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A vulture is a scavenging bird of prey. The two types of vultures are the New World vultures, including the Californian and Andean condors, the Old World vultures, including the birds that are seen scavenging on carcasses of dead animals on African plains; some traditional Old World vultures are not related to the others, why the vultures are to be subdivided into three taxa rather than two. New World vultures are found in South America. A particular characteristic of many vultures is a bald head, devoid of normal feathers. Although it has been believed to help keep the head clean when feeding, the bare skin may play an important role in thermoregulation. Vultures have been observed to hunch their bodies and tuck in their heads in the cold, open their wings and stretch their necks in the heat. Vultures use urine as a way to keep themselves cool by urinating on themselves. A group of vultures is called a committee or wake; the term kettle refers to vultures in flight, while committee refers to vultures resting on the ground or in trees.

Wake is reserved for a group of vultures. The word Geier does not have a precise meaning in ornithology; the Old World vultures found in Africa and Europe belong to the family Accipitridae, which includes eagles, kites and hawks. Old World vultures find carcasses by sight; the 16 species in 9 genera are: Cinereous vulture, Aegypius monachus Griffon vulture, Gyps fulvus White-rumped vulture, Gyps bengalensis Rüppell's vulture, Gyps rueppelli Indian vulture, Gyps indicus Slender-billed vulture, Gyps tenuirostris Himalayan vulture, Gyps himalayensis White-backed vulture, Gyps africanus Cape vulture, Gyps coprotheres Hooded vulture, Necrosyrtes monachus Red-headed vulture, Sarcogyps calvus Lappet-faced vulture, Torgos tracheliotos White-headed vulture, Trigonoceps occipitalis Bearded vulture, Gypaetus barbatus Egyptian vulture, Neophron percnopterus Palm-nut vulture, Gypohierax angolensis The New World vultures and condors found in warm and temperate areas of the Americas are not related to the similar Accipitridae, but belong in the family Cathartidae, once considered to be related to the storks.

However, recent DNA evidence suggests that they should be included among the Accipitriformes, along with other birds of prey. However, they are still not related to the other vultures. Several species have a good sense of smell, unusual for raptors, are able to smell dead animals from great heights, up to a mile away; the seven species are: Black vulture Coragyps atratus in South America and north to the US Turkey vulture Cathartes aura throughout the Americas to southern Canada Lesser yellow-headed vulture Cathartes burrovianus in South America and north to Mexico Greater yellow-headed vulture Cathartes melambrotus in the Amazon Basin of tropical South America California condor Gymnogyps californianus in California widespread in the mountains of western North America Andean condor Vultur gryphus in the Andes King vulture Sarcoramphus papa from southern Mexico to northern Argentina Vultures are scavengers, meaning they eat dead animals. They attack healthy animals, but may kill the wounded or sick.

When a carcass has too thick a hide for its beak to open, it waits for a larger scavenger to eat first. Vast numbers have been seen upon battlefields, they gorge themselves when prey is abundant, until their crops bulge, sit, sleepy or half torpid, to digest their food. These birds disgorge it from their crops; the mountain-dwelling bearded vulture is the only vertebrate to specialize in eating bones, does carry bones to the nest for the young, it hunts some live prey. Vultures are of great value as scavengers in hot regions. Vulture stomach acid is exceptionally corrosive, allowing them to safely digest putrid carcasses infected with botulinum toxin, hog cholera bacteria, anthrax bacteria that would be lethal to other scavengers and remove these bacteria from the environment. New World vultures vomit when threatened or approached. Contrary to some accounts, they do not "projectile vomit" on their attacker in defense, but to lighten their stomach load to ease take-off; the vomited meal residue may distract a predator.

