A thermophile is an organism—a type of extremophile—that thrives at relatively high temperatures, between 41 and 122 °C. Thermophilic eubacteria are suggested to have been among the earliest bacteria, unlike other types of bacteria, thermophiles can survive at much hotter temperatures, whereas other bacteria would be damaged and sometimes killed if exposed to the same temperatures. As a prerequisite for their survival, thermophiles contain enzymes that can function at high temperatures, some of these enzymes are used in molecular biology, and in washing agents. Thermophile is derived from the Greek, θερμότητα, meaning heat, thermophiles are classified into 1. obligate and 2. Facultative 3. hyper thermophiles, Obligate thermophiles require such high temperatures for growth, whereas Facultative thermophiles can thrive at high temperatures, hyperthermophiles are particularly extreme thermophiles for which the optimal temperatures are above 80 °C. Bacteria within the Alicyclobacillus genus are acidophilic thermophiles, which can cause contamination in fruit juice drinks.
Thermophiles, meaning heat-loving, are organisms with a growth temperature of 50 °C or more, a maximum of up to 70 °C or more, and a minimum of about 40 °C. Some extreme thermophiles require a high temperature for growth. Their membranes and proteins are stable at these extremely high temperatures. Thus, many important biotechnological processes use thermophilic enzymes because of their ability to withstand intense heat, many of the hyperthermophiles Archea require elemental sulfur for growth. Some are anaerobes that use the sulfur instead of oxygen as an electron acceptor during cellular respiration, some are lithotrophs that oxidize sulfur to sulfuric acid as an energy source, thus requiring the microorganism to be adapted to very low pH. These organisms are inhabitants of hot, sulfur-rich environments usually associated with volcanism, such as hot springs, geysers, in these places, especially in Yellowstone National Park, zonation of microorganisms according to their temperature optima occurs.
Often, these organisms are colored, due to the presence of photosynthetic pigments, thermophiles can be discriminated from mesophiles from genomic features. Sulfolobus solfataricus and Sulfolobus acidocaldarius are hyperthermophilic archaea, when these organisms are exposed to the DNA damaging agents UV irradiation, bleomycin or mitomycin C, species-specific cellular aggregation is induced. In S. acidocaldarius, UV-induced cellular aggregation mediates chromosomal marker exchange with high frequency, recombination rates exceed those of uninduced cultures by up to three orders of magnitude. Van Wolferen et al. in discussing DNA exchange in the hyperthermophiles under extreme conditions and they suggested that this process is crucial under DNA damaging conditions such as high temperature. Hyperthermophile Mesophile Psychrophile Anaerobic digestion Archaea Sulfolobus Thermoprotei, Extreme Thermophile
A villa was originally an ancient Roman upper-class country house. Since its origins in the Roman villa, the idea and function of a villa have evolved considerably, after the fall of the Roman Republic, villas became small farming compounds, which were increasingly fortified in Late Antiquity, sometimes transferred to the Church for reuse as a monastery. Then they gradually re-evolved through the Middle Ages into elegant upper-class country homes, in modern parlance, villa can refer to various types and sizes of residences, ranging from the suburban semi-detached double villa to residences in the wildland–urban interface. In ancient Roman architecture a villa was originally a house built for the élite. The Roman villae rusticae at the heart of latifundia were the earliest versions of what later, not included as villae were the domus, a city house for the élite and privileged classes, and insulae, blocks of apartment buildings for the rest of the population. In Satyricon, Petronius described the range of Roman dwellings.
Another type of villae is the villa marittima, a seaside villa, a concentration of Imperial villas existed on the Gulf of Naples, on the Isle of Capri, at Monte Circeo and at Antium. Examples include the Villa of the Papyri in Herculaneum, and the Villa of the Mysteries, wealthy Romans escaped the summer heat in the hills round Rome, especially around Tibur (Tivoand Frascati, such as at Hadrians Villa. Cicero allegedly possessed no fewer than seven villas, the oldest of which was near Arpinum, pliny the Younger had three or four, of which the example near Laurentium is the best known from his descriptions. Roman writers refer with satisfaction to the self-sufficiency of their latifundium villas, archeologists have meticulously examined numerous Roman villas in England. The grand villa at Woodchester preserved its mosaic floors when the Anglo-Saxon parish church was built upon its site, grave-diggers preparing for burials in the churchyard as late as the 18th century had to punch through the intact mosaic floors.
