Mattancherry is a locality in the city of Kochi, India. It is about 9 km south-west from the city center, it is said that the name Mattancherry comes from "Ancherry Mattom", a"Namboodiri illam" which the foreign traders pronounced it as Matt-Ancherry became Mattancherry. The place where erstwhile'Ancherry Mattom' located is now a Tamil Brahmin settlement. Mattancherry is a part of Ernakulam. Mattancherry is home to the Paradesi Synagogue, India's oldest functioning synagogue, Mattancherry Palace Museum, Mattacherry Pazhayannur Royal temple and Palliarakkavvu temple, Ram Mandir, Gowd Saraswat Brahmin samaj temples including the Gosripuram Tirumala Devaswom temple and a Jain Temple and Mosques. Media related to Mattancherry at Wikimedia Commons
Vembanad is the longest lake in India, the largest lake in the state of Kerala. Spanning several districts in the state of Kerala, it is known as Vembanadu Lake in Kottayam, Punnamada Lake in Kuttanad and Kochi Lake in Kochi. Several groups of small islands including Vypin, Vallarpadam, Willingdon Island are located in the Kochi Lake portion. Kochi Port is built around the Vallarpadam island; the Nehru Trophy Boat Race is conducted in a portion of the lake. High levels of pollution have been noticed at certain hotspots of the Vembanad backwaters. Government of India has identified the Vembanad wetland under National Wetlands Conservation Programme; the Vembanad wetland system covers an area of over 2033.02 km² thereby making it the largest wetland system in India. Of this, an area of 398.12 km² is located below the MSL and a total of 763.23 km² area is located below 1 m MSL. The lake is bordered by Alappuzha and Ernakulam districts, it is situated at the sea level, is separated from the Laccadive Sea by a narrow barrier island.
Canals link the lake to other coastal lakes in the south. The lake surrounds the islands of Pathiramanal and Pallippuram; the Vembanad Lake is 14 kilometres wide at its widest point. The lake is a part of Vembanad-Kol wetland system which extends from Alappuzha in the south to Azheekkode in the north, making it by far, India's longest lake at just over 96.5 km in length. The lake is fed by 10 rivers flowing into it including the six major rivers of central Kerala namely the Achenkovil, Meenachil, Muvattupuzha and Periyar; the total area drained by the lake is 15,770 km ². Its annual surface runoff of 21,900 Mm accounts for 30% of the total surface water resource of the state; the most popular location on the shores of the lake is the Kumarakom Tourist Village situated on the east coast of the lake. The Kumarakom Bird Sanctuary is located on the northern fringes of Kumarakom village; the Vembanad Wetland system was included in the list of wetlands of international importance, as defined by the Ramsar Convention for the conservation and sustainable utilization of wetlands in 2002.
It is the largest of the three Ramsar Sites in the state of Kerala. Vembanad lake has been reclaimed over the course of the past century with the water spread area reducing from 290.85 km² in 1917 to 227 km² in 1971 and 213.28 km² in 1990. In the same period 63.62 km of erstwhile water spread were reclaimed for formation of polders and to enlarge the extent of the Wellington island of Cochin port. The lake faces a major ecological crisis and has reduced to 37 per cent of its original area, as a result of land reclamation. A unique characteristic of the lake is the 1,252 metres -long Thanneermukkom salt water barrier constructed as a part of the Kuttanad Development Scheme to prevent tidal action and intrusion of salt water into the Kuttanad low-lands, it is the largest mud regulator in India and divides the lake into two parts - one with perennial brackish water and the other with fresh water from rivers draining into the lake. This barrier has helped farmers in Kuttanad by freeing the area of salinity and allowing them an additional crop in the dry season.
The Thanneermukkom barrier is located at one of the narrower parts of the Vembanad Lake. Only two-thirds of the original number of gates are opened in July to release flood flow; these gates remain closed until mid-November. The main drawback of the structure has been the loss of opportunity for fish and prawns to migrate upstream, an increase in weed growth in the upstream restricting the natural flushing of pollutants; the Thanneermukkom bund has created ecological problems the rampant propagation of the Water Hyacinth in fresh water. Over 1.6 million people live on the banks of the Vembanad lake and are directly or indirectly dependent on it for their livelihoods. The port of Kochi is located at the lake's outlet to the Laccadive Sea; the town of Alappuzha, sometimes called the "Venice of the East" for its large network of canals that meander through the town - is sandwiched between the lake and the Laccadive sea. Vembanad Lake is at the heart of Kerala Backwaters tourism with hundreds of kettuvallams plied on it and numerous resorts on its banks.