New World vultures urinate straight down their legs. Vultures in south Asia in India and Nepal, have declined since the early 1990s, it has been found that this decline was caused by residues of the veterinary drug Diclofenac in animal carcasses. The government of India has taken late cognizance of this fact and has banned the drug for animals. However, it may take decades for vultures to come back to their earlier population level, if they do: without vultures to pick corpses clean, rabies-carrying dogs have multiplied, feeding on the carrion, age-old practices like the sky burials of the Parsees are coming to an end, permanently reducing the supply of corpses; the same problem is seen in Nepal where government has taken some late steps to conserve remaining vultures. In Central Africa there has been efforts to conserve the remaining vultures and bring their population numbers back up; this is due to the bushmeat trade, "it is est

Kristian Prestrud

Kristian Prestrud was a Norwegian naval officer and polar explorer who participated in Amundsen's South Pole expedition between 1910 and 1912. Prestrud was first officer of the Fram and leader of the Norwegian expedition's Eastern Sledge Party to the Scott Nunataks. Kristian Prestrud was born in the parish of Grue in Hedmark and was baptized in Grue Church during January 1882, his father was a distillery manager in Løten. Krsitian Prestrud left for the sea in 1896, he entered at the Naval Academy at Karljohansvern in Horten during 1898. He became second lieutenant in 1902 and first lieutenant in 1905. After leaving the Academy he sailed in the merchant fleet. Roald Amundsen was secretive about his real attentions with regards of the Fram expeditions, the only persons to know in advance were his brother, the ship's commander, Lieutenant Thorvald Nilsen. Lieutenant Prestrud and one other of the crew, Hjalmar Fredrik Gjertsen, were trusted with the information on the eve of the Fram's departure from Norway.

The rest of the crew of 18 was only to know upon Fram's stop-over at Madeira. During the winter stay at Framheim in Antarctica Prestrud, assisted by Hjalmar Johansen, made scientific observations. Prestrud was assigned to the original group of eight men that made the unsuccessful attempt to reach the Pole on 8 September 1911. Although they were forced to retreat due to extreme temperatures, they decided to head for the depot at 80°, unload their sledges and race back to Framheim; the disordered return was made in scattered groups, with the last two men arriving more than six hours after the others. Johansen and Prestrud stumbled into Framheim exhausted, having found the camp in the dark and fog only by following the barking of the dogs, it is that Prestrud would have frozen to death if Johansen had not taken care of him and brought him to safety. The next morning Amundsen was criticised by Johansen, who had experience from his Arctic exploration with Fridtjof Nansen; such opposition was unheard-of and Amundsen reorganized the Pole party by reducing its number.

Johansen, together with Prestrud and Stubberud was separated from the Pole team and tasked with the exploration of King Edward VII Land. In order to dishonor Johansen further, the less experienced Prestrud was put in charge of this. A cairn erected by Prestrud's group at Scott Nunataks, Alexandra Mountains on 3 December 1911 is considered a historic site of Antarctica. For his participation in the expedition, Kristian Prestrud was awarded the South Pole Medal, a Royal Norwegian award instituted by King Haakon VII in 1912 to reward participants in Roald Amundsen's South Pole expedition. In 1926, Prestrud was appointed assistant port of Kristiansand, but died the following year in 1927 at Kristiansand, Norway. Mount Prestrud Prestrud Inlet Roald Amundsen wrote about the expedition in Sydpolen published in two volumes in 1912-1913; the work was translated into English by A. G. Chater, published as The South Pole: An Account of the Norwegian Antarctic Expedition in the "Fram," 1910-1912 Fram Museum official website

Jade Dernbach

Jade Winston Dernbach is an English cricketer who plays for Surrey County Cricket Club. He represented England between 2011 and 2014, he made his first-class debut in 2003 and won the NBC Denis Compton Award in 2004 and 2009. Born in South Africa and schooled at St John's College, Johannesburg, he moved to England at the age of 14 and gained British citizenship, making him eligible for the England cricket team. After impressing for the England Lions in the West Indies in the early part of 2011, he was called up to the senior team as a replacement for Ajmal Shahzad for the knock out stages of the 2011 Cricket World Cup and made his Twenty20 and ODI debuts that year against Sri Lanka. Derek Pringle described him in The Daily Telegraph as a fast bowler, capable of obtaining conventional and reverse swing, as well as of deceiving the batsman by bowling a variety of slower balls. Dernbach was born in Johannesburg, South Africa to a South African father and an Italian mother and has used an Italian passport.

