United States Rubber Company
The United States Rubber Company is an American manufacturer of tires and other synthetic rubber-related products, as well as variety of items for military use, such as ammunition and operations and maintenance activities at the government-owned contractor-operated facilities. It was founded in Naugatuck, Connecticut, in 1892, it was one of the original 12 stocks in the Dow Jones Industrial Average, became Uniroyal, Inc. as part of creating a unified brand for its products and subsidiaries in 1961. In 1990, Uniroyal was acquired by French tire maker Michelin and ceased to exist as a separate business. Today around 1,000 workers in the U. S. remain employed by Michelin to make its Uniroyal brand products. The company's long-lived advertisement slogan was "United States Tires are Good Tires."One of Uniroyal's best known tires is the Tiger Paw introduced in the 1960s and included as original equipment for that decade's muscle cars such as the Pontiac GTO, which itself was promoted as The Tiger during its early years.
Today, Uniroyal still uses the Tiger Paw brand name in its tire line. In North America and Peru, the Uniroyal brand has been owned by Michelin since 1990, outside those regions, the Uniroyal brand has been owned by Continental AG since 1979 following their acquisition of Uniroyal Europe known as Englebert. By 1892, there were many rubber manufacturing companies in Naugatuck, Connecticut, as well as elsewhere in Connecticut. Nine companies consolidated their operations in Naugatuck to become the United States Rubber Company, it should be noted that one of the nine, Goodyear's India Rubber Glove Mfg. Co. – which manufactured rubber gloves for telegraph linemen – was the only company in which Charles Goodyear, inventor of the rubber vulcanization process, is known to have owned stock. From 1892 to 1913, the rubber footwear divisions of U. S. Rubber manufactured their products under 30 different brand names, including the Wales-Goodyear Shoe Co; the company consolidated these footwear brands under one name, Keds, in 1916, were mass-marketed as the first flexible rubber-sole with canvas-top "sneakers" in 1917.
On May 26, 1896, Charles Dow created the Dow Industrial average of twelve industrial manufacturing stocks, which included among them U. S. Rubber Company; when the average expanded to a list of 20 stocks in 1916, U. S. Rubber remained, however the listing expanded to 30 stocks in 1928 and U. S. Rubber was dropped. In an effort to increase its share of the automobile tire market in 1931, U. S. Rubber Company bought a substantial portion of the Gillette Safety Tire Company; the company was founded in 1916 by Raymond B. Gillette and its primary manufacturing plant was located in Wisconsin; the Gillette plant held large contracts with the General Motors Corporation and with the addition of U. S. Rubber products, became one of the world's largest suppliers of original equipment tires. U. S. Rubber produced tires under the Gillette, Atlas, U. S. Rubber and U. S. Royal brands. In 1940, U. S. Rubber purchased the remainder of the Gillette Safety Tire Company, began to expand and modernize the Eau Claire factory increasing production.
During World War II, U. S. Rubber factories were devoted to production of war goods, produced military truck and airplane tires, as well as the canvas-top, rubber-soled Jungle boot for soldiers and marines serving in tropical and jungle environments. U. S. Rubber ranked 37th among United States corporations in the value of wartime production contracts. In 1942, the United States government restricted the sale of scarce rubber products for civilian use and production at the plant dwindled; the company sold the Eau Claire plant to the government, which converted it for the manufacture of small caliber ammunition and renamed it the Eau Claire Ordnance plant. By December 31, 1943, the need for tires outweighed the need for ammunition. U. S. Rubber repurchased the plant from the government for more than US$1 million, converted it back to synthetic rubber tire production; the company began an expansion and modernization program at the plant that lasted through 1951. When it ended, the Eau Claire plant was the fifth largest tire facility in the United States.
