Voyager 1 is a space probe, launched by NASA on September 5, 1977. Part of the Voyager program to study the outer Solar System, Voyager 1 was launched 16 days after its twin, Voyager 2. Having operated for 42 years, 5 months and 23 days as of February 29, 2020, the spacecraft still communicates with the Deep Space Network to receive routine commands and to transmit data to Earth. Real-time distance and velocity data is provided by NASA and JPL. At a distance of 148.61 AU from Earth as of February 28, 2020, it is the most distant man-made object from Earth. The probe's objectives included flybys of Jupiter and Saturn's largest moon, Titan. Although the spacecraft's course could have been altered to include a Pluto encounter by forgoing the Titan flyby, exploration of the moon took priority because it was known to have a substantial atmosphere. Voyager 1 studied the weather, magnetic fields, rings of the two planets and was the first probe to provide detailed images of their moons. After completing its primary mission with the flyby of Saturn on November 12, 1980, Voyager 1 became the third of five artificial objects to achieve the escape velocity required to leave the Solar System.
On August 25, 2012, Voyager 1 became the first spacecraft to cross the heliopause and enter the interstellar medium. In a further testament to the robustness of Voyager 1, the Voyager team completed a successful test of the spacecraft's trajectory correction maneuver thrusters in late 2017, a project enabling the mission to be extended by two to three years. Voyager 1's extended mission is expected to continue until about 2025 when its radioisotope thermoelectric generators will no longer supply enough electric power to operate its scientific instruments. In the 1960s, a Grand Tour to study the outer planets was proposed which prompted NASA to begin work on a mission in the early 1970s. Information gathered by the Pioneer 10 spacecraft helped Voyager's engineers design Voyager to cope more with the intense radiation environment around Jupiter. However, shortly before launch, strips of kitchen-grade aluminum foil were applied to certain cabling to further enhance radiation shielding. Voyager 1 was planned as "Mariner 11" of the Mariner program.
Due to budget cuts, the mission was scaled back to be a flyby of Jupiter and Saturn and renamed the Mariner Jupiter-Saturn probes. As the program progressed, the name was changed to Voyager, since the probe designs began to differ from previous Mariner missions. Voyager 1 was constructed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, it has 16 hydrazine thrusters, three-axis stabilization gyroscopes, referencing instruments to keep the probe's radio antenna pointed toward Earth. Collectively, these instruments are part of the Attitude and Articulation Control Subsystem, along with redundant units of most instruments and 8 backup thrusters; the spacecraft included 11 scientific instruments to study celestial objects such as planets as it travels through space. The radio communication system of Voyager 1 was designed to be used up to and beyond the limits of the Solar System; the communication system includes a 3.7-meter diameter high gain Cassegrain antenna to send and receive radio waves via the three Deep Space Network stations on the Earth.
The craft transmits data to Earth over Deep Space Network Channel 18, using a frequency of either 2.3 GHz or 8.4 GHz, while signals from Earth to Voyager are transmitted at 2.1 GHz. When Voyager 1 is unable to communicate directly with the Earth, its digital tape recorder can record about 67 megabytes of data for transmission at another time. Signals from Voyager 1 take over 20 hours to reach Earth. Voyager 1 has three radioisotope thermoelectric generators mounted on a boom; each MHW-RTG contains 24 pressed plutonium-238 oxide spheres. The RTGs generated about 470 W of electric power at the time of launch, with the remainder being dissipated as waste heat; the power output of the RTGs declines over time, but the craft's RTGs will continue to support some of its operations until 2025. As of February 29, 2020, Voyager 1 has 71.48 % of the plutonium-238. By 2050, it will have 56.5% left. Unlike the other onboard instruments, the operation of the cameras for visible light is not autonomous, but rather it is controlled by an imaging parameter table contained in one of the on-board digital computers, the Flight Data Subsystem.
Since the 1990s, most space probes have had autonomous cameras. The computer command subsystem controls the cameras; the CCS contains fixed computer programs, such as command decoding, fault-detection and -correction routines, antenna pointing routines, spacecraft sequencing routines. This computer is an improved version of the one, used in the 1970s Viking orbiters; the hardware in both custom-built CCS subsystems in the Voyagers is identical. There is only a minor software modification: one of them has a scientific subsystem that the other lacks; the Attitude and Articulation Control Subsystem controls the spacecraft orientation. It keeps the high-gain antenna pointing towards the Earth, controls attitude changes, points the scan platform; the custom-built AACS systems on both Voyagers are the same. For more details on the Voyager space probes' identical instrument packages, see the separate article on the overall Voyager Program; the Voyager 1 probe was launched on September 5, 1977, from Launch Complex 41 at the Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, aboard a Titan IIIE launch vehicle.
