Vukovar is a city in eastern Croatia. It contains Croatia's largest river port, located at the confluence of the Danube. Vukovar is the seat of Vukovar-Syrmia County; the city's registered population was 26,468 in the 2011 census, with a total of 27,683 in the municipality. The name Vukovar means'town on the Vuka River'; the river was called "Ulca" in antiquity from an Illyrian language. Its name might be related to the name of the river "Volga". Folk etymology has connected it to the Croatian word "vuk", meaning "wolf". In other languages, the city in German is known in Hungarian as Vukovár or Valkóvár. In the late 17th century, the medieval Croatian name Vukovo was supplanted by the Hungarian Vukovár; the administrative municipal area of the city contains the following settlements: Grabovo, population 47 Lipovača, population 386 Sotin, population 782 Vukovar, population 26,468In SFR Yugoslavia, the municipalities were larger, the Vukovar municipality spanned the region from Vera and Borovo in the north, Ilok in the east and Tovarnik in the south, but it has since been divided into several municipalities.
Vukovar was divided into the Old Vukovar, New Vukovar and former workers' Bata village with Bata Shoes factory, today known as the Vukovar suburb Borovo Naselje. Vukovar is located in the Eastern part of the Republic of Croatia and is the centre of the Vukovar-Syrmia County, its location places it at the border of historical provinces Eastern Western Syrmia. The city is positioned on important transport routes. Since time immemorial transport routes from the northwest to the southeast were active in the Danube Valley through the Vukovar area. After steam ships were introduced in the mid-19th century, with the arrival of present-day tourist ships, Vukovar is connected with Budapest and Vienna upstream and all the way to Romania downstream; the Vukovar harbour is an important export station. The Danube has always been and remains the connection of the people of Vukovar with Europe and the world. Vukovar is located 20 km northeast of Vinkovci and 36 km southeast of Osijek, with an elevation of 108 m.
Vukovar is located on the Vinkovci -- Vukovar railway. One Scordisci archaeological site in Vukovar dating back to late La Tène culture was excavated in the 1970s and 1980s as a part of rescue excavations in eastern Croatia. Archaeological site was a part of the settlement network of Scordisci in the area of Vinkovci. Slavic tribes settled in this area in the 6th century. In the 9th century the region was part of the Slavic Balaton Principality ruled by prince Pribina, part of the Principality of Pannonian Croatia ruled by prince Ljudevit, part of the Bulgarian Empire. In the 11th–12th century, the region was part of the Kingdom of Croatia. Vukovar was mentioned first in the 13th century as Volko, Wolkov. In 1231, Vukovo obtained its first privileges and the right to levy taxes on passages along the Danube and the Vuka. During administration of the medieval Kingdom of Hungary, the town was a seat of Valkó county, located between the Drava and Sava rivers, while during Ottoman administration it was part of the Sanjak of Syrmia.
At the end of the 17th century, the town's population numbered about 3,000 inhabitants. After the Treaty of Karlowitz in 1699, Vukovar was part of the Habsburg Monarchy and soon after in the Kingdom of Croatia-Slavonia, created when the Kingdom of Slavonia and the Kingdom of Croatia were merged in 1868. In the late 19th and early 20th century, Vukovar was the seat of Syrmia County of the Kingdom of Croatia-Slavonia. In 1918, Vukovar became part of the newly formed Kingdom of Serbs and Slovenes. Between 1918 and 1922, Vukovar was the administrative seat of the county of Syrmia, between 1922 and 1929 it was the administrative seat of Syrmia oblast. After 1929, Vukovar was part of the Sava Banovina, beginning in 1939 it was part of the Banovina of Croatia. Between 1941 and 1944, Vukovar was part of the Independent State of Croatia. During World War II the city was bombed by the Allies. In 2008 an unexploded bomb was found in the city from this period. From 1945, it was part of the People's Republic of Croatia within the new Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia.