He moved with his family to England in 2000 when he was 14. In South Africa, his preferred sport was rugby union, but he began to develop as a cricketer in England. After bowling at an under-15s net session at Surrey, he moved through the age groups. Although born in South Africa, after his first call-up to the England squad, he stated that "I don't owe anything to South Africa. I was just born there, did a bit of schooling there, my whole cricket career has been based in the UK, UK is my home. I want to give everything I can to England cricket, that's the country I love and that's the country that has given me everything I have now."In 2013, Dernbach became the first UK-based athlete to pose for a PETA "Ink Not Mink" advertisement, showing off his arm and chest tattoos on behalf of the anti-fur campaign. His consistency and regular wicket-taking for Surrey was rewarded with a place on the 2011 England Lions tour to the West Indies, before a late call-up to England’s 2011 World Cup squad made him the first Surrey youth academy graduate to secure recognition at this level.

He continued to perform well for Surrey. His 2011 season was capped with a Man of the Match performance in the CB40 Final, where his 4/30 helped lift Surrey to victory. Dernbach was effective in Surrey’s successful T20 campaign in 2013, was the side's leading wicket taker with 18 wickets as Surrey reached the Finals Day at Edgbaston for the first time since 2006. In 2010, Dernbach was selected for the England Performance Programme tour of Australia and subsequent England Lions tour of the West Indies where they participated in the domestic Regional Four Day Competition. In the latter, he took 19 wickets at an average of 15.63. He was called up to the senior team as a replacement for Ajmal Shahzad for the knock out stages of the 2011 Cricket World Cup but was not picked to play. At the beginning of the English season, he was picked for the Lions to face the touring Sri Lankans, he took 9 wickets in the match, although the Lions lost the match. However his performance saw him included in the senior squad for the second Test after an injury to James Anderson.

He had to wait until the limited overs games to make his debut. Dernbach was a member of the England ODI squad for their match against Ireland in August 2011, he has gone on to make 24 appearances for the 34 for the England t20 side. In the 2012 ICC World T20, he and Steven Finn equalled the tournament record for the highest 10th wicket partnership, he was named in the T20I XI by Cricinfo for his performances in 2013. At the time of his final international appearance to date, Dernbach had the worst career economy rate in both ODIs and T20Is; as of September 2018, his record is fifth-worst respectively. He announced his retirement from international cricket in July 2019, five years after his last T20I appearance. Jade Dernbach at CricketArchive Jade Dernbach at ESPNcricinfo Surrey County Cricket Club Player Profile Jade Dernbach on Twitter

Satur Ocampo

Saturnino "Satur" Cunanan Ocampo is a Filipino politician, activist and writer. As party president and first nominee, he led the party-list group Bayan Muna in three successful elections in 2001, 2004 and 2007, he was a member of the House of Representatives, Deputy Minority Leader in the 14th Congress of the Philippines. He has done work in other areas. After his three terms as congressman, he ran for senator in the May 2010 elections. After the elections, on August 21, 2010, Ocampo started a weekly opinion column in the Philippine Star titled "At Ground Level". Ocampo was a business editor of the pre-martial law Manila Times and was the founder of the Business and Economic Reporters Association of the Philippines, he is a lifetime member of the National Press Club. President Ferdinand Marcos declared martial law on September 21, 1972 and Ocampo, among others, went underground. In 1973, Ocampo co-founded the National Democratic Front, seeking to unite various anti-dictatorship forces. In 1976, he was incarcerated as a political prisoner.