The company again expanded the plant in 1965 to produce tires for construction machinery, for many years it was the largest private employer in Eau Claire and the second largest in neighboring Chippewa Falls before it was closed in 1991. In late 1943, U. S. Rubber engineer Dr. Louis Marick developed a propeller de-icing system in which a rubber boot was fitted onto the leading edge of a propeller; the boot contained wires that conducted electricity to heat the break-up ice. In 1958, Uniroyal entered into a partnership with the Englebert tire company of Liège, which became known as Uniroyal Englebert Deutschland AG. In 1963, the name was shortened to Uniroyal-Englebert, in 1967 it became Uniroyal along with all company divisions. Uniroyal sold this division with its four factories in Belgium, Germany and Scotland to Continental AG in 1979. Continental continues to market tires under the Uniroyal brand outside Colombia and Peru. Uniroyal operations in Canada were carried out under the name Dominion Rubber Company for a number of decades.
Dominion started operations as Brown and Bourne, established in 1854. In 1866, the company registered as the Canadian Rubber Company of Montreal Limited and became prosperous manufacturing waterproof cloth, rubber footwear and machinery belts, it began to produce auto tires in 1906 in its Montreal factory and through a series of mergers with other companies in Ontario and Quebec became the Canadian Consolidated Rubber Company Limited. After another series of mergers, the company became the Domini
EPDM rubber, is a type of synthetic rubber, which can be used in a wide range of applications. This is an M-Class rubber where the'M' in M-Class refers to its classification in ASTM standard D-1418. EPDM is made from ethylene, propylene and a diene comonomer that enables crosslinking via sulphur vulcanisation systems; the earlier relative of EPDM is EPR, ethylene-propylene rubber, that contains no diene units and can only be crosslinked using radical methods such as peroxides. Dienes used in the manufacture of EPDM rubbers are ethylidene norbornene, dicyclopentadiene, vinyl norbornene. EPDM is related to polyethylene, into which high amounts, from 45% to 85% by weight, of propylene have been copolymerised to reduce the formation of the typical polyethylene crystallinity. EPDM is a semi-crystalline material with ethylene-type crystal structures at higher ethylene contents, becoming amorphous at ethylene contents that approach 50 wt%. Rubbers with saturated polymer backbones, such as EPDM, have much better resistance to heat and ozone compared to unsaturated rubbers such as natural rubber, SBR or polychloroprene.
As such, EPDM can be formulated to be resistant to temperatures as high as 150°C, properly formulated, can be used outside for many years or decades without degradation. EPDM has good low temperature properties, with elastic properties to temperatures as low as -40°C depending on the grade and the formulation; as with most rubbers, EPDM is always used compounded with fillers such as carbon black and calcium carbonate, with plasticisers such as paraffinic oils, has useful rubbery properties only when crosslinked. Crosslinking takes place via vulcanisation with sulphur, but is accomplished with peroxides or with phenolic resins. High energy radiation such as from electron beams is sometimes used for producing foams and wire and cable. EPDM is compatible with polar substances, e.g. fireproof hydraulic fluids, ketones and cold water, alkalis. It is incompatible with most hydrocarbons, such as oils, aromatic, gasoline, as well as halogenated solvents. EPDM exhibits outstanding resistance to heat, ozone and weather.
It is an electrical insulator. Typical properties of EPDM vulcanizates are given below. EPDM can be compounded to meet specific properties to a limit, depending first on the EPDM polymers available the processing and curing method employed. EPDMs are available in a range of molecular weights, varying levels of ethylene, third monomer, oil content. A common use is in vehicles: door seals, window seals, trunk seals, sometimes hood seals; these seals are the source of noise due to movement of the door against the car body and the resulting friction between the EPDM rubber and the mating surface. The synthetic rubber membrane properties has been used for flat roofs because of its durability and low maintenance costs; this noise can be alleviated using specialty coatings that are applied at the time of manufacture of the weather seal. Such coatings can improve the chemical resistance of EPDM rubber; some vehicle manufacturers recommend a light application of silicone dielectric grease to weatherstripping to reduce noise.