After the creation of the Kingdom of Serbs and Slovenes and in the wake of communism gaining popularity throughout Europe, Vukovar became the location where in 1920 the Socialist Labor Party of Yugoslavia was renamed the Communist Party of Yugoslavia. Vukovar was damaged during the Croatian War of Independence. 2,000 self-organised defenders defended the city for 87 days against 36,000 troops of the Serb-dominated JNA supplemented with 110 vehicles and tanks and dozens of planes. The city suffered heavy damage during the siege and was overrun, it is estimated that 2,000 defenders of Vukovar and civilians were killed, 800 went missing and 22,000 civilians were forced into exile. The damage to Vukovar during the siege has been called the worst in Europe since World War II, drawing comparisons with Stalingrad; the city's water tower, riddled with bullet holes, was retaine
The Amazon rainforest, the Amazon Jungle known in English as Amazonia, is a moist broadleaf tropical rainforest in the Amazon biome that covers most of the Amazon basin of South America. This basin encompasses 7,000,000 km2; this region includes territory belonging to nine nations. The majority of the forest is contained within Brazil, with 60% of the rainforest, followed by Peru with 13%, Colombia with 10%, with minor amounts in Venezuela, Bolivia, Guyana and French Guiana. Four nations have "Amazonas" as the name of one of their first-level administrative regions and France uses the name "Guiana Amazonian Park" for its rainforest protected area; the Amazon represents over half of the planet's remaining rainforests, comprises the largest and most biodiverse tract of tropical rainforest in the world, with an estimated 390 billion individual trees divided into 16,000 species. The name Amazon is said to arise from a war Francisco de Orellana fought with the Tapuyas and other tribes; the women of the tribe fought alongside the men.
Orellana derived the name Amazonas from the Amazons of Greek mythology, described by Herodotus and Diodorus. Tribal societies are well capable of escalation to all-out wars between tribes. Thus, in the Amazonas, there was perpetual animosity between the neighboring tribes of the Jivaro. Several tribes of the Jivaroan group, including the Shuar, practised headhunting for trophies and headshrinking; the accounts of missionaries to the area in the borderlands between Brazil and Venezuela have recounted constant infighting in the Yanomami tribes. More than a third of the Yanomamo males, on average, died from warfare. During the Amazon rubber boom it is estimated that diseases brought by immigrants, such as typhus and malaria, killed 40,000 native Amazonians. Nine countries share the Amazon basin—most of the rainforest, 58.4%, is contained within the borders of Brazil. The other eight countries include Peru with 12.8%, Bolivia with 7.7%, Colombia with 7.1%, Venezuela with 6.1%, Guyana with 3.1%, Suriname with 2.5%, French Guyana with 1.4%, Ecuador with 1%.
The rainforest formed during the Eocene era. It appeared following a global reduction of tropical temperatures when the Atlantic Ocean had widened sufficiently to provide a warm, moist climate to the Amazon basin; the rainforest has been in existence for at least 55 million years, most of the region remained free of savanna-type biomes at least until the current ice age when the climate was drier and savanna more widespread. Following the Cretaceous–Paleogene extinction event, the extinction of the dinosaurs and the wetter climate may have allowed the tropical rainforest to spread out across the continent. From 66–34 Mya, the rainforest extended as far south as 45°. Climate fluctuations during the last 34 million years have allowed savanna regions to expand into the tropics. During the Oligocene, for example, the rainforest spanned a narrow band, it expanded again during the Middle Miocene retracted to a inland formation at the last glacial maximum. However, the rainforest still managed to thrive during these glacial periods, allowing for the survival and evolution of a broad diversity of species.
During the mid-Eocene, it is believed that the drainage basin of the Amazon was split along the middle of the continent by the Purus Arch. Water on the eastern side flowed toward the Atlantic, while to the west water flowed toward the Pacific across the Amazonas Basin; as the Andes Mountains rose, however, a large basin was created. Within the last 5–10 million years, this accumulating water broke through the Purus Arch, joining the easterly flow toward the Atlantic. There is evidence that there have been significant changes in the Amazon rainforest vegetation over the last 21,000 years through the last glacial maximum and subsequent deglaciation. Analyses of sediment deposits from Amazon basin paleolakes and the Amazon Fan indicate that rainfall in the basin during the LGM was lower than for the present, this was certainly associated with reduced moist tropical vegetation cover in the basin. There is a debate, over how extensive this reduction was; some scientists argue that the rainforest was reduced to small, isolated refugia separated by open forest and grassland.
This debate has proved difficult to resolve because the practical limitations of working in the rainforest mean that data sampling is biased away from the center of the Amazon basin, both explanations are reasonably well supported by the available data. More than 56% of the dust fertilizing the Amazon rainforest comes from the Bodélé depression in Northern Chad in the Sahara desert; the dust contains phosphorus, important for plant growth. The yearly Sahara dust replaces the equivalent amount of phosphorus washed away yearly in Amazon soil from rains and floods. NASA's CALIPSO satellite has measured the amount of dust transported by wind from the Sahara to the Amazon: an average 182 million tons of dust are windblown out of the Sahara each year, at 15 degrees west longitude, across 2,600 km over the Atlantic Ocean at 35 degrees West longitude at the eastern coast of South America, 27.7 million tons of dust fall over the Amazon basin, 132 million tons of dust remain in the air, 43 million tons of dust are windblown and falls on the Caribbean Sea, past 75 degrees west longitude.