The Voyager 2 probe had been launched two weeks earlier, on August 20, 1977. Despite being lau
Wilfred Lau Ho-Lung is a Hong Kong singer and actor. He is known as "師兄" in the entertainment industry because he was the winner of the 16th annual New Talent Singing Awards International Finals in 1997, despite not being never becoming a singer until 2004. Many have made comparisons to his voice to the voice of Eason Chan. Wilfred attended St. Joseph's Primary School, a boys' school for his primary education, which he was schoolmate of Priscilla Chan's younger brother, he graduated from Kiangsu-Chekiang College. As a child, he had always wanted to become a singer due to seeing Priscilla's awards while he visited her brother's home, but his teacher made him give up his dream. At age 21, after seeing the concerts of Anita Mui and Andy Hui, he had enough courage to enter the 1997 New Talent Singing Awards International Finals where he won first place, the Best Performance Award, the Best Performance Art Potential Award; as the winner, Wilfred was signed to Capital Artists. His first job in Capital Artists was to appear as a guest in TVB's version of Edmond Leung's music video for the song 好朋友.
In the following 4 years, he hosted television shows on TVB. The company did not arrange Wilfred to record songs. In 2001, Capital Artists withdrew its business in Hong Kong. Wilfred searched for other record companies but most of them turned him down. With the help from Eddie Ng who gave him the song "舊人" to save him time from finding and recording a demo, after three years of searching, Go East Entertainment Co. Ltd, a subsidiary of Universal Music Group, signed him and arranged for him to record his debut album Start Up, released in 2004, his contract with Go East ended in October 2006. He is now signed to East Asia Music. Start Up Singing in the Ring Past & Present All The Best 新歌+精選 All The Best 新歌+精選 Le Nouvel Album Other Compilations Love 06 Perfect Match 細聽... 細說 Special guest of the New Talent Singing Awards Vancouver Audition. Guest starred in Eason Chan's Wrestling with God musical. 2005 - Wilfred Lau 903 Hit 4 On Fire 0813 Concert. J. A. W. S. at the Sydney Entertainment Centre and Melbourne Arts Centre on the 19th and 21st of May 2006.
1997 New Talent Singing Awards International Finals - Gold Award, Best Performance Award, Best Performance Art Potential Award Golden Hit for New Star TVB Jade Solid Gold Award Metro Radio Hits for the Princes and Princesses Best Newcomers Category. A Singer By Choice - March 23, 2005
Gene maps help describe the spatial arrangement of genes on a chromosome. Genes are designated to a specific location on a chromosome known as the locus and can be used as molecular markers to find the distance between other genes on a chromosome. Maps provide researchers with the opportunity to predict the inheritance patterns of specific traits, which can lead to a better understanding of disease-linked traits; the genetic basis to gene maps is to provide an outline that can help researchers carry out DNA sequencing. A gene map helps point out the relative positions of genes and allows researchers to locate regions of interest in the genome. Genes can be identified and sequenced quickly. Two approaches to generating gene maps include genetic mapping. Physical mapping utilizes molecular biology techniques to inspect chromosomes; these techniques allow researchers to observe chromosomes directly so that a map may be constructed with relative gene positions. Genetic mapping on the other hand uses genetic techniques to indirectly find association between genes.
Techniques can include cross-breeding experiments and examining pedigrees. These technique allow for maps to be constructed so that relative positions of genes and other important sequences can be analyzed. Physical mapping techniques used to generate a gene map include: Restriction mapping, Fluorescent in situ hybridization, Sequence tagged site mapping. Restriction mapping is a method in which structural information regarding a segment of DNA is obtained using restriction enzymes. Restriction enzymes are enzymes; the basis to restriction mapping involves digesting DNA with restriction enzymes. The digested DNA fragments are run on an agarose gel using electrophoresis, which provides one with information regarding the size of these digested fragments; the sizes of these fragments help indicate the distance between restriction enzyme sites on the DNA analyzed, provides researchers with information regarding the structure of DNA analyzed. FISH is a method used to detect the presence of a DNA sequence within a cell.
DNA probes that are specific for chromosomal regions or genes of interest are labeled with fluorochromes. By attaching fluorochromes to probes, researchers are able to visualize multiple DNA sequences simultaneously; when a probe comes into contact with DNA on a specific chromosome, hybridization will occur. Information regarding the location of that sequence of DNA will be attained. FISH analyzes single stranded DNA. Once the DNA is in its single stranded state, the DNA can bind to its specific probe. A sequence-tagged site is a short sequence of DNA, seen to appear multiple times within an individual's genome; these sites are recognizable appearing at least once in the DNA being analyzed. These sites contain genetic polymorphisms making them sources of viable genetic markers. Sequenced tagged sites can be mapped within our genome and require a group of overlapping DNA fragments. PCR is used to produce the collection of DNA fragments. After overlapping fragments are created, the map distance between STSs can be analyzed.
In order to calculate the map distance between STSs, researchers determine the frequency at which breaks between the two markers occur Genetic mapping is focused on the principles first established by Gregor Mendel. This approach focuses on linkage analysis and gene association techniques; the basis to linkage analysis is identifying disease genes. Certain genes that are linked or associated with each other are found to reside close to each other on the same chromosome. During meiosis, these genes are capable of being inherited together and can be used as a genetic marker to help identify the phenotype of diseases; because linkage analysis can identify inheritance patterns, these studies are family based. Gene association analysis is population based. Gene association analysis looks at a particular population and tries to identify whether the frequency of an allele in affected individuals is different from that of a control set of unaffected individuals of the same population; this method is useful to identify complex diseases that do not have a Mendelian inheritance pattern.