The Kumarakom Bird Sanctuary is located on the east coast of the lake. The lake has become a major tourist attraction. A safe destination, this place had just one incident of tourist harassment in 2004 as reported in The Times of India; the Vembanad Wetland system has formed an intricate network of estuaries and canals which spans over 196 km in the north-south and 29 km in the east-west directions. All villages in these areas can be accessed via water transport; the major rivers of Muvattupuzha, Meenachil and Achencovil rivers, are all navigable up to distances of about 30 km upstream in the tidal reach. The Kottappuram-Kollam segment of the west coast canal system has a major chunk passing through the Vembanad Lake and spans a total of 209 km, it has been declared as a National Waterway. Vembanad Kol Wetland was included in the list of wetlands of international importance, as defined by the Ramsar Convention for the conservation and sustainable utilization of wetlands, it is home to more than 20,000 waterfowls - the third largest such population in India.
It is an ideal habitat for shrimps. Major livelihood activities of the people living on the shores of the lake include agriculture, tourism, inland navigation, coir retting, lime shell collection; the uncontrolled mining of shells from the lake bed is posing a threat to the e
Narakkal is a village in Ernakulam district in the Indian state of Kerala. Narakkal is situated at the centre of Vypeen island; as of 2001 India census, Narakkal is Hinduism dominated with a population of 24,166 - 11,628 males and 12,538 females. Njarakkal is known as Narakkal. Narakkal Panchayath Village office Police station Kerala State Electricity Board office Matsyafed Fish Farm Post office Jai Hind Play ground Government Register office Sree Sakthidhara Temple Sree Balabhadra Temple Govt Fisheries U. P. School Surya Wooden Industry Western Jewellery- Jewellers Bakers Corner- Dominant Bakers St. Mary's Church Majestic TalkiesLittle Flower Hig School
Goshree bridges is a system of bridges that link the mainland side of the city of Kochi to the islands lying to the north of the backwaters. It provides the vital road connectivity to the islands of Bolgatty and Vallarpadam and links the western island of Vypin to the mainland; the bridges start from the northern end of Marine Drive between High Pachalam. The bridges are constructed by the Goshree Island Development Authority, constituted by the Government of Kerala; the construction was funded by the sale proceeds of reclaimed land adjacent to the bridge. The foundation stone was laid on 29 December 2000; the first segment between Ernakulam and Bolgatty was opened on 29 December 2003. The segment between Bolgatty and Vallarpadam was opened on 10 February 2004; the last segment was completed on 17 March 2004 and the entire bridge is formally opened on the 5th of June. The bridge is the only means road connectivity to the Vallarpadam islands; the launching of the International Container Transshipment Terminal was made possible by these bridges.
It provides direct road connectivity to the city for the Vypin island and the suburbs to the northwest, relying upon ferry services earlier. Cherian Varkey Construction company was involved in its construction; the new container road NH from Mulavukad will link the Malabar, North Paravur with mainland
Munambam is a place near Kochi, India at the north end of Vypeen Island, surrounded by the Arabian Sea on the west, Periyar river on the east, a mouth of the sea on the north. The main occupation of its inhabitants is fishing. Munambam is famous in Ernakulam and Thrissur districts for the presence of major fishing harbour in this region, it is the mouth of the district major river Periyar which can be seen from the Munambam Muziris beach. Ernakulam District Vypin North Paravur Cherai munambambeach Website
Ernakulam refers to the central, mainland portion of the city of Kochi in central Kerala and has lent its name to the Ernakulam district. The Kerala High Court, the office of the Kochi Municipal Corporation and the Cochin Stock Exchange are situated here; the Ernakulam Junction is a major railway station of the Indian Railways. Ernakulam was the headquarters of the Ernakulam District but was shifted to Kakkanad. Ernakulam was once the capital of the Kingdom of Cochin, it is located 220 kilometres north-west of the state capital Thiruvananthapuram. The city has served as an incubator for many Malayali entrepreneurs and is a major financial and commercial hub of Kerala; the state government and the GCDA have plans to include Angamaly, Perumbavoor and Kolenchery in the Ernakulam district. The newly formed metropolis would be put under the charge of a new authority called Kochi Metropolitan Regional Development Authority. Starting from the Stone Age, Ernakulam has been the site of human settlement.