CALIPSO uses a lase
The Ford 5000 is a blue and white tractor, produced from 1964 to 1979 by Ford. It was a mid-range tractor, suitable for European farms; the North American versions was different and was named the Ford Major. A similar model, the Ford 3000 was introduced in the spring of 1965; the tractor was released in mainland Europe in 1964, sold moderately. As time went on, there were more Ford 5000s being sold and could be compared to the New Holland TM series, in production from 1997-2004; the tractor sold exceptionally well in Great Britain. The tractor replaced the long-running Fordson Major, a worldwide hit, it sold well because it slotted into the mid-sized range, which catered for every British farmer. It sold so well it was in the top ten best-selling list of tractors sold in Great Britain until 2005; the Ford 5000 was used by E. Doe to build the uprated version of the Doe Triple D in 1964; the Doe tractor was 2 Tractors fixed together at a central pivot, with the front axles removed to form an articulated tractor with twice the power and 4-wd.
This new version was called the Doe 130. Following its launch at the Smithfield Show in December 1964, they sold 73 units in 1965. In Ireland, Ford tractors and cars sold very well because at the time Ford had a factory in Cork. Selling the Fordson Major and Ford 4000 was of no problem and selling the Ford 5000 was easier. Like Great Britain, it was launched in the mid-sized range, like Great Britain, was the main market for Irish farmers, it sold well and is the third best-selling tractor in the history of Ireland. According to a 2004 tractor survey, there were more than 200 Ford 5000s being in everyday use in every province. After its launch in 1964 the Ford 5000 and the other models in the range stayed in production until 1968 when they were upgraded into the Ford Force series; some modifications were done to the engine and other components which resulted in more horsepower for the Ford 5000, rated at 75 HP. Some modifications to the sheet metal were done to give it a more modern appearance.
In 1971 a few minor changes were done to the engine and a factory fitted safety cab could be ordered from that moment on. In 1975, Ford retired the Ford 5000 and all of its range after eleven years production, it was one of the Company's best selling tractors
Anna Leibbrand was a left-wing German political activist and writer. She left Germany in 1933 to escape the Nazi regime, but twenty years after returning to Germany was arrested and for several years imprisoned, in the aftermath of the Noel Field espionage affair, she was married three times and accordingly may appear in sources under any one of the following four names: Anna Wiedemann Anna Leibbrand Anna von Fischer Anna Schlotterbeck Anna Wiedemann was born in Munich where her father worked as a printer, where she attended elementary school, after which she moved to a School of Mechanical Engineering in Esslingen, emerging in the third year of the war, 1917, with a qualification in Technical Drawing. She took a job as a graphic artist and typist with Robert Bosch GmbH in Stuttgart-Feuerbach.1918 was the year of her sixteenth birthday and it was the year when she joined the Socialist Young Workers Association and the Free Socialist Youth Organisation. It was the year of German defeat in the First World War, followed by many months of national and regional revolution.
She participated in the Spartacus League's battles in Stuttgart that took place between November 1918 and January 1919. In 1924 she became a member of the established German Communist Party, becoming a member of the party's youth wing leadership for the regional parties in Königsberg, Danzig and for Berlin itself. In 1923 she had married a leading Party Official from Stuttgart. By 1927 they were living in Moscow where she worked for the Comintern as a typist till 1929; when the couple returned to Berlin in 1929 Anna Leibbrand became the party women's section head for the Berlin-Brandenburg district. She was working as an editor on a party newspaper called "Die Arbeiterin"; until 1933 she sat on the district council. In January 1933 the NSDAP took power and lost little time in switching to one- party government in Germany. All political parties were now illegal, but the new Chancellor had, in opposition, been vitriolic about the Communist Party. Anna and Robert Leibbrand continued with their party work.
On 24 March 1933 Robert Leibbrand was arrested: he would spend most of the twelve Nazi years in a succession of jails and concentration camps. Anna had not been with her husband when he was arrested and she continued with her own party work till July 1933. In September 1933, she emigrated to Switzerland where she took work as a domestic servant, she joined the Swiss Communist Party, remaining a member of it and of its successor party till 1948. After a couple of years she obtained a job as a doctor's assistant. In 1938 Anna and Robert Leibbrand were divorced and in 1939 she married her employer, the doctor Hans von Fischer in the process, taking Swiss citizenship, it was during this time that, together with Hans von Fischer, she set up in Zurich the "Centrale Sanitaire Internationale", a left-wing medical charity intended to provide medical support to fighters in the Spanish Civil War. She undertook illegal work for the Italian Communist Party at this time. Switzerland's neutral status during the Second World War enabled Anna von Fischer to work with left-leaning political and medical support organisations in various countries both during and directly after the war.
