Soviet Census (1989)
The 1989 Soviet census, conducted between 12-19 January of that year, was the last one that took place in the former USSR. The census found the total population to be 286,730,819 inhabitants. In 1989, the Soviet Union ranked as the third most populous in the world, above the United States, although it was well behind China and India. In 1989, about half of the Soviet Union's total population lived in the Russian SFSR, one-sixth of them in Ukraine. Two-thirds of the population was urban, leaving the rural population with 34.3%. In this way, its gradual increase continued, as shown by the series represented by 47.9%, 56.3% and 62.3% of 1959, 1970 and 1979 respectively. The last two national censuses showed that the country had been experiencing an average annual increase of about 2.5 million people, although it was a slight decrease from a figure of around 3 million per year in the previous intercensal period, 1959-1970. This post-war increase had contributed to the USSR's partial demographic recovery from the significant population loss that the USSR had suffered during the Great Patriotic War, before it, during Stalin's Great Purge of 1936-1938.
The previous postwar censuses, conducted in 1959, 1970 and 1979, had enumerated 208,826,650, 241,720,134, 262,436,227 inhabitants respectively. In 1990, the Soviet Union was more populated than both the United States and Canada together, having some 40 million more inhabitants than the U. S. alone. However, after the dissolution of the Soviet Union in late 1991, the combined population of the 15 former Soviet republics stagnated at around 290 million inhabitants for the period 1995-2000; this significant slowdown may in part be due to the remarkable socio-economic changes that followed the disintegration of the USSR, that have tended to reduce more the decreasing birth rates. The next census was planned for 1999. Demographics of the Soviet Union Republics of the Soviet Union Soviet Census First All-Union Census of the Soviet Union Soviet Union Barbara A. Anderson and Brian D. Silver, "Growth and diversity of the population of the Soviet Union", The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, Vol. 510, No.
1, 155-177, 1990. Ralph S. Clem, Ed. Research Guide to Russian and Soviet Censuses, Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1986. John C. Dewdney, "Population change in the Soviet Union, 1979-1989," Geography, Vol. 75, Pt. 3, No. 328, July 1990, 273-277. Subjects of Russia, on the www.statoids.com website
Saint Petersburg Governorate
Saint Petersburg Governorate, or Government of Saint Petersburg, was an administrative division of the Tsardom of Russia, the Russian Empire, the Russian SFSR, which existed during 1708–1927. Ingermanland Governorate was created from the territories reconquered from the Swedish Empire in the Great Northern War. In 1704 prince Alexander Menshikov was appointed as its first governor, in 1706 it was first Russian region designated as a Governorate. According to the Tsar Peter the Great's edict as on December 29, 1708, the whole Russia was split into eight Governorates. In the same year Ingermanland Governorate was further expanded to encompass the regions of Pskov and other towns of Western Russia; as with the rest of the governorates, neither the borders nor internal subdivisions of Ingermanland Governorate were defined. By another edict on June 3, 1710, the governorate was renamed St. Petersburg Governorate after the newly founded city of Saint Petersburg, in 1721 the former Swedish Duchy of Ingria, parts of the County of Kexholm and the County of Viborg and Nyslott were formally ceded to Russia by the Treaty of Nystad.