Monolithic monuments like Dolmens and rock-cut caves can be seen in many parts of Ernakulam. The region can claim to have played a significant part in fostering the trade relations between Kerala and the outside world in the ancient and medieval period; the early political history of Ernakulam is interlinked with that of the Chera Dynasty of the Sangam age, who ruled over vast portions of Kerala and Tamil Nadu. After the Cheras, the place was ruled by the Kingdom of Cochin. Ernakulam was the capital of the erstwhile Cochin State. In the first state census of 1911, the population of Ernakulam was 21,901; the City of Ernakulam is situated in the Ernakulam District of Central Kerala in India. Ernakulam is located at 9.98°N 76.28°E / 9.98. It has an average elevation of 4 m. Under the Köppen climate classification, the City of Ernakulam features a Tropical monsoon climate. Since the region lies in the south western coastal state of Kerala, the climate is tropical, with only minor differences in temperatures between day and night, as well as over the year.
Summer lasts from March to May, is followed by the South-west monsoon from June to September. October and November form retreating monsoon season. Winter from December through February is cooler, windy, due to winds from the Western Ghats; the City is drenched in the monsoonal season by heavy showers. The average annual rainfall is 3000 mm; the South-west monsoon sets in during the last week of May. After July the rainfall decreases. On an average, there are 124 rainy days in a year; the maximum average temperature of the City in the summer season is 33 degree Celsius while the minimum temperature recorded is 22.5 degrees Celsius. The winter season records a maximum average of 29 degree Celsius and a minimum average of 20 degree Celsius.. Ernakulam is a major commercial hub of Kerala; the Cochin Port, DP World Kochi and Cochin Shipyard have resulted in the faster growth of the city. The technology park InfoPark and SmartCity, Kochi is on the outskirts of the city. Tourism has contributed to the economy of Ernakulam.
The city with its temples, old churches and its culture, is ranked first in the number of domestic tourists visiting. Vypin or Vypeen is one of a group of islands that form part of the city of Kochi, in the southwestern Indian state of Kerala. Vypin is one of the densely populated islands in Asia; the western coast of Vypin has the longest beaches in Kochi namely, the Cherai Beach, Kuzhuppilly Beach and the Puthuvype Beach. Marine Drive, Kochi Durbar Hall Ground Mangalavanam Bird Sanctuary Bolghatty LuLu International Shopping Mall Mahatma Gandhi Road Sahodaran Ayyappan Road. Maharajas College ground with Synthetic Athletic track Jawahar Lal Nehru International Stadium, Kaloor Rajeev Gandhi Indoor Stadium, Kadavathara Kerala High Court Subhash Park Children's Park Changampuzha Park B. R. Ambedkar Stadium Penta Meneka Hill Palace, Tripunithura St. Albert's College, Ernakulam Vivekananda Statue, Elamakkara Sacred Heart College, Thevara The Vytilla Mobility hub caters to the transportation needs of the city.
Ernakulam is well served by private/government buses, autorickshaws and short distance trains and ferries. Ernakulam disembark from ferries. Traveling via ferries autos; the main jetty is called the Ernakulam jetty from where one can board a ferry to Fort Kochi and Willingdon Island. Ernakulam is connected to the North-South Corridor National Highway System via the four-laned National Highway 66; the highway traverses through the entire length and breadth of the city from different points and provides access to the nearby cities such as Thrissur, Palakkad and Coimbatore. NH 66 provides two main exit points at Vytilla to the Ernakulam city; the city is dependent on city buses and auto rickshaws for public transport. The state-owned Kerala State Road Transport Corporation runs inter-state, inter-district and city services; the National Highway 17, National Highway 49 connected to Madurai, Main Central Road, State Highways are the roads which connect city with its suburbs and municipalities. Major Roads — M. G. Road, Sahodharan Ayyappan Road and Marine drive walkway, Banerjee Road, Shanmugham Road, Kaloor-Kadavanthara Road.