War ended, formally in May 1945, but at the direction of the German senior Communist, Franz Dahlem, she remained in Switzerland for a further three years. Her contacts during the 1940s included Noel Field, a leading member of the Unitarian Universalist Service Committee, a disaster relief and refugee support organisation with close US links. In 1946 she warned the Party leadership in what would be East Germany that Noel Field was an alleged agent of the US security services, she returned to what remained of German in October 1948, settling in the Soviet occupation zone. The end of the war had appeared to signal an end to one- party dictatorship, but under Soviet administration the contentious merger of the KPD and more moderately left-wing SPD had in April 1946 prepared the ground for a return to one- party rule. Anna von Fischer joined the resulting Socialist Unity Party in 1949, the year in which the zone became the Soviet sponsored German Democratic Republic, formally founded in October.
After a period of unemployment, in 1949 she took a job as a correspondent with Tägliche Rundschau, a Dresden based newspaper produced for East Germany by the Red Army. She stayed with the newspaper till the start of August 1951, she was working with the Soviet Press Bureau, in 1950 found time to attend a course of political study at the regional party academy. Meanwhile, she was by now living with another high-profile party member, the writer Friedrich Schlotterbeck, whom she married in March 1951. In February 1951, following an intervention by the highly active Regional Party Control Commission for Saxony, she was summarily expelled from the country's ruling SED on "suspicion of espionage", they found themselves invited to demonstrate their loyalty to the state by outstanding work at the infamous uranium mines nearby. On 15 March 1953 Freidrich and Anna Schlotterbeck were both arrested without being told why, because of "criminal relationships with the American"; the American in question was a double agent called Noel Field, a committed communist who seems to have been providing intelligence to various security agencies and whose rev
The 1947 All-Ireland Senior Camogie Championship was the high point of the 1947 season in Camogie. The championship was won by Antrim; the semi-final between Dublin and Galway ranks alongside the disputed semi-final of 1966 between Dublin and Tipperary as the most controversial in camogie history. With the resumption of a second round of hostilities between Dublin County Board and the Central Council of the Camogie Association in 1944, only the remained affiliated in Dublin; the county was represented by one club selection in the championship, albeit one that included three of the leading exponents of the game of that era or the entire history of the 12-a-side game, Kathleen Cody, Kathleen Mills and Sophie Brack. Galway beat Mayo in the Connacht final. Tipperary won the Munster championship for the first time in the absence of Cork. Eileen Walsh and Bridie O'Neill scored three goals each as Antrim defeated Tipperary in the All Ireland semi-final; the Irish Independent reported that the other semi-final between Dublin and Galway at Ballinasloe, ended with hundreds of spectators rushing onto the field "to voice their displeasure at the referee", Barney McDonnell from Wicklow, who had stood in for Michael Hennessy of Clare.
Gardaí escorted the referee away by car. Galway led by 2–1 to 0–1 at the interval until goals from Kathleen Cody and Kathleen Mills gave Dublin victory by 2–3 to 2–1. Galway were pushing for an equaliser. A letter-writer to the Connacht Tribune proposed that in future only lady referees should be appointed to camogie matches in future. Antrim had 1 -- 1 on the scoreboard within five minutes. Kathleen Cody shot for goal towards the end of the final, the ball sank in the sea of mud that filled the goal area. Antrim goalkeeper Kathleen Madden cleared it. Dublin appeals that the ball had crossed the line were not entertained and Antrim retained their title. All-Ireland Senior Hurling Championship Wikipedia List of Camogie players National Camogie League Camogie All Stars Awards Ashbourne Cup Camogie Association Historical reports of All Ireland finals All-Ireland Senior Camogie Championship: Roll of Honour Camogie on facebook Camogie on GAA Oral History Project
Anna Karoline is a jekt called Nordlandsjekt, built at Brataker in Mosvik, Norway in 1876. The jekt type was for centuries the most important freight vessel along the coast of Norway and Anna Karoline is typical for jekt vessels sailing between Northern Norway and Bergen, she was purchased by the museum Nordland County Museum in 1954 and placed ashore at Bodøsjøen south of the center of the city of Bodø. The Nordlandsmuseum has plans for constructing a large building around Anna Karoline, to preserve the vessel and exhibit her as a museum ship; the jekt was used as a freight vessel along the Norwegian coast from around the 17th century and until the early 20th century, when the use declined. The vessel type was built from Hardanger in the south to Beiarn in the north. At most around 200 jekts sailed from Northern Norway to Bergen with stockfish; the jekt was a sturdy freighter with a large capacity for cargo. Under good conditions the voyage could go fast, there are stories about voyages from Lofoten to Bergen in around three days, which makes a speed around 8 knots.