Other uses in vehicles include cooling system circuit hoses where water pumps, thermostats, EGR valves, EGR coolers, oil coolers and degas bottles are connected with EPDM hoses, as well as charge air tubing on turbocharged engines to connect the cold side of the charge air cooler to the intake manifold. EPDM rubber is used in seals (for example, it is used in cold-room doors since it is an insulator, as well as in the face seals of industrial respirators in automotive paint spray environments. EPDM is used in glass-run channels, radiators and appliance hose, pond liners, belts, electrical insulation, vibrators, O-rings, solar panel heat collectors, speaker cone surrounds, it is used as a medium for water resistance in electrical cable-jointing, roofing membranes, rubber mechanical goods, plastic impact modification, thermoplastic and many other applications. Colored EPDM granules are mixed with polyurethane binders and troweled or sprayed onto concrete, screenings, interlocking brick, etc. to create a non-slip, porous safety surface for wet-deck areas such as pool decks and as safety surfacing under playground play equipment
Plasticizers or dispersants are additives that increase the plasticity or decrease the viscosity of a material. These are the substances; these solids. They decrease the attraction between polymer chains to make them more flexible. Over the last 60 years more than 30,000 different substances have been evaluated for their plasticizing properties. Of these, only a small number – 50 – are today in commercial use; the dominant applications are for plastics polyvinyl chloride. The properties of other materials may be modified when blended with plasticizers including concrete and related products. According to 2014 data, the total global market for plasticizers was 8.4 million metric tonnes including 1.3 million metric tonnes in Europe. Plasticizers for plastics are additives, most phthalate esters in PVC applications. 90% of plasticizers are used in PVC, giving this material improved flexibility and durability. The majority is used in cables, it was thought that plasticizers work by embedding themselves between the chains of polymers, spacing them apart, or swelling them and thus lowering the glass transition temperature for the plastic and making it softer.
For plastics such as PVC, the more plasticizer added, the lower their cold flex temperature will be. Plastic items containing plasticizers can exhibit improved durability. Plasticizers can become available for exposure due to migration and abrasion of the plastic since they are not bound to the polymer matrix; the "new car smell" is attributed to plasticizers or their degradation products. However, multiple studies on the makeup of the smell do not find phthalates in appreciable amounts due to their low volatility and vapor pressure. Plasticizers make it possible to achieve improved compound processing characteristics, while providing flexibility in the end-use product. Ester plasticizers are selected based upon cost-performance evaluation; the rubber compounder must evaluate ester plasticizers for compatibility, processibility and other performance properties. The wide variety of ester chemistries that are in production include sebacates, terephthalates, gluterates, phthalates and other specialty blends.
This broad product line provides an array of performance benefits required for the many elastomer applications such as tubing and hose products, wall-coverings and gaskets, belts and cable, print rolls. Low to high polarity esters provide utility in a wide range of elastomers including nitrile, polychloroprene, EPDM, chlorinated polyethylene, epichlorohydrin. Plasticizer-elastomer interaction is governed by many factors such as solubility parameter, molecular weight, chemical structure. Compatibility and performance attributes are key factors in developing a rubber formulation for a particular application. Plasticizers function as softeners and lubricants, play a significant role in rubber manufacturing. Antiplasticizers exhibit effects that are similar, but sometimes opposite, to those of plasticizers on polymer systems; the effect of plasticizers on elastic modulus is dependent on both temperature and plasticizer concentration. Below a certain concentration, referred to as the crossover concentration, a plasticizer can increase the modulus of a material.
The material's glass transition temperature will decrease however, at all concentrations. In addition to a crossover concentration a crossover temperature exists. Below the crossover temperature the plasticizer will increase the modulus. Antiplasticizers are any small molecule or oligomer additive which increases the modulus while decreasing the glass transition temperature. Plasticizers used in PVC and other plastics are based on esters of polycarboxylic acids with linear or branched aliphatic alcohols of moderate chain length; these compounds are selected on the basis of many critieria including low toxicity, compatibility with the host material and expense. Phthalate esters of straight-chain and branched-chain alkyl alcohols meet these specifications and are common plasticizers. Ortho-phthalate esters have traditionally been the most dominant plasticizers, but regulatory concerns have led to the move away from classified substances to non-classified which includes high molecular weight ortho-phthalates and other plasticisers in Europe.