The even more palatial villa rustica at Fishbourne near Winchester was built as an open rectangle. Villae rusticae are essential in the Empires economy, two kinds of villa-plan in Roman Britain may be characteristic of Roman villas in general. The more usual plan extended wings of all opening onto a linking portico. The other kind featured a central hall like a basilica. The villa buildings were often independent structures linked by their enclosed courtyards, timber-framed construction, carefully fitted with mortises and tenons and dowelled together, set on stone footings, were the rule, replaced by stone buildings for the important ceremonial rooms. Traces of window glass have been found, as well as ironwork window grilles, with the decline and collapse of the Western Roman Empire in the fourth and fifth centuries, the villas were more and more isolated and came to be protected by walls. In England the villas were abandoned and burned by Anglo-Saxon invaders in the fifth century, in regions on the Continent and territorial magnates donated large working villas and overgrown abandoned ones to individual monks, these might become the nuclei of monasteries
JoJo's Bizarre Adventure
JoJos Bizarre Adventure is a Japanese manga series written and illustrated by Hirohiko Araki. It was originally serialized in Weekly Shōnen Jump from 1987 to 2004 before being transferred to the seinen magazine Ultra Jump in 2005. The current story arc, JoJolion, started in 2011, JoJos Bizarre Adventure is currently Shueishas second largest manga series with its chapters collected into 118 tankōbon volumes and counting. A six-volume original video adaptation of the half of the series third story arc was released from 1993 to 1994 by studio A. P. P. P. Followed by another seven-volume series covering earlier parts of the arc from 2000 to 2002, produced a theatrical film of the first arc in 2007. In 2012 an anime series produced by David Production began broadcast on Tokyo MX. A second 48-episode season covering the arc was broadcast in 2014 and 2015, and a 39 episode season adapting the fourth began on April 1,2016. From 2003 to 2005, Super Techno Arts released both OVA series in North America, Viz Media released a translation of the third part of JoJos Bizarre Adventure in North America from 2005 to 2010, and began publishing English versions of the first two arcs in 2015.
JoJos Bizarre Adventure tells the story of the Joestar family, a family whose members discover they are destined to take down supernatural foes using unique powers that they possess. The manga is split up into 8 unique parts, each following the story of one member of the Joestar family, the first six parts of the series take place within a single continuity, while parts 7 and 8 take place in an alternate continuity. Part 1 Phantom Blood JoJos Bizarre Adventure volumes 1 to 5, in the 1880s in Great Britain, the young Jonathan Joestar meets his new adopted brother Dio Brando, who only wants to usurp Jonathan as heir to the Joestar family. However, his attempts are thwarted and he resorts to using an ancient Stone Mask which transforms him into a vampire, Part 2 Battle Tendency JoJos Bizarre Adventure volumes 5 to 12. Part 3 Stardust Crusaders JoJos Bizarre Adventure volumes 12 to 28, in 1989, Jotaro Kujo, a Japanese high school student, places himself in jail because he believes he is possessed by an evil spirit.
