The Vuelta a España is an annual multi-stage bicycle race held in Spain, while occasionally making passes through nearby countries. Inspired by the success of the Giro d'Italia and the Tour de France, the race was first organized in 1935; the race was prevented from being run by the Spanish Civil War and World War II in the early years of its existence. As the Vuelta gained prestige and popularity the race was lengthened and its reach began to extend all around the globe. Since 1979, the event has been staged and managed by Unipublic, until in 2014, when Amaury Sport Organisation acquired control, with both working together; the peloton expanded from a Spanish participation to include riders from all over the world. The Vuelta is a UCI World Tour event, which means that the teams that compete in the race are UCI WorldTeams, with the exception of the wild card teams that the organizers can invite. Along with the Tour de France and Giro d'Italia, the Vuelta makes up cycling's prestigious, three-week-long Grand Tours.
While the route changes each year, the format of the race stays the same with the appearance of at least two time trials, the passage through the mountain chain of the Pyrenees, the finish in the Spanish capital Madrid. The modern editions of the Vuelta a España consist of 21 day-long segments over a 23-day period that includes 2 rest days. All of the stages are timed to the finish, after finishing the riders' times are compounded with their previous stage times; the rider with the lowest aggregate time gets to don the red jersey. While the general classification garners the most attention there are other contests held within the Vuelta: the points classification for the sprinters, the mountains classification for the climbers, combination classification for the all-round riders, the team classification for the competing teams. First held in 1935 and annually since 1955, the Vuelta runs for three weeks in a changing route across Spain; the inaugural event saw 50 entrants face a 3,411 km course over only 14 stages, averaging over 240 km per stage.
It was inspired by the success of the Tours in France and Italy, the boost they brought to the circulations of their sponsoring newspapers. It was held in the spring late April, with a few editions held in June in the 1940s. In 1995, the race moved to September to avoid direct competition with the Giro d'Italia, held in May; as a result, the Vuelta is now seen as an important preparation for the World Championships, which moved to October the same year. A Vuelta was organized in August and September 1950; the course includes up to three time trials, a number of mountain stages. Since 1994, before, the Vuelta finished in the Spanish capital, although Bilbao and San Sebastián were long both recurring finish cities. Behind Madrid, three cities share second place for the most Vuelta departures: Gijón, one time finish city Jerez de la Frontera. In 1997, the Vuelta started abroad in Lisbon, Portugal; the first Vuelta to start outside the Iberian Peninsula took place in 2009, when the Dutch city of Assen hosted the prologue of the 64th Vuelta.
In 1999, for the first time, the course crossed the Alto de L'Angliru in Asturias, which climbs 1,573 meters over 12.9 km with grades as steep as 23.6 percent, making it one of the steepest climbs in Europe. Credit for the discovery of this climb and its addition to the Vuelta goes to Miguel Prieto; the overall leader at present wears a red jersey, although it has been the "Maillot amarillo" and the "Jersey de Oro" — the Spanish counterpart to the yellow jersey of the Tour de France. Other jerseys honor leader of the points competition. Other cycling jerseys are awarded, such as for points leaders in the "Metas Volantes" and for the combination category; the record for most wins is held by Roberto Heras of Spain, winner in 2000, 2003, 2004 and 2005. Spaniards have dominated. France, Switzerland, Germany, the Netherlands, Ireland, Kazakhstan, the United States and Great Britain have had first-place finishers; the first races were run at the national level and were promoted by the bicycle manufacturers from Eibar.