Plasticizers or water reducers, superplasticizers or high range water reducers, are chemical admixtures that can be added to concrete mixtures to improve workability. Unless the mix is "starved" of water, the strength of concrete is inversely proportional to the amount of water added or water-cement ratio. In order to produce stronger concrete, less water is added, which makes the concrete mixture less workable and difficult to mix, necessitating the use of plasticizers, water reducers, superplasticizers, or dispersants. Plasticizers are often used when pozzolanic ash is added to concrete to improve strength; this method of mix proportioning is popular when producing high-strength concrete and fiber-reinforced concrete. Adding 1-2% plasticizer per unit weight of cement is sufficient. Adding an excessive amount of plasticizer will result in excessive segregation of concrete and is not advisable. Depending on the particular chemical used, use of too much plasticizer may result in a retarding effect.
Plasticizers are manufactured from lignosulf
Neoprene is a family of synthetic rubbers that are produced by polymerization of chloroprene. Neoprene maintains flexibility over a wide temperature range. Neoprene is sold either as solid rubber or in latex form and is used in a wide variety of applications, such as laptop sleeves, orthopaedic braces, electrical insulation and sheet applied elastomeric membranes or flashings, automotive fan belts. Neoprene is produced by free-radical polymerization of chloroprene. In commercial production, this polymer is prepared by free radical emulsion polymerization. Polymerization is initiated using potassium persulfate. Bifunctional nucleophiles, metal oxides, thioureas are used to crosslink individual polymer strands. Neoprene was invented by DuPont scientists on April 17, 1930 after Dr Elmer K. Bolton of DuPont attended a lecture by Fr Julius Arthur Nieuwland, a professor of chemistry at the University of Notre Dame. Nieuwland's research was focused on acetylene chemistry and during the course of his work he produced divinyl acetylene, a jelly that firms into an elastic compound similar to rubber when passed over sulfur dichloride.
After DuPont purchased the patent rights from the university, Wallace Carothers of DuPont took over commercial development of Nieuwland's discovery in collaboration with Nieuwland himself. Arnold Collins at DuPont focused on monovinyl acetylene and allowed it to react with hydrogen chloride gas, manufacturing chloroprene. DuPont first marketed the compound in 1931 under the trade name DuPrene, but its commercial possibilities were limited by the original manufacturing process, which left the product with a foul odor. A new process was developed, which eliminated the odor-causing byproducts and halved production costs, the company began selling the material to manufacturers of finished end-products. To prevent shoddy manufacturers from harming the product's reputation, the trademark DuPrene was restricted to apply only to the material sold by DuPont. Since the company itself did not manufacture any DuPrene-containing end products, the trademark was dropped in 1937 and replaced with a generic name, neoprene, in an attempt "to signify that the material is an ingredient, not a finished consumer product".
DuPont worked extensively to generate demand for its product, implementing a marketing strategy that included publishing its own technical journal, which extensively publicized neoprene's uses as well as advertising other companies' neoprene-based products. By 1939, sales of neoprene were generating profits over $300,000 for the company. Neoprene resists degradation more than synthetic rubber; this relative inertness makes it well suited for demanding applications such as gaskets and corrosion-resistant coatings. It can be used as a base for adhesives, noise isolation in power transformer installations, as padding in external metal cases to protect the contents while allowing a snug fit, it resists burning better than hydrocarbon based rubbers, resulting in its appearance in weather stripping for fire doors and in combat related attire such as gloves and face masks. Because of its tolerance of extreme conditions, neoprene is used to line landfills. Neoprene's burn point is around 260 °C. In its native state, neoprene is a pliable rubber-like material with insulating properties similar to rubber or other solid plastics.