After thwarting an attempt by transfer student Noriaki Kakyoin who is under Dios thrall, Jotaro. Part 4 Diamond Is Unbreakable JoJos Bizarre Adventure volumes 29 to 47, Part 5 Vento Aureo Le Bizzarre Avventure di GioGio volumes 47 to 63. Koichi ultimately discovers the boys Stand and his goals for reforming the mafia from the inside out. Part 6 Stone Ocean Stone Ocean volumes 1 to 17, in 2011 near Port St. Lucie, Jolyne Cujoh is arrested and sent to the Green Dolphin St. Prison for murder. Her estranged father Jotaro visits her and reveals that she has set up in order for one of Dios disciples to kill her within the prison
House of Bourbon
The House of Bourbon is a European royal house of French origin, a branch of the Capetian dynasty. Bourbon kings first ruled France and Navarre in the 16th century, by the 18th century, members of the Bourbon dynasty held thrones in Spain, Naples and Parma. Spain and Luxembourg currently have Bourbon monarchs, the royal Bourbons originated in 1268, when the heiress of the lordship of Bourbon married a younger son of King Louis IX. The house continued for three centuries as a branch, while more senior Capetians ruled France, until Henry IV became the first Bourbon king of France in 1589. Restored briefly in 1814 and definitively in 1815 after the fall of the First French Empire, a cadet Bourbon branch, the House of Orléans, ruled for 18 years, until it too was overthrown. The Princes de Condé were a branch of the Bourbons descended from an uncle of Henry IV. Both houses were prominent in French affairs, even during exile in the French Revolution, until their respective extinctions in 1830 and 1814.
When the Bourbons inherited the strongest claim to the Spanish throne, the claim was passed to a cadet Bourbon prince, a grandson of Louis XIV of France, who became Philip V of Spain. The Spanish House of Bourbon has been overthrown and restored several times, reigning 1700–1808, 1813–1868, 1875–1931, Bourbons ruled in Naples from 1734–1806 and in Sicily from 1734–1816, and in a unified Kingdom of the Two Sicilies from 1816–1860. They ruled in Parma from 1731–1735, 1748–1802 and 1847–1859, all legitimate, living members of the House of Bourbon, including its cadet branches, are direct agnatic descendants of Henry IV. The term House of Bourbon is sometimes used to refer to this first house and the House of Bourbon-Dampierre, the second family to rule the seigneury. In 1268, Count of Clermont, sixth son of King Louis IX of France, married Beatrix of Bourbon, heiress to the lordship of Bourbon and their son Louis was made Duke of Bourbon in 1327. His descendant, the Constable of France Charles de Bourbon, was the last of the senior Bourbon line when he died in 1527.
Because he chose to fight under the banner of Holy Roman Emperor Charles V and lived in exile from France, the remaining line of Bourbons henceforth descended from James I, Count of La Marche, the younger son of Louis I, Duke of Bourbon. With the death of his grandson James II, Count of La Marche in 1438, all future Bourbons would descend from James IIs younger brother, who became the Count of Vendôme through his mothers inheritance. In 1514, Count of Vendôme had his title raised to Duke of Vendôme and his son Antoine became King of Navarre, on the northern side of the Pyrenees, by marriage in 1555. Two of Antoines younger brothers were Cardinal Archbishop Charles de Bourbon, Louis male-line, the Princes de Condé, survived until 1830. Finally, in 1589, the House of Valois died out and he was born on 13 December 1553 in the Kingdom of Navarre
Mount Etna is an active stratovolcano on the east coast of Sicily, Italy, in the Metropolitan City of Catania, between the cities of Messina and Catania. It lies above the convergent plate margin between the African Plate and the Eurasian Plate and it is the tallest active volcano in Europe, currently 3,329 m high, though this varies with summit eruptions. It is the highest peak in Italy south of the Alps, Etna covers an area of 1,190 km2 with a basal circumference of 140 km. This makes it by far the largest of the three volcanoes in Italy, being about two and a half times the height of the next largest, Mount Vesuvius. Only Mount Teide in Tenerife surpasses it in the whole of the European–North-African region, Mount Etna is one of the most active volcanoes in the world and is in an almost constant state of activity. The fertile volcanic soils support extensive agriculture, with vineyards and orchards spread across the slopes of the mountain. Due to its history of recent activity and nearby population, Mount Etna has been designated a Decade Volcano by the United Nations, in June 2013, it was added to the list of UNESCO World Heritage Sites.