For the next nine years he was tortured in various prison camps. At one point, he shared a cell with detained Philippine Collegian editor-in-chief Abraham Sarmiento, Jr. Though tried by a military court for rebellion, he was never found guilty. In 1985, while on pass to vote at the National Press Club annual elections, he escaped from the soldiers guarding him and rejoined the underground revolutionary movement. After the dictatorship fell in 1986, President Corazon Aquino called for peace talks with the communists. Ocampo headed the peace negotiating panel of the NDF, which represents the Communist Party of the Philippines and the New People's Army; when the talks collapsed due to the killing of 18 farmers at a rally near the Malacañan Palace on January 22, 1987, Ocampo returned to the underground. In 1989, he was rearrested together with his wife, Carolina Malay, Three years in 1992, a year after his wife was released, he was freed. Neither was found guilty of any crime. November 28, 2018 Mr. Satur Ocampo together with ACT Teacher Rep. France Castro and over 70 others was arrested for kidnapping and human trafficking charges over the transport of Lumad minors from the town of Talaingod, Davao Del Norte.

Ocampo's group was released after posting bail amounting of PHP 80,000.00 each. Satur Ocampo official profile from the House of Representatives of the Philippines Satur Ocampo official profile from the Bayan Muna website Bayan Muna - official website Video on YouTube

Autoimmune GFAP astrocytopathy

Autoimmune GFAP Astrocytopathy is an autoimmune disease in which the immune system of the patient attacks a protein of the nervous system called glial fibrillary acidic protein. It was described in 2016 by researchers of the Mayo Clinic in the United States. GFAP is an intermediate filament protein, expressed by numerous cell types of the central nervous system including astrocytes; the destruction of astrocytes can lead to the development of a glial scar. There are multiple disorders associated with improper GFAP regulation and glial scarring is a consequence of several neurodegenerative conditions; the scar is formed by astrocytes interacting with fibrous tissue to re-establish the glial margins around the central injury core and is caused by up-regulation of GFAP. The reported symptoms are: myelitis headache abnormal vision fever ataxia psychosis dyskinesia dementia seizure Under MRI these patients show a characteristic radial enhancing and laminar patterns. In an early report, most patients had brain abnormalities, of which eight revealed the characteristic radial enhancing and laminar patterns.

Cortical abnormalities were found in one-fifth of patients. Other abnormalities were found in the hypothalamus, pons, medulla cerebellum and skull. Eleven patients had longitudinally extensive spinal cord lesions. CSF abnormalities were detected in all patients. GFAP autoimmunity comprises a spectrum of presentations of meningoencephalomyelitis; some courses can be described as relapsing autoimmune meningoencephalomyelitis. Seropositivity distinguishes autoimmune GFAP meningoencephalomyelitis from disorders considered in the differential diagnosis; the clinical presentations include: meningoencephalomyelitis encephalitis movement disorder anti-epileptic drugs -resistant epilepsy cerebellar ataxia myelitis optic neuritisSome clinical courses could be coincident with neuromyelitis optica clinical cases. The reason that anti-GFAP autoantibodies appear is unknown. There is the possibility that GFAP is not pathogenic, but just an unspecific biomarker of several heterogeneous CNS inflammations. According to this hypothesis, GFAP antibody.

Detection of GFAP-IgG in CSF by IFA and confirmation by GFAPα-CBA is recommended. Steroids and immunosuppressive treatment have been tried with limited effects

2011 Portland Timbers season

The 2011 Portland Timbers season was the debut season for the Portland Timbers in Major League Soccer, the top flight professional soccer league in the United States and Canada. As the fourth incarnation of a professional soccer club to bear the Portland Timbers name, the MLS version of the Timbers began the 25th season in club history with three games on the road due to ongoing renovations to Jeld-Wen Field; the club's first game was played at Dick's Sporting Goods Park versus Colorado Rapids on March 19, which the Timbers lost 3–1. The first MLS match in Portland was on April 14 when the Timbers bested the Chicago Fire by a scoreline of 4–2 in front of a sold-out crowd of 18,627 at newly renovated Jeld-Wen Field; the building of the MLS Timbers began in earnest upon the completion of the 2010 MLS season on November 21, 2010. The next day the club acquired midfielder/defender Jeremy Hall from New York Red Bulls in exchange for a third-round pick in the January SuperDraft and traded allocation money to Los Angeles Galaxy in exchange for use of an international roster spot in the 2011 and 2012 seasons.