Neoprene foam is produced in either closed-cell or open-cell form. The closed-cell form is less compressible and more expensive; the open-cell form can be breathable. It is manufactured by foaming the rubber with nitrogen gas, where the tiny enclosed and separated gas bubbles can serve as insulation. Nitrogen gas is most used for the foaming of Neoprene foam due to its inertness, flame resistance, large range of processing temperatures. Neoprene is used as a load bearing base between two prefabricated reinforced concrete elements or steel plates as well to evenly guide force from one element to another. Neoprene is a popular material in making protective clothing for aquatic activities. Foamed neoprene is used to make fly fishing waders and wetsuits, as it provides excellent insulation against cold; the foam is quite buoyant, divers compensate for this by wearing weights. Thick wet suits made at the extreme end of their cold water protection are made of 7 mm thick neoprene. Since foam neoprene contains gas pockets, the material compresses under water pressure, getting thinner at greater depths.
A recent advance in neoprene for wet suits is the "super-flex" variety, which mixes spandex into the neoprene for greater flexibility. Neoprene waders are about 5 mm thick, in the medium price range as compared to cheaper materials such as nylon and more expensive waterproof fabrics made with breathable membranes. Competitive swimming wetsuits are made of the most expanded foam; the downside is. Neoprene has become a favorite material for lifestyle and other home accessories including laptop sleeves, tablet holders, remote controls, mouse pads, cycling chamois. In this market, it sometimes competes with LRPu, a sturdier but less-used material; the Rhodes piano used hammer tips made of neoprene in its electric pianos, after changing from felt hammers around 1970. Neoprene is used for speaker cones and drum practice pads."4 Great Drum Mutes". Making Music. February 2
Acetic acid, systematically named ethanoic acid, is a colourless liquid organic compound with the chemical formula CH3COOH. When undiluted, it is sometimes called glacial acetic acid. Vinegar is no less than 4% acetic acid by volume, making acetic acid the main component of vinegar apart from water. Acetic acid has pungent smell. In addition to household vinegar, it is produced as a precursor to polyvinyl acetate and cellulose acetate, it is classified as a weak acid since it only dissociates in solution, but concentrated acetic acid is corrosive and can attack the skin. Acetic acid is the second simplest carboxylic acid, it consists of a methyl group attached to a carboxyl group. It is an important chemical reagent and industrial chemical, used in the production of cellulose acetate for photographic film, polyvinyl acetate for wood glue, synthetic fibres and fabrics. In households, diluted acetic acid is used in descaling agents. In the food industry, acetic acid is controlled by the food additive code E260 as an acidity regulator and as a condiment.
In biochemistry, the acetyl group, derived from acetic acid, is fundamental to all forms of life. When bound to coenzyme A, it is central to the metabolism of fats; the global demand for acetic acid is about 6.5 million metric tons per year, of which 1.5 Mt/a is met by recycling. Vinegar is dilute acetic acid produced by fermentation and subsequent oxidation of ethanol; the trivial name acetic acid is the most used and preferred IUPAC name. The systematic name ethanoic acid, a valid IUPAC name, is constructed according to the substitutive nomenclature; the name acetic acid derives from acetum, the Latin word for vinegar, is related to the word acid itself. Glacial acetic acid is a name for water-free acetic acid. Similar to the German name Eisessig, the name comes from the ice-like crystals that form below room temperature at 16.6 °C. A common symbol for acetic acid is AcOH, where Ac is the pseudoelement symbol representing the acetyl group CH3−C−. To better reflect its structure, acetic acid is written as CH3–COH, CH3−COH, CH3COOH, CH3CO2H.
