive type azimuth thruster operation
Electric power is the rate, per unit time, at which electrical energy is transferred by an electric circuit. The SI unit of power is one joule per second. Electric power is produced by electric generators, but can be supplied by sources such as electric batteries, it is supplied to businesses and homes by the electric power industry through an electric power grid. Electric power is sold by the kilowatt hour, the product of the power in kilowatts multiplied by running time in hours. Electric utilities measure power using an electricity meter, which keeps a running total of the electric energy delivered to a customer. Electrical power provides a low entropy form of energy and can be carried long distances and converted into other forms of energy such as motion, light or heat with high energy efficiency. Electric power, like mechanical power, is the rate of doing work, measured in watts, represented by the letter P; the term wattage is used colloquially to mean "electric power in watts." The electric power in watts produced by an electric current I consisting of a charge of Q coulombs every t seconds passing through an electric potential difference of V is P = work done per unit time = V Q t = V I where Q is electric charge in coulombs t is time in seconds I is electric current in amperes V is electric potential or voltage in volts Electric power is transformed to other forms of energy when electric charges move through an electric potential difference, which occurs in electrical components in electric circuits.
From the standpoint of electric power, components in an electric circuit can be divided into two categories: Passive devices or loads: When electric charges move through a potential difference from a higher to a lower voltage, when conventional current moves from the positive terminal to the negative terminal, work is done by the charges on the device. The potential energy of the charges due to the voltage between the terminals is converted to kinetic energy in the device; these devices are called passive loads. Examples are electrical appliances, such as light bulbs, electric motors, electric heaters. In alternating current circuits the direction of the voltage periodically reverses, but the current always flows from the higher potential to the lower potential side. Active devices or power sources: If the charges are moved by an'exterior force' through the device in the direction from the lower electric potential to the higher, work will be done on the charges, energy is being converted to electric potential energy from some other type of energy, such as mechanical energy or chemical energy.
Devices in which this occurs are called active devices or power sources. Some devices can current through them. For example, a rechargeable battery acts as a source when it provides power to a circuit, but as a load when it is connected to a battery charger and is being recharged, or a generator as a power source and a motor as a load. Since electric power can flow either into or out of a component, a convention is needed for which direction represents positive power flow. Electric power flowing out of a circuit into a component is arbitrarily defined to have a positive sign, while power flowing into a circuit from a component is defined to have a negative sign, thus passive components have positive power consumption, while power sources have negative power consumption. This is called the passive sign convention. In the case of resistive loads, Joule's law can be combined with Ohm's law to produce alternative expressions for the amount of power, dissipated: P = I V = I 2 R = V 2 R, where R is the electrical resistance.
In alternating current circuits, energy storage elements such as inductance and capacitance may result in periodic reversals of the direction of energy flow. The portion of power flow that, averaged over a complete cycle of the AC waveform, results in net transfer of energy in one direction is known as real power; that portion of power flow due to stored energy, that returns to the source in each cycle, is known as reactive power. The real power P in watts consumed by a device is given by P = 1 2 V p I p cos θ = V r m s I r m s cos θ where Vp is the peak voltage in volts Ip is the peak current in amperes Vrms is the root-mean-square voltage in volts Irms is the root-mean-square current in amperes θ is the phase angle between the current and voltage sine waves The relationship between real power, reactive power and apparent power can be expressed by representing the quantities as vectors. Real power is represented as a horizontal vector and reactive power is represented as a vertical vector.
The apparent power vector is the hypotenuse o