According to Adrian Room’s book Place-names of the World, the name Etna originated from the Phoenician word attuna meaning furnace or chimney and he dismisses the hypothesis that Etna is from the Greek αἴθω, meaning I burn, through an iotacist pronunciation. In Classical Greek, it is called Αἴτνη, a name to Catania and the city originally known as Inessa. In Arabic, it was called جبل النار Jabal al-Nār and it is known as Mungibeddu in Sicilian and Mongibello or Montebello in Italian. The term is not in use today, although some older people still call it this. According to another hypothesis the term Mongibello comes from the Latin Mulciber, the people of the Etna sometimes use the jargon term a muntagna, simply the mountain par excellence. Nowadays, the term Mongibello indicates the top area of the two central craters encompassing the craters in the southeast and the northeast of the volcanic cone. Volcanic activity first took place at Etna about 500,000 years ago, about 300,000 years ago, volcanism began occurring to the southwest of the summit then, before activity moved towards the present centre 170,000 years ago.
Eruptions at this time built up the first major volcanic edifice, the growth of the mountain was occasionally interrupted by major eruptions, leading to the collapse of the summit to form calderas. From about 35,000 to 15,000 years ago, Etna experienced some highly explosive eruptions, generating pyroclastic flows. Ash from these eruptions has been found as far away as south of Romes border,800 km to the north, the landslide left a large depression in the side of the volcano, known as Valle del Bove. Research published in 2006 suggested this occurred around 8000 years ago, and caused a huge tsunami and it may have been the reason the settlement of Atlit Yam, now below sea level, was suddenly abandoned around that time
Italy, officially the Italian Republic, is a unitary parliamentary republic in Europe. Located in the heart of the Mediterranean Sea, Italy shares open land borders with France, Austria, San Marino, Italy covers an area of 301,338 km2 and has a largely temperate seasonal climate and Mediterranean climate. Due to its shape, it is referred to in Italy as lo Stivale. With 61 million inhabitants, it is the fourth most populous EU member state, the Italic tribe known as the Latins formed the Roman Kingdom, which eventually became a republic that conquered and assimilated other nearby civilisations. The legacy of the Roman Empire is widespread and can be observed in the distribution of civilian law, republican governments, Christianity. The Renaissance began in Italy and spread to the rest of Europe, bringing a renewed interest in humanism, exploration, Italian culture flourished at this time, producing famous scholars and polymaths such as Leonardo da Vinci, Galileo and Machiavelli. The weakened sovereigns soon fell victim to conquest by European powers such as France and Austria.
Despite being one of the victors in World War I, Italy entered a period of economic crisis and social turmoil. The subsequent participation in World War II on the Axis side ended in defeat, economic destruction. Today, Italy has the third largest economy in the Eurozone and it has a very high level of human development and is ranked sixth in the world for life expectancy. The country plays a prominent role in regional and global economic, military and diplomatic affairs, as a reflection of its cultural wealth, Italy is home to 51 World Heritage Sites, the most in the world, and is the fifth most visited country. The assumptions on the etymology of the name Italia are very numerous, according to one of the more common explanations, the term Italia, from Latin, was borrowed through Greek from the Oscan Víteliú, meaning land of young cattle. The bull was a symbol of the southern Italic tribes and was often depicted goring the Roman wolf as a defiant symbol of free Italy during the Social War. Greek historian Dionysius of Halicarnassus states this account together with the legend that Italy was named after Italus, mentioned by Aristotle and Thucydides.
The name Italia originally applied only to a part of what is now Southern Italy – according to Antiochus of Syracuse, but by his time Oenotria and Italy had become synonymous, and the name applied to most of Lucania as well. The Greeks gradually came to apply the name Italia to a larger region, excavations throughout Italy revealed a Neanderthal presence dating back to the Palaeolithic period, some 200,000 years ago, modern Humans arrived about 40,000 years ago. Other ancient Italian peoples of undetermined language families but of possible origins include the Rhaetian people and Cammuni. Also the Phoenicians established colonies on the coasts of Sardinia and Sicily, the Roman legacy has deeply influenced the Western civilisation, shaping most of the modern world
Hirohiko Araki is a Japanese manga artist. He made his debut under the name Toshiyuki Araki in 1980 with his one-shot Poker Under Arms, Araki is best known for his long-running series JoJos Bizarre Adventure, first published in Weekly Shōnen Jump in 1986 and which to date has sold over 100 million copies in Japan alone. The story frequently references rock music and Italy, both of which Araki is reportedly very fond of, Araki grew up in Sendai, Japan with his parents and younger identical twin sisters. He was particularly influenced by the work of French artist Paul Gauguin, after a school friend praised his manga, he began secretly drawing manga behind his parents backs. He submitted his first work to a magazine in his first year of high school, all his submissions were rejected while other artists his age or younger were making successful debuts. He decided to go to the offices in Tokyo to find out why in person. The Shueisha editor he met highly criticized the work, but said it had potential, the manga was Poker Under Arms.