In the context of acid-base reactions, the abbreviation HAc is sometimes used, where Ac in this case is a symbol for acetate. Acetate is the ion resulting from loss of H+ from acetic acid; the name acetate can refer to a salt containing this anion, or an ester of acetic acid. The hydrogen centre in the carboxyl group in carboxylic acids such as acetic acid can separate from the molecule by ionization: CH3CO2H ⇌ CH3CO2− + H+Because of this release of the proton, acetic acid has acidic character. Acetic acid is a weak monoprotic acid. In aqueous solution, it has a pKa value of 4.76. Its conjugate base is acetate. A 1.0 M solution has a pH of 2.4, indicating that 0.4% of the acetic acid molecules are dissociated. However, in dilute solution acetic acid is >90% dissociated. In solid acetic acid, the molecules form chains, individual molecules being interconnected by hydrogen bonds. In the vapour at 120 °C, dimers can be detected. Dimers occur in the liquid phase in dilute solutions in non-hydrogen-bonding solvents, a certain extent in pure acetic acid, but are disrupted by hydrogen-bonding solvents.
The dissociation enthalpy of the dimer is estimated at 65.0–66.0 kJ/mol, the dissociation entropy at 154–157 J mol−1 K−1. Other carboxylic acids engage in similar intermolecular hydrogen bonding interactions. Liquid acetic acid is a hydrophilic protic similar to ethanol and water. With a moderate relative static permittivity of 6.2, it dissolves not only polar compounds such as inorganic salts and sugars, but non-polar compounds such as oils as well as polar solutes. It is miscible with polar and non-polar solvents such as water and hexane. With higher alkanes, acetic acid is not miscible, its miscibility declines with longer n-alkanes; the solvent and miscibility properties of acetic acid make it a useful industrial chemical, for example, as a solvent in the production of dimethyl terephthalate. At physiological pHs, acetic acid is fully ionised to acetate; the acetyl group, formally derived from acetic acid, is fundamental to all forms of life. When bound to coenzyme A, it is central to the metabolism of fats.
Unlike longer-chain carboxylic acids, acetic acid does not occur in natural triglycerides. However, the artificial triglyceride triacetin is a common food additive and is found in cosmetics and topical medicines. Acetic acid is produced and excreted by acetic acid bacteria, notably the genus Acetobacter and Clostridium acetobutylicum; these bacteria are found universally in foodstuffs and soil, acetic acid is produced as fruits and other foods spoil. Acetic acid is a component of the vaginal lubrication of humans and other primates, where it appears to serve as a mild antibacterial agent. Acetic acid is produced industrially both synthetically and by bacterial fermentation. About 75% of acetic acid made for use in the chemical industry is made by the carbonylation of methanol, explained below; the biological route accounts for only a
Butyl rubber, sometimes just called "butyl", is a synthetic rubber, a copolymer of isobutylene with isoprene. The abbreviation IIR stands for isobutylene isoprene rubber. Polyisobutylene known as "PIB" or polyisobutene, n, is the homopolymer of isobutylene, or 2-methyl-1-propene, on which butyl rubber is based. Butyl rubber is produced by polymerization of about 98% of isobutylene with about 2% of isoprene. Structurally, polyisobutylene resembles polypropylene, but has two methyl groups substituted on every other carbon atom, rather than one. Polyisobutylene is a colorless to light yellow viscoelastic material, it is odorless and tasteless, though it may exhibit a slight characteristic odor. Butyl rubber has excellent impermeability, the long polyisobutylene segments of its polymer chains give it good flex properties; the formula for PIB is: –n– The formula for IIR is: It can be made from the monomer isobutylene only via cationic addition polymerization. A synthetic rubber, or elastomer, butyl rubber is impermeable to air and used in many applications requiring an airtight rubber.
Polyisobutylene and butyl rubber are used in the manufacture of adhesives, agricultural chemicals, fiber optic compounds, ball bladders, O-rings and sealants, cling film, electrical fluids, lubricants and pulp, personal care products, pigment concentrates, for rubber and polymer modification, for protecting and sealing certain equipment for use in areas where chemical weapons are present, as a gasoline/diesel fuel additive, chewing gum. The first major application of butyl rubber was tire inner tubes; this remains an important segment of its market today. Isobutylene was discovered by Michael Faraday in 1825. Polyisobutylene was first developed by the BASF unit of IG Farben in 1931 using a boron trifluoride catalyst at low temperatures and sold under the trade name Oppanol B. PIB remains a core business for BASF to this day, it was developed into butyl rubber in 1937, by researchers William J. Sparks and Robert M. Thomas, at Standard Oil of New Jersey's Linden, N. J. laboratory. Today, the majority of the global supply of butyl rubber is produced by two companies, ExxonMobil and Polymer Corporation, a Canadian federal crown corporation established in 1942 to produce artificial rubber to substitute for overseas supply cut off by World War II.