It is possible that the vessel type is based on earlier Norwegian vessels, but that foreign vessels have been an inspiration. The encyclopedia Store norske leksikon has this definition of jekt: The nordlandsjekt were clinker built with transom stern, with a high straight bow. Most of the jekts had only half of the deck covered, always had a veng aft; the mast was rigged with two square sails. The jekt was not easy to sail, but they could carry much cargo compared to the materials used for the vessel, it was thus due to economy that they became so popular. The last jekts were built in Trøndelag. By the early 20th century the jekt had been replaced by steamships. For centuries jekts were important for Northern Norway's export of stockfish; each jekt could make two voyages a year to Bergen with this cargo, the city had for many hundred years monopoly on trading with Northern Norway. After the stockfish cargo had been loaded in Bergen the jekt would return with goods that Northern Norway did not produce.
Anna Karoline was built in 1876 for Oluf Nøst and Ole Vandsvik. The name Anna Karoline were composed from the names of the three first owners. Anna Karoline served as a cargo vessel and the cargo changed depending on what owners she had, time of the year and where she was stationed; when Ole Vandsvik was one of the owners Anna Karoline started the new year with a voyage to Lofoten to buy fish. The fish was salted on board the vessel and she returned in May to Kiran in Roan where the fish was dried. While the fish was drying the jekt was transporting timber from Namsen to Northern Norway; when the fish had dried the vessel was loaded with stockfish, sailed to Bergen. The vessel was used for transporting herring and as sleeping quarters during fishing. Anna Karoline is marked by various repairs and changes which makes it possible to study how the vessel has developed, she was clinker built and without a deck covering her cargo hold. In 1890 Anna Karoline ran aground at Kirangrunnen and subsequently towed to Trondheim where the outer hull was plained and a smooth carvel skin was added.
Thus one can today see that the vessel has both clinker carvel hull. Anna Karoline got new owners in 1903, they installed a 16 hp engine. After Johan Bjørvik and Ole Schiefloe bought Anna Karoline she was used during the yearly fisheries in Lofoten, she had for many years station at Tinn in Lofoten. The firm sold fishing equipment. While she was used as a floating general store during the fisheries, the vessel was used for processing fish. In the spring the vessel sailed south to Bergen or Trondheim, before returning to Lofoten for a new cargo of fish. In 1908 Anna Karoline´s homeport was changed to Namsos after she was bought by Julius Pedersen and manager Schiefloe, she was used to ship timber from Trøndelag to Northern Norway. The vessel had the same trade while she was owned by Spillum Høvleri. After a new grounding in Bodø in 1908 she was again repaired, and the vessel now got a deck over the cargo hold. In 1916 she got a 30 hp engine. Anna Karoline kept her full rig until 1932; the same year major repairs of her hull were carried out.
The vessel got the deck was changed both aft and at the bow. In the 1950s the hull over water was changed; when she was bought by Nordland fylkesmuseum in 1954 brackets were placed under the vessel and needed repairs were done. Anna Karoline was bought in 1929 by the firm J. Sønner in Hopen in Lofoten; the vessel was used both winter. During the vinter Anna Karoline was used while fish were salted and for producing Cod liver oil, she had similar duties in Finnmark in the spring. During summer Anna Karoline transported stockfish from Nordland and Troms south to Bergen; the last port of call for Anna Karoline was Bodøsjøen outside the center of Bodø, where she arrived in 1959. For some 30 years she has had a roof as cover and after some years walls were added; the facilities are viewed as far from ideal and the vessel should have a permanent building. Nordland Museum is working with a project for a building where the vessel can be both preserved and exhibited for visitors; the background for Nordland fylkesmuseum buying Anna Karoline was that she was seen as a specimen of a important vessel type.
The museum first bought the jekt Brødrene in 1939 for this purpose. The vessel was transferred to Rognan for some needed repairs but around Christmas 1940 she shipwrecked during a stor