The tour was Eibar – Madrid – Eibar, called the Grand Prix of the Republic. In the early 1935, former cyclist Clemente Lopez Doriga, in collaboration with Juan Pujol, director of the daily newspaper Informaciones, organized the Vuelta a España, with a distance 3431 km, in a total of 14 stages; the first stage took the riders from Madrid to Valladolid. That year saw the first great duel in the history of the Vuelta, between Belgium's Gustaaf Deloor, who won, Mariano Cañardo, Spanish runner-up; the second edition of the Vuelta held despite the delicate political situation, was marked by the Deeloor repeat, who this time held the lead from the first day to
The Chevrolet Sequel was a purpose-built hydrogen fuel cell-powered concept car and sport utility vehicle from Chevrolet, employing the latest generation of General Motors' fuel cell technology. The Sequel's powertrain includes an electronic control unit and a fourth-generation version of GM's fuel-cell stack; the Sequel became the basis for the design of the gas-powered Chevrolet Traverse, the replacement for the Uplander minivan. The Sequel's fuel-cell stack has a rated power output of 73 kW, supplemented by a lithium-ion battery pack rated at 65 kW. One 65 kW electric motor drives the front wheels and individual 25 kW wheel-motors drive each rear wheel, providing total tractive power of 115 kW; the Sequel stores 8 kg of gaseous hydrogen in three cylindrical, carbon-composite fuel tanks, pressurized to 700 bar and mounted longitudinally beneath the cabin floor. As a result, the range of the vehicle is more than 480 km; the Sequel is just short of five metres long, on a long wheelbase, in order to accommodate the long fuel tanks.
GM made no commitment to building the Sequel. However, GM vice-chairman Bob Lutz has said he would push the company's strategy board to approve full production of a fuel-cell vehicle by 2011 model year. Due to the high cost of fuel cells, GM opted to instead build several hydrogen-powered Chevrolet Equinox-based vehicles as testbeds, it decided to change its direction of alternative-fueled vehicles, unveiled the concept Volt in 2008, followed by the production version in 2010. As of October 2006, GM has built two Sequels. General Motors Hy-wire Zero-emissions vehicle CHEVROLET SEQUEL 300-MILE ZERO EMISSIONS FUEL CELL DRIVE Fahey, J. "GM's wild gamble." In Forbes #175, 25 April 2005, pp. 78–83. "The Architect behind the Reinvention of the Automobile"
The Nakajima G8N Renzan was a four-engine long-range bomber designed for use by the Imperial Japanese Navy. The Navy designation was "Type 18 land-based attack aircraft". In February 1943 the Imperial Navy staff asked Nakajima Aircraft Company to design a four-engined bomber, capable of meeting an earlier specification set for a long-range land-based attack plane; the final specification, issued on 14 September 1943, called for a plane with a maximum speed of 320 knots able to carry a 4,000 kg bomb-load 2,000 nmi or a reduced bomb-load 4,000 nmi. Nakajima's design featured a mid-mounted wing of small area and high aspect ratio, a tricycle landing gear and a large single-fin rudder. Power came from four 2,000 hp Nakajima NK9K-L "Homare" 24 radial engines with Hitachi 92 turbosuperchargers and driving four-bladed propellers; the engines were cooled by counter-rotating fans positioned just inside the engine cowlings. Defensive armament included power-operated nose, dorsal and tail turrets along with two free-swiveling machine guns at the beam positions.
The initial prototype was completed in October 1944 and delivered to the Navy for testing in January 1945, a year after the Navy ordered development to start. Three further examples were completed by June 1945, with the third prototype being destroyed on the ground by US carrier aircraft. Other than minor problems with the turbosuperchargers, the Renzan performed satisfactorily and the Navy hoped to have a total of 16 prototypes and 48 production-version G8N1s assembled by September 1945, but the worsening war situation and a critical shortage of light aluminium alloys led to the project's cancellation in June. One proposed variant was the G8N2 Renzan-Kai Model 22, powered by four 2,200 hp Mitsubishi MK9A radial engines and modified to accept attachment of the air-launched Ohka Type 33 Special Attack Bomber. Just before Japan's surrender in August 1945 consideration was briefly given to producing an all-steel version of the aircraft, to be designated G8N3 Renzan-Kai Model 23, but the cessation of hostilities precluded any further development.
After the war, one prototype was scrapped after testing. None are in existence today. G8N1: Four-engine heavy bomber. Production version. G8N2: Modified to carry Ohka Type 33 Special Attack Bomber. Four Mitsubishi MK9A radial engines. G8N3: All-steel airframe. JapanImperial Japanese Navy Air Service Data from Japanese Aircraft of the Pacific WarGeneral characteristics Crew: 10 Length: 22.935 m Wingspan: 32.54 m Height: 7.2 m Wing area: 112 m2 Airfoil: root: K251.