It was renamed Polysar in 1976 and the rubber component became a subsidiary, Polysar Rubber Corp. The company was privatized in 1988 with its sale to NOVA Corp which, in turn, sold Polysar Rubber in 1990 to Bayer AG of Germany. In 2005 Bayer AG spun off chemical divisions, including most of the Sarnia site, creating LANXESS AG of Germany. PIB homopolymers of high molecular weight are polyolefin elastomers: tough extensible rubber-like materials over a wide temperature range. In the 1950s and 1960s, halogenated butyl rubber was developed, in its chlorinated and brominated variants, providing higher curing rates and allowing covulcanization with other rubbers such as natural rubber and styrene-butadiene rubber. Halobutyl is today the most important material for the inner linings of tubeless tires. Francis P. Baldwin received the 1979 Charles Goodyear Medal for the many patents he held for these developments. In the spring of 2013 two incidents of PIB contamination in the English Channel, believed to be connected, were described as the worst UK marine pollution'for decades'.
The RSPB estimated over 2,600 seabirds were killed by the chemical and hundreds more were rescued and decontaminated. Polyisobutylene can be reacted with maleic anhydride to make polyisobutenylsuccinic anhydride, which can be converted into polyisobutenylsuccinimides by reacting it with various ethyleneamines; these derivatives have interesting properties when used as an additive in lubricating oils and motor fuels. Polyisobutylene added in small amounts to the lubricating oils used in machining results in a significant reduction in the generation of oil mist and thus reduces the operator's inhalation of oil mist, it is used to clean up waterborne oil spills as part of the commercial product Elastol. When added to crude oil it increases the oil's viscoelasticity when pulled, causing the oil to resist breakup when it is vacuumed from the surface of the water; as a fuel additive, polyisobutylene has detergent properties. When added to diesel fuel, it resists fouling of fuel injectors, leading to reduced hydrocarbon and particulate emissions.
It is blended with other detergents and additives to make a "detergent package", added to gasoline and diesel fuel to resist buildup of deposits and engine knock. Polyisobutylene is used in some formulations as a thickening agent. Polyisobutylene is used by the explosives industry as a binding agent in plastic explosives such as C-4. Polyisobutylene binder is used because it makes the explosive more insensitive to premature detonation as well as making it easier to handle and mold. Butyl rubber is used in speakers the surrounds, it was used. The majority of modern speakers use butyl rubber. Butyl rubber is used for the bladders in sporting balls to provide a tough, airtight inner compartment. Butyl rubber sealant is used for damp proofing, rubber roof repair and for maintenance of roof membranes, it is important to have the roof membrane fixed, as a lot of fixtures (e.g. air conditioner vents, plumbi
Rubber Industry Smallholders Development Authority
Rubber Industry Smallholders Development Authority, abbreviated RISDA, is a Malaysian federal government agency under the Ministry of Rural and Regional Development entrusted to oversee the smallholder sector as an important production sector in the national economy. RISDA was established on 1 January 1973 under the powers passed by Parliament:- the Rubber Industry Smallholders Development Authority Act 1972 and the Rubber Industry Fund Ordinance 1952. To implement development policies and programs to ensure the growth and viability of the smallholder sector rubber industry. To be the agency of "Smallholders Development Leader" To build a progressive and prosperous smallho. Minimum income of RM4000.00 monthly per smallholder family before 2020. RISDA Is committed to manage Replanting Assistance Programmes efficiently and to meet the needs of small farmers. RISDA objective is creating sense of responsibility and commitment among all staffs in all offices to enhance the efficiency and customer's satisfaction.