After the Treaty of Åbo in 1743, the parts of Kexholm and Viborg were joined with new territorial gains from Sweden into the Governorate of Vyborg. From August 18, 1914 to January 26, 1924 it was named Petrograd Governorate, during 1924-1927 — Leningrad Governorate, it was abolished on August 1927 when modern Leningrad Oblast was created. Prince Aleksandr Menshikov 12 October 1702 – May 1724 Pyotr Apraksin May 1724 – January 1725 Prince Aleksandr Menshikov January 1725 – 8 September 1727 Jan Sapieha 1727 – 1728 Burkhard Christoph von Münnich January 1728 – 1734 War Governor Nikolai Golovin 1742 Peter Lacy 1743 Vasily Repnin 1744 Stepan Ignatiev 1744 Boris Yusupov 1749 Prince Mikhail Golitsin 1752 – 1754 Peter August of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Beck 1762 Ivan Neplyuyev 1762 – 1764 Ivan Glebov 1767 Prince Aleksander Golitsin October 1769 – 8 October 1783 Jacob Bruce 1784 – 6 October 1791 Aleksander Romanov 6 October 1791 – 1797 War Governor Nikolai Arkharov 6 October 1791 – November 1796, until 15 June 1797 acting General Governor Fyodor Buksgevden June 1797 – August 1798 Pyotr von der Pahlen 8 August 1798 – 30 June 1801, until 25 August 1800 acting, from 24 March 1801 War Governor Mikhail Kutuzov 30 July 1801 – 9 September 1802 War Governor Mikhail Kamenskiy 27 August 1802 – 16 November 1802 War Governor Pyotr Tolstoy 28 November 1802 – 25 January 1803 War Governor Andrey Budberg 25 January 1803 – 17 February 1803 War Governor Pyotr Tolstoy 28 November 1802 – 10 September 1805 War Governor Nikolai Svechin 1803 – 1806 Sergey Vyazmitinov 10 September 1805 – 12 January 1808 War Governor Prince Dmitry Lobanov-Rostovskiy 12 January 1808 – 2 February 1809 Alexander Balashov 14 February 1809 – 9 April 1810 Sergey Vyazmitinov 10 November 1816 – 31 August 1818 War General Governor Mikhail Miloradovich 31 August 1818 – 15 December 1825 War General Governor Pavel Golenishchev-Kutuzov 27 December 1825 – 19 February 1830 War General Governor Pyotr Essen 17 February 1830 – 14 February 1842 War General Governor Aleksander Kavelin 14 February 1842 – 19 April 1846 War General Governor Matvey Khrapovitskiy 7 April 1846 – 31 March 1847 War General Governor Dmitry Shulgin 3 May 1847 – 1 January 1855 War General Governor Aleksander Stroganov 1854 War Governor Pavel Ignatiev 28 December 1854 – 16 November 1861 War General Governor Aleksandr Suvorov-Rymnikskiy 16 November 1861 – 16 May 1866 War General Governor Iosif Gurko April 1879 – February 1880 General Grösser February 1880 - 12 January 1905 Dmitry Trepov 12 January 1905 – 14 April 1905 acting General Governor Fyodor Apraksin 1712 – 1723 Vasily Saltykov 21 January 1734 – October 1740 Prince Yakov Shakhovskoy October 1740 – November 1740 Prince Vasily Nesvitsky 23 July 1761 – 17 April 1764 Stepan Ushakov 21 April 1764 – 21 April 1773 Stepan Perfiliev 22 September 1773 – 10 September 1774 Karl Ungern-Sternverg 12 September 1774 – 25 July 1779 Dmitry Volkov 4 August 1779 – 1780 Ustin Potapov 4 August 1780 – 1 January 1784 Pyotr Tarbeev 1 April 1784 – 18 March 1785 Pyotr Konovnitsin 18 March 1785 – 2 September 1793 Nikita Ryleev 2 September 1793 – 9 June 1797 Ivan Alekseev 9 June 1797 – 28 August 1797 Ivan Grevens 28 August 1797 – 21 December 1798 Dmitry Glinka 22 December 1798 – 2 March 1800 Prokopy Mishchersky 7 March 1800 – 1 June 1800 Nikolay Khotyaintsev 1 June 1800 – 5 June 1801 Pyotr Pankratiev 5 June 1801 – 19 July 1802 Sergey Kushnikov 19 July 1802 – 28 October 1804 Pyotr Paseviev 28 October 1804 – 31 January 1808 Mikhail Mikhailovich Bakunin 31 January 1808 – 14 July 1816 Semyon Shcherbinin 15 August 1816 – 23 November 1826 Aleksandr Bezobrazov 25 November 1826 – 27 January 1829 Ivan Khrapovitskiy 27 January 1829 – 11 December 1835 Mikhail Zhemchuzhnikov 11 December 1835 – 30 December 1840 Vasily Sheremetev 10 January 1841 – 28 June 1843 Nikolay Zhukovskiy 10 August 1843 – 8 April 1851 Pyotr Donaurov 8 April 1851 – 7 April 1855 Nikolai Smirnov 7 April 1855 – 1 January 1861 Aleksandr Bobrinsky 12 January 1861 – 13 March 1864 Vladimir Skaryatin 20 March 1864 – 1 January 1865 Lev Perovskiy 1 January 1865 – 22 July 1866, until 22 July 1865 acting Nikolay Levashov 22 July 1866 – 8 May 1871 Iosif Lutkovskiy 9 May 1871 – 2 September 1880, until 30 March 1873 acting Fyodor Trepov 1873 - 1878 Sergey Tol 2 September 1880 – May 1903 Aleksandr Zinoviev 6 March 1903 – January 1911 Aleksandr Adlerberg 9 January 1911 – 18 August 1914 Served as chair of the Assembly of Nobility Alexander Kurakin 1780 – 1783 Adam Olsufiev 1783 –