Araki left Miyagi University of Education before graduating, and made his debut in 1980 with the wild west one-shot Poker Under Arms and his first serialization was Cool Shock B. T. in 1983, about a young magician who solves mysteries. But the first series to display his signature amount of gore was 1984s Baoh and it tells the story of a man who is implanted with a parasite by an evil organization, giving him superhuman powers, and follows as he fights against them. It was adapted into an OVA in 1989, the manga was released in the US by Viz Media in 1990 and it wasnt until The Gorgeous Irene in 1985, that he really developed his signature art style of buff, muscular characters. His next series would become his magnum opus, 1986s JoJos Bizarre Adventure, the series takes place in 1880s England and follows Jonathan Joestar and his adopted brother Dio Brando, the latter eventually trying to kill their father to get the inheritance. When confronted, Dio puts on an ancient mask that turns him into a vampire, JoJo learns a martial arts technique called hamon, and travels to Dios castle to kill him.
Subsequent arcs of JoJo follow different descendants of the Joestar family, Part 3, which would become the most popular, downplays the vampire story and ripple technique and instead introduces the power of Stands, which continues in the series today. The September 2007 issue of Cell had a cover drawn by Araki with a ligase represented as one of his Stands, in 2008, Araki drew the cover art for a collection featuring Yasunari Kawabatas short story The Dancing Girl of Izu. He drew the cover for the edition of Base Ball Bears Breeeeze Girl single. Also in 2009, Hirohiko Araki was one of five selected by the Musée du Louvre to create original works set at the famous museum. The following year, Rohan at the Louvre was published in France and it was released in the US by NBM Publishing in February 2012. For Spur, Araki drew Kishibe Rohan meets Gucci, a full-color one-shot featuring Rohan Kishibe that ran in its October 2011 issue
A summit is a point on a surface that is higher in elevation than all points immediately adjacent to it. Mathematically, a summit is a maximum in elevation. The topographic terms acme, apex and zenith are synonymous, the UIAA definition is that a summit is independent if it has a prominence of 30 metres or more, it is a mountain if it has a prominence of at least 300 metres. This can be summarised as follows, A pyramidal peak is an exaggerated form produced by ice erosion of a mountain top, Summit may refer to the highest point along a line, trail, or route. In many parts of the western United States, the term refers to the highest point along a road, highway. For example, the highest point along Interstate 80 in California is referred to as Donner Summit while the highest point on Interstate 5 is Siskiyou Mountain Summit, geoid Hill List of highest mountains Maxima and minima Nadir Summit accordance Peak finder
Hephaestus is the Greek god of blacksmiths, artisans, metals, metallurgy and volcanoes. In Greek mythology, Hephaestus was the son of Zeus and Hera, in another version, he was Heras parthenogenous child, rejected by his mother because of his deformity and thrown off Mount Olympus and down to earth. As a smithing god, Hephaestus made all the weapons of the gods in Olympus and he served as the blacksmith of the gods, and was worshipped in the manufacturing and industrial centers of Greece, particularly Athens. The cult of Hephaestus was based in Lemnos, Hephaestus symbols are a smiths hammer, and a pair of tongs. The name of the god in Greek has a root which can be observed in names of places of Pre-Greek origin, Hephaestus had his own palace on Olympus, containing his workshop with anvil and twenty bellows that worked at his bidding. Hephaestus crafted much of the magnificent equipment of the gods, in accounts, Hephaestus worked with the help of the chthonic Cyclopes—among them his assistants in the forge, Brontes and Pyracmon.