KL 07 Reg.. Ernakulam Junction Railway Station is the one of the busiest railway station i
South India is the area including the five Indian states of Andhra Pradesh, Kerala, Tamil Nadu and Telangana, as well as the three union territories of Lakshadweep and Nicobar Islands and Puducherry, occupying 19% of India's area. Covering the southern part of the peninsular Deccan Plateau, South India is bounded by the Bay of Bengal in the east, the Arabian Sea in the west and the Indian Ocean in the south; the geography of the region is diverse with two mountain ranges–the Western and Eastern Ghats, bordering the plateau heartland. Godavari, Kaveri and Vaigai rivers are important non-perennial sources of water. Chennai, Hyderabad, Coimbatore, Visakhapatnam and Kochi are the largest urban areas; the majority of the people in South India speak one of the four major Dravidian languages: Telugu, Tamil and Malayalam. During its history, a number of dynastic kingdoms ruled over parts of South India whose invasions across southern and southeastern Asia impacted the history and culture in those regions.
Major dynasties that were established in South India include the Cheras, Pandyas, Satavahanas, Chalukyas and Vijayanagara. Europeans entered India through Kerala and the region was colonised by Britain and other nations. After experiencing fluctuations in the decades after Indian independence, the economies of South Indian states have registered higher than national average growth over the past three decades. While South Indian states have improved in some socio-economic metrics, poverty continues to affect the region much like the rest of the country, although it has decreased over the years. HDI in the southern states is high and the economy has undergone growth at a faster rate than most northern states. Literacy rates in the southern states are higher than the national average with 80% of the population capable of reading and writing; the fertility rate in South India is the lowest of all regions in India. South India known as Peninsular India has been known by several other names; the term "Deccan" referring to the area covered by the Deccan Plateau that covers most of peninsular India excluding the coastal areas is an anglicised form of the word Prakrit dakkhin derived from the Sanskrit word dakshina meaning south.
Carnatic derived from "Karnād" or "Karunād" meaning high country has been associated with South India. Carbon dating on ash mounds associated with Neolithic cultures in South India date back to 8000 BCE. Artefacts such as ground stone axes, minor copper objects have been found in the region. Towards the beginning of 1000 BCE, iron technology spread through the region; the region was in the middle of a trade route that extended from Muziris to Arikamedu linking the Mediterranean and East Asia. Trade with Phoenicians, Greeks, Syrians and Chinese began from the Sangam period; the region was part of the ancient Silk Road connecting the Asian continent in the East and the West. Several dynasties such as the Cheras of Karuvur, the Pandyas of Madurai, the Cholas of Thanjavur, the Satavahanas of Amaravati, the Pallavas of Kanchi, the Kadambas of Banavasi, the Western Gangas of Kolar, the Rashtrakutas of Manyakheta, the Chalukyas of Badami, the Hoysalas of Belur and the Kakatiyas of Orugallu ruled over the region from 6th century B.
C. to 14th century A. D; the Vijayanagara Empire, founded in 14th century A. D. was the last Indian dynasty. After repeated invasions from the Sultanate of Delhi and the fall of Vijayanagara empire in 1646, the region was ruled by Deccan Sultanates and Nayak governors of Vijayanagara empire who declared independence; the Europeans arrived in the 15th century and by the middle of the 18th century, the French and the British were involved in a protracted struggle for military control over the South India. After the defeat of Tipu Sultan in the Fourth Anglo-Mysore War in 1799 and the end of the Vellore Mutiny in 1806, the British consolidated their power over much of present-day South India with the exception of French Pondichéry; the British Empire took control of the region from the British East India Company in 1857. During the British colonial rule, the region was divided into the Madras Presidency, Hyderabad State, Travancore, Vizianagaram and a number of other minor princely states; the region played a major role in the Indian independence movement.
After the independence of India in 1947, the region was organised into four states: Madras State, Mysore State, Hyderabad State and Travancore-Cochin. The States Reorganisation Act of 1956 reorganised the states on linguistic lines resulting in the creation of the new states of Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka and Tamil Nadu; as a result of this Act, Madras State retained its name and Kanyakumari district was added to it from the state of Travancore-Cochin. The state was subsequently renamed Tamil Nadu in 1968. Andhra Pradesh was created through the merger of Andhra State with the Telugu-speaking districts of the Hyderabad State in 1956. Kerala emerged from the merger of Malabar district and the Kasaragod taluk of South Canara districts of the Madras State with Travancore-Cochin. Mysore State was re-organised with the addition of districts of Bellary and South Canara and the Kollegal taluk of Coimbatore district from the Madras State, the districts of Belgaum, North Canara and Dharwad from the Bombay State, the