Arkhangelsk known in English as Archangel and Archangelsk, is a city and the administrative center of Arkhangelsk Oblast, in the north of European Russia. It lies on both banks of the Northern Dvina River near its exit into the White Sea; the city spreads for over 40 kilometers along the banks of the river and numerous islands of its delta. Arkhangelsk was the chief seaport of medieval and early modern Russia until 1703. A 1,133-kilometer-long railway runs from Arkhangelsk to Moscow via Vologda and Yaroslavl, air travel is served by the Talagi Airport and a smaller Vaskovo Airport; as of the 2010 Census, the city's population was 348,783, down from 356,051 recorded in the 2002 Census, further down from 415,921 recorded in the 1989 Census. The arms of the city display the Archangel Michael in the act of defeating the Devil. Legend states that this victory took place near where the city stands, hence its name, that Michael still stands watch over the city to prevent the Devil's return. Vikings knew the area around Arkhangelsk as Bjarmaland.
Ohthere of Hålogaland told circa 890 of his travels in an area by a river and the White Sea with many buildings. This was the place known as Arkhangelsk. According to Snorri Sturluson, Vikings led by Thorir Hund raided this area in 1027. In 1989, an unusually impressive silver treasure was found by local farm workers by the mouth of Dvina, right next to present-day Arkhangelsk, it was buried in the beginning of the 12th century, contained articles that may have been up to two hundred years old at that time. Most of the findings comprised a total of 1.6 kilograms of silver in the form of coins. Jewelry and pieces of jewelry come from Russia or neighboring areas; the majority of the coins were German, but the hoard included a smaller number of Kufan, Bohemian, Danish and Norwegian coins. It is hard to place this find until further research is completed. There are at least two possible interpretations, it may be a treasure belonging to the society outlined by the Norse source material. Such finds, whether from Scandinavia, the Baltic area, or Russia, are tied to well-established agricultural societies with considerable trade activity.
Alternatively, like the Russian scientists who published the find in 1992, one may see it as evidence of a stronger case of Russian colonization than thought. In the 12th century, the Novgorodians established the Archangel Michael Monastery in the estuary of the Northern Dvina River; the main trade center of the area at that time was Kholmogory, located 75 kilometers southeast of Arkhangelsk, up the Dvina River, about 10 kilometers downstream from where the Pinega River flows into the Dvina. Written sources indicate that Kholmogory existed early in the 12th century, but there is no archeological material to illuminate the early history of the town, it is not known whether the origin of this settlement was Russian, or if it goes back to pre-Russian times. In the center of the small town, there today is a large mound of building remains and river sand, but it has not been archeologically excavated; the area of Arkhangelsk came to be important in the rivalry between Norwegian and Russian interests in the northern areas.
From Novgorod, the spectrum of Russian interest was extended far north to the Kola Peninsula in the 12th century. However, here Norway enforced rights to the fur trade. A compromise agreement entered in 1251 was soon broken. In 1411, Yakov Stepanovich from Novgorod went to attack Northern Norway; this was the beginning of a series of clashes. In 1419, Norwegian ships with five hundred soldiers entered the White Sea; the "Murmaners", as the Norwegians were called, plundered many Russian settlements along the coast, among them the Archangel Michael Monastery. Novgorod managed to drive the Norwegians back. However, in 1478 the area was taken over by Ivan III and passed to the Grand Duchy of Moscow with the rest of the Novgorod Republic. Three English ships set out to find the Northeast passage to China in 1553. Ivan the Terrible found out about this, brokered a trade agreement with the ship's captain, Richard Chancellor. Trade privileges were granted to English merchants in 1555, leading to the founding of the Company of Merchant Adventurers, which began sending ships annually into the estuary of the Northern Dvina.