Two days after that, on November 24, 2010, the league conducted the 2010 MLS Expansion Draft which allowed both the Timbers and expansion cousins Vancouver Whitecaps to choose ten players each from those unprotected by their existing clubs. Portland drafted some players to keep, some players to trade, some players to wait on in the future. In the expansion draft, the Timbers selected and kept five players: defender Eric Brunner, midfielder Adam Moffat, defender David Horst, midfielder Peter Lowry, defender Jordan Graye; the club selected and traded three players: midfielder Dax McCarty, defender Anthony Wallace, midfielder Arturo Alvarez. McCarty was traded for a 4th round SuperDraft pick; the Timbers used their other two expansion picks to select the rights of players leaving MLS: forward Robbie Findley and defender Jonathan Bornstein. Both players' contracts were to expire on December 31, 2010. Bornstein had signed a contract with Mexican side Tigres while Findley had broadly announced his intention to seek a contract in Europe, which he found with English club Nottingham Forest.

Portland drafted these players to hold their rights should they return to MLS. The club continued shaping its roster in December. On December 13, Portland traded defender Jordan Graye to Houston Dynamo in exchange for a 2014 4th round SuperDraft pick. Four days the Timbers traded goalkeeper Steve Cronin and allocation money to D. C. United in exchange for goalkeeper Troy Perkins and salary considerations. At the January 13, 2011 SuperDraft, the club selected Generation adidas forward Darlington Nagbe in round one and defender Chris Taylor in round two; the club made two trades on draft day. The first saw Portland acquire the No. 11 pick in the draft and use of an international roster spot for the 2011 season from Seattle Sounders FC in exchange for the No. 20 pick and allocation money. Portland traded the newly acquired No. 11 pick to Houston Dynamo in exchange for allocation money. The club was more than happy with its draft day results. "We get the international slot for a year and through the deals, we're banking some allocation money," said Portland general manager and technical director Gavin Wilkinson.

"So, the way we walk out of it, at the end of that, we're lucky to get the player we loved and an international spot, needed in the way that we're trying to build this squad. … We think it was a win-win."The following week, Portland selected forward Spencer Thompson, midfielder Robby Lynch, forward Raymundo Reza, defender Taylor Mueller in the 2011 Supplemental Draft. Of all the draft choices, only Nagbe was added to the club's roster as he had signed a contract with Major League Soccer. Taylor, Lynch and Mueller are not guaranteed contracts and must earn a spot on the club's final roster. On January 17, the club entered the international transfer market and acquired forward Kenny Cooper from Bundesliga 2 side 1860 Munich for an undisclosed fee. Portland used its No. 2 position in the MLS Allocation Ranking to acquire the MLS rights to Cooper. The Timbers announced the signings of goalkeeper Adin Brown and defender Steve Purdy — both members of the USL Portland Timbers — on January 26. Win Tie Loss The Timbers began training camp in Ventura, California with their first practice on February 2.

During the first preseason game against Ventura County Fusion on February 4, first round draft pick Darlington Nagbe scored in the second half to earn Portland a 1–1 draw. Forward Bright Dike sustained an Achilles tendon injury during the game and was expected to miss 6 to 9 months. Portland faced their first MLS opposition on February 8 in a training match versus Los Angeles Galaxy. Newly acquired Los Angeles midfielder Miguel Pedro López was shown a red card in the first half but the Galaxy were allowed to replace him due to the nature of the match; the Timbers again relied on a second half equalizing goal – this time by trialist Brian Umony — to earn their second consecutive 1–1 draw. Just prior to leaving for training camp at Grande Sports World in Casa Grande, Arizona the Timbers announced that they had acquired midfielder Sal Zizzo from Chivas USA in exchange for allocation money and had signed two players from the undefeated 2010 Portland Timbers U-23 squad, Fr