Hephaestus built automatons of metal to work for him and this included tripods that walked to and from Mount Olympus. He gave to the blinded Orion his apprentice Cedalion as a guide, in some versions of the myth, Prometheus stole the fire that he gave to man from Hephaestuss forge. Hephaestus created the gift that the gods gave to man, being a skilled blacksmith, Hephaestus created all the thrones in the Palace of Olympus. The Greek myths and the Homeric poems sanctified in stories that Hephaestus had a power to produce motion. He made the golden and silver lions and dogs at the entrance of the palace of Alkinoos in such a way that they could bite the invaders, the Greeks maintained in their civilization an animistic idea that statues are in some sense alive. This kind of art and the animistic belief goes back to the Minoan period, when Daedalus, a statue of the god was somehow the god himself, and the image on a mans tomb indicated somehow his presence. Homers Odyssey and Iliad have Hephaestus being born of the union of Zeus, in another tradition, attested by Hesiod, Hera bore Hephaestus alone.
In Hesiods Zeus-centered cosmology, Hera gave birth to Hephaestus as revenge for Zeus giving birth to Athena without her, several texts follow Hesiods account, including Bibliotheke and the preface to Fabulae. In the account of Attic vase painters, Hephaestus was present at the birth of Athena, in the latter account, Hephaestus is there represented as older than Athena, so the mythology of Hephaestus is inconsistent in this respect. In one branch of Greek mythology, Hera ejected Hephaestus from the heavens because he was shrivelled of foot and he fell into the ocean and was raised by Thetis and the Oceanid Eurynome. In another account, attempting to rescue his mother from Zeus advances, was flung down from the heavens by Zeus. He fell for a day and landed on the island of Lemnos
Hades and Persephone were sometimes included as part of the twelve Olympians, although in general Hades was excluded, because he resided permanently in the underworld and never visited Olympus. The Twelve Olympians, known as the Dodekatheon, were the deities of the Greek pantheon. The Olympians gained their supremacy in a war of gods in which Zeus led his siblings to victory over their predecessor gods. The concept of the Twelve Gods is older than any extant Greek or Roman source, the gods meet in council in the Homeric epics, but the first ancient reference to religious ceremonies for the Olympians collectively is found in the Homeric Hymn to Hermes. The Greek cult of the Twelve Olympians can be traced to 6th-century BC Athens, the Altar of the Twelve Gods at Athens is usually dated to the archonship of the younger Pesistratos, in 522/521 BC. In ancient Greek religion, the Olympian Gods and the Cults of Twelve Gods were often relatively distinct concepts, while the number was fixed at twelve, there was considerable variation as to which deities were included.
However, the twelve as most commonly portrayed in art and poetry were Zeus, Poseidon, Athena, Artemis, Aphrodite, Hephaestus and either Hestia, or Dionysus. Hades, known in the Eleusinian tradition as Pluto, was not usually included among the Olympians because his realm was the underworld. Plato connected the Twelve Olympians with the months, and implies that he considered Pluto one of the twelve in proposing that the final month be devoted to him. In Phaedrus, Plato seems to exclude Hestia from the rank of the great gods. At Olympia there were six altars dedicated to six pairs of gods and Poseidon, Hera and Athena and Apollo, the Charites and Dionysus and Alpheus, the historian Herodotus states that Heracles was included as one of the Twelve by some. At Kos and Dionysus are added to the Twelve, for Pindar, the Bibliotheca, and Herodorus of Heraclea, Heracles is not one of the Twelve Gods, but the one who established their cult. Lucian includes Heracles and Asclepius as members of the Twelve, without explaining which two had to give way for them, Helios, Eos and Persephone are other important gods and goddesses who are sometimes included in a group of twelve.