Dutch merchants started bringing their ships into the White Sea from the 1560s. Scottish and English merchants traded in the 16th century. In 1584 Ivan ordered the founding of New Kholmogory. At the time access to the Baltic Sea was still controlled by Sweden, so while Arkhangelsk was icebound in winter, it remained Moscow's sole link to the sea-trade. Local inhabitants, called Pomors, were the first to explore trade routes to Northern Siberia as far as the trans-Urals city of Mangazeya and beyond. In December 1613, during the Time of Troubles, Arkhangelsk was besieged by Polish-Lithuanian marauders commanded by Stanislaw Jasinski, who failed to capture the fortified town. In 1619 and in 1637 a fire broke out, the complete city was burned down. In 1693, Peter the Great ordered the creation of a state shipyard in Arkhangelsk. A year the ships Svyatoye Prorochestvo, Apostol Pavel, the yacht Svyatoy Pyotr were sailing in the White Sea. However, he r
The Workers' and Peasants' Red Army shortened to Red Army was the army and the air force of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic, after 1922, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. The army was established after the 1917 October Revolution; the Bolsheviks raised an army to oppose the military confederations of their adversaries during the Russian Civil War. Beginning in February 1946, the Red Army, along with the Soviet Navy, embodied the main component of the Soviet Armed Forces; the Red Army provided the largest land force in the Allied victory in the European theatre of World War II, its invasion of Manchuria assisted the unconditional surrender of Imperial Japan. During operations on the Eastern Front, it accounted for 75–80% of casualties the Wehrmacht and Waffen-SS suffered during the war and captured the Nazi German capital, Berlin. In September 1917, Vladimir Lenin wrote: "There is only one way to prevent the restoration of the police, and, to create a people's militia and to fuse it with the army."
At the time, the Imperial Russian Army had started to collapse. 23% of the male population of the Russian Empire were mobilized. The Tsarist general Nikolay Dukhonin estimated that there had been 2 million deserters, 1.8 million dead, 5 million wounded and 2 million prisoners. He estimated the remaining troops as numbering 10 million. While the Imperial Russian Army was being taken apart, "it became apparent that the rag-tag Red Guard units and elements of the imperial army who had gone over the side of the Bolsheviks were quite inadequate to the task of defending the new government against external foes." Therefore, the Council of People's Commissars decided to form the Red Army on 28 January 1918. They envisioned a body "formed from the class-conscious and best elements of the working classes." All citizens of the Russian republic aged 18 or older were eligible. Its role being the defense "of the Soviet authority, the creation of a basis for the transformation of the standing army into a force deriving its strength from a nation in arms, furthermore, the creation of a basis for the support of the coming Socialist Revolution in Europe."
Enlistment was conditional upon "guarantees being given by a military or civil committee functioning within the territory of the Soviet Power, or by party or trade union committees or, in extreme cases, by two persons belonging to one of the above organizations." In the event of an entire unit wanting to join the Red Army, a "collective guarantee and the affirmative vote of all its members would be necessary." Because the Red Army was composed of peasants, the families of those who served were guaranteed rations and assistance with farm work. Some peasants who remained at home yearned to join the Army. If they were turned away they would prepare care-packages. In some cases the money they earned would go towards tanks for the Army; the Council of People's Commissars appointed itself the supreme head of the Red Army, delegating command and administration of the army to the Commissariat for Military Affairs and the Special All-Russian College within this commissariat. Nikolai Krylenko was the supreme commander-in-chief, with Aleksandr Myasnikyan as deputy.
Nikolai Podvoisky became the commissar for Pavel Dybenko, commissar for the fleet. Proshyan, Steinberg were specified as people's commissars as well as Vladimir Bonch-Bruyevich from the Bureau of Commissars. At a joint meeting of Bolsheviks and Left Socialist-Revolutionaries, held on 22 February 1918, Krylenko remarked: "We have no army; the demoralized soldiers are fleeing, panic-stricken, as soon as they see a German helmet appear on the horizon, abandoning their artillery and all war material to the triumphantly advancing enemy. The Red Guard units are brushed aside like flies. We have no power to stay the enemy; the Russian Civil War occurred in three periods: October 1917 – November 1918: From the Bolshevik Revolution to the First World War Armistice, developed from the Bolshevik government's nationalization of traditional Cossack lands in November 1917. This provoked the insurrection of General Alexey Maximovich Kaledin's Volunteer Army in the River Don region; the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk aggravated Russian internal politics.