Using the methods mentioned above, researchers are capable of mapping disease genes. Generating a gene map is the critical first step towards identifying disease genes. Gene maps allow for variant alleles to be identified and allow for researchers to make predictions about the genes they think are causing the mutant phenotype. An example of a disorder, identified by Linkage analysis is Cystic Fibrosis. For example, with Cystic Fibrosis, DNA samples from fifty families affected by CF were analyzed using linkage analysis. Hundreds of markers pertaining to CF were analyzed throughout the genome until CF was identified on the long arm of chromosome 7. Researchers had completed linkage analysis on additional DNA markers within chromosome 7 to identify an more precise location of the CF gene, they found that the CF gene resides around 7q31-q32. Genetic linkage
Pompton Township is a defunct township in Passaic County, New Jersey, United States, that existed from 1797 until it was dissolved in 1918. The township was formed on April 10, 1797, from portions of Saddle River Township and Franklin Township in Bergen County, incorporated on February 21, 1798, as one of the state's initial group of 104 townships. On March 10, 1834, West Milford was created from portions of the township; when Passaic County, New Jersey was established on February 7, 1837, it included Pompton Township. The borough of Pompton Lakes, New Jersey was formed on February 26, 1895, during the peak of the "Boroughitis" phenomenon, as the second municipality to split from the township; the township was divided on February 23, 1918, into three boroughs: Bloomingdale and Wanaque, with the remaining portion passing to Pompton Lakes. This ended the existence of the township. According to news accounts at the time of the split, local leaders from the various communities felt that the population growth within the township was a hindrance to the ability of the Township Committee to govern.
Citizens of Haskell had begun to discuss the formation of their own borough and this prompted citizens in the other sections to follow their lead. A significant portion of the land was sparsely populated and the split off of one community would leave a larger tax burden on those that remained. A meeting was called for January 1918, to discuss the pros and cons of splitting the township. From that, a committee representing the various sections was formed and three boroughs were agreed on, the boundaries established and finances settled. In addition, the township school district was divided into the separate districts for each borough; the vote to split was approved in all three sections in February. The final Township Committee meeting took place on May 14, 1918, in Midvale to finalize the disbursement of cash in the township treasury to the three boroughs and pay off remaining debt owed to the county. Based on data from the 2010 United States Census, the combined population of the five municipalities that were formed from Pompton Township -- Bloomingdale, Pompton Lakes, Ringwood and West Milford -- was 67,947, which would have made Pompton the 16th largest municipality in the state if it still existed today.
Argus Newspaper, Jan 10, 1918 & May 17, 1918
This is a list of the songs recorded by Elvis Presley between his first demos at the Sun Studios in 1953 and his final concert on June 26, 1977 at the Market Square Arena in Indianapolis, Indiana. Notes: The recorded date is the first known date. Album debut refers to each track's first appearance on LP. Many tracks had their first commercial release on EP releases, which are not noted. Only the first RCA-licensed release is noted, as opposed to earlier release on unauthorized bootlegs. From the late 1960s through the 1970s, several songs were recorded only in concert with no known formal studio recordings. Of the multiple live versions released on various albums, the LP debut of the first known concert recording is indicated. If a track was recorded both in the studio and in concert, the album debut of the studio version is indicated. Tracks re-recorded in the studio are not included. Songs for which Elvis was only recorded singing a line or two are not included. Rumored recordings, or recordings believed to exist but that for whatever reason have yet to be made public are not included.
İlhan Usmanbaş is a Turkish composer. Born in Istanbul, Usmanbaş grew up in Ayvalık; when he was twelve years old, his elder brother gave him a cello, began to teach himself to play. After moving back to Istanbul, he studied the cello seriously, his maths teacher, a lover of music, advised Usmanbaş to give up the career that he had planned for himself: "We have enough engineers in Turkey. You should be a composer instead."After graduating from Galatasaray High School, Usmanbaş went on to study under members of the Turkish Five – Cemal Reşit Rey, Ahmet Adnan Saygun, Hasan Ferit Alnar, Ulvi Cemal Erkin, Necil Kazım Akses – and David Zirkin, at Ankara State Conservatory. In 1952, he went to the United States on a UNESCO scholarship, where he came under the influence of American pioneers of new and experimental music. In 1955 he received. Usmanbaş is an experimental composer, one of the second generation of Turkish composers, coming after the Five, he works with a freedom of form and a concentration on intensity rather than melody, with techniques that include neo-classicism, aleatoric music, twelve tone and minimalism.
He has composed nearly 120 works, has won more foreign awards and citations than any other Turkish composer, including commissions from the Koussevitzky foundation in the United States, prizes from the Wieniawski competition in Poland, the International Composers Tribune in Paris, the International Competition for Ballet Music in Switzerland. Usmanbaş is married to opera singer Atıfet Usmanbaş. International Istanbul Music Festival Evin Ilyasoglu, "Turkish Music" Harriet Smith, "Turkish Delight"