Eros is often depicted alongside the twelve, especially his mother Aphrodite. Notes ^ Romans associated Phoebus with Helios and the sun itself, however, ^ According to an alternate version of her birth, Aphrodite was born of Uranus, Zeus grandfather, after Cronus threw his castrated genitals into the sea. This supports the etymology of her name, foam-born, as such, Aphrodite would belong to the same generation as Cronus, Zeus father, and would be Zeus aunt. See the birth of Aphrodite The following gods and goddess are sometimes included as one of the twelve Olympians, the following gods and goddesses were not usually counted as Olympians, although they had close ties to them. Aeolus – King of the winds, keeper of the Anemoi, Alpheus – God of the River Alpheus
The term vulcanian was first used by Giuseppe Mercalli, witnessing the 1888-1890 eruptions on the island of Vulcano. His description of the style is now used all over the world for eruptions characterised by a dense cloud of ash-laden gas exploding from the crater. Mercalli described vulcanian eruptions as. Explosions like cannon fire at irregular intervals and their explosive nature is due to increased silica content of the magma. Almost all types of magma can be involved, but magma with about 55% or more silica is most common, increasing silica levels increase the viscosity of the magma which means increased explosiveness. They usually commence with phreatomagmatic eruptions which can be noisy due the rising magma heating water in the ground. This is usually followed by the clearing of the vent. As the vent clears, further ash clouds become grey-white and creamy in colour, vulcanian eruptions display several common characteristics. The mass of rock ejected during the eruption is usually between 102 -106 tonnes and contains a proportion of non-juvinial material.
During active periods of activity, intervals between explosions vary from less than 1 minute to about a day. Pyroclastic flows are common features of this type of eruption. The gas streaming phase of vulcanian eruptions are characterised by discrete cannon-like explosions and these expulsions of gas can reach supersonic velocities resulting in shock waves. The tephra is dispersed over an area than that from Strombolian eruptions. The pyroclastic rock and the surge deposits form an ash volcanic cone. The eruption ends with a flow of viscous lava, vulcanian eruptions may throw large metre-size blocks several hundred metres, occasionally up to several kilometres. Vulcanian eruptions are dangerous to persons within several hundred metres of the vent, volcanic bombs are common products of this type of eruption. These are initially molten blobs of lava, which cool into blocks often 2 to 3 m across. At Galeras, an eruption ejected bombs which struck several volcanologists who were in the crater. The 11 September 1930 eruption of Stromboli was a vulcanian eruption and it started at 08,10 hours, when ash was vented for about 10 minutes
The Tyrrhenian Sea is part of the Mediterranean Sea off the western coast of Italy. It is named for the Tyrrhenian people, identified since the 6th century BCE with the Etruscans of Italy, the sea is bounded by the islands of Corsica and Sardinia, the Italian peninsula to the east, and the island of Sicily. The maximum depth of the sea is 3,785 metres, the Tyrrhenian Sea is situated near where the African and Eurasian Plates meet, therefore mountain chains and active volcanoes such as Mount Marsili are found in its depths. The eight Aeolian Islands and Ustica are located in the part of the sea. On the Southwest, A line running from Cape Lilibeo to the South extreme of Cape Teulada in Sardinia, in the Strait of Bonifacio, A line joining the West extreme of Cape Testa in Sardinia with the Southwest extreme of Cape Feno in Corsica. On the North, A line joining Cape Corse in Corsica, with Tinetto Island and thence through Tino, there are four exits from the Tyrrhenian Sea, The Tyrrhenian Basin is divided into two basins, the Vavilov plain and the Marsili plain.
They are separated by the ridge known as the Issel Bridge. Its name derives from the Greek name for the Etruscans, who were said to be emigrants from Lydia, the Etruscans settled along the coast of modern Tuscany and referred to the water as the Sea of the Etruscans. The main ports of the Tyrrhenian Sea in Italy are, Palermo, Salerno, Trapani, in France the most important port is Bastia. Note that even though the port of Rome is frequently used. Instead, the port of Rome refers to the facilities at Civitavecchia, some 68 km to the northwest of Rome. Giglio Porto is an island port in this area. It rose to prominence, when the Costa Concordia ran aground a few metres off the coast of Giglio, the ship was recently removed and towed to Genoa. In Greek mythology, it is believed that the cliffs above the Tyrrhenian Sea housed the four winds kept by Aeolus, the winds are the Mistral from the Rhône valley, the Libeccio from the southwest, and the Sirocco and Ostro from the south