The situation encouraged direct Allied intervention in the Russian Civil War, in which twelve foreign countries supported anti-Bolshevik militias. A series of engagements resulted, amongst others, the Czechoslovak Legion, the Polish 5th Rifle Division, the pro-Bolshevik Red Latvian Riflemen. January 1919 – November 1919: Initially the White armies advanced: from the south, under General Anton Denikin; the Whites defeated the Red Army on each front. Leon Trotsky reformed and counterattacked: the Red Army repelled Admiral Kolchak's army in June, the armies of General Denikin and General Yudenich in October. By mid-Nove
Metalworking is the process of working with metals to create individual parts, assemblies, or large-scale structures. The term covers a wide range of work from large ships and bridges to precise engine parts and delicate jewelry, it therefore includes a correspondingly wide range of skills and tools. Metalworking is a science, hobby and trade, its historical roots span cultures and millennia. Metalworking has evolved from the discovery of smelting various ores, producing malleable and ductile metal useful tools and adornments. Modern metalworking processes, though diverse and specialized, can be categorized as forming, cutting, or joining processes. Today's machine shop includes a number of machine tools capable of creating a precise, useful workpiece; the oldest archaeological evidence of copper mining and working was the discovery of a copper pendant in northern Iraq from 8,700 BCE. The earliest substantiated and dated evidence of metalworking in the Americas was the processing of copper in Wisconsin, near Lake Michigan.
Copper was hammered until brittle heated so it could be worked some more. This technology is dated to about 4000-5000 BCE; the oldest gold artifacts in the world come from the Bulgarian Varna Necropolis and date from 4450 BCE. Not all metal required fire to work it. Isaac Asimov speculated that gold was the "first metal", his reasoning is. In other words, gold, as rare as it is, is sometimes found in nature as the metal. There are a few other metals that sometimes occur natively, as a result of meteors. All other metals are found in ores, a mineral-bearing rock, that require heat or some other process to liberate the metal. Another feature of gold is that it is workable as it is found, meaning that no technology beyond a stone hammer and anvil to work the metal is needed; this is a result of gold's properties of ductility. The earliest tools were stone, bone and sinew, all of which sufficed to work gold. At some unknown point the connection between heat and the liberation of metals from rock became clear, rocks rich in copper and lead came into demand.
These ores were mined. Remnants of such ancient mines have been found all over Southwestern Asia. Metalworking was being carried out by the South Asian inhabitants of Mehrgarh between 7000–3300 BCE; the end of the beginning of metalworking occurs sometime around 6000 BCE when copper smelting became common in Southwestern Asia. Ancient civilisations knew of seven metals. Here they are arranged in order of their oxidation potential: Iron +0.44 V, Tin +0.14 V Lead +0.13 V Copper −0.34 V Mercury −0.79 V Silver −0.80 V Gold −1.50 V. The oxidation potential is important because it is one indicator of how bound to the ore the metal is to be; as can be seen, iron is higher than the other six metals while gold is lower than the six above it. Gold's low oxidation is one of the main reasons; these nuggets are pure gold and are workable as they are found. Copper ore, being abundant, tin ore became the next important players in the story of metalworking. Using heat to smelt copper from ore, a great deal of copper was produced.
It was used for simple tools. However, copper by itself was too soft for tools requiring stiffness. At some point tin was added into the molten copper and bronze was born. Bronze is an alloy of tin. Bronze was an important advance because it had the edge-durability and stiffness that pure copper lacked; until the advent of iron, bronze was the most advanced metal for weapons in common use. Outside Southwestern Asia, these same advances and materials were being discovered and used around the world. China and Great Britain jumped into the use of bronze with little time being devoted to copper. Japan began the use of bronze and iron simultaneously. In the Americas things were different. Although the peoples of the Americas knew of metals, it was not until the European colonisation that metalworking for tools and weapons became common. Jewelry and art were the principal uses of metals in the Americas prior to European influence. Around 2700 BCE, production of bronze was common in locales where the necessary materials could be assembled for smelting and working the metal.
Iron was beginning to be smelted and began its emergence as an important metal for tools and weapons. The period that followed became known as the Iron Age. By the historical periods of the Pharaohs in Egypt, the Vedic Kings in India, the Tribes of Israel, the Maya civilization in North America, among other ancient populations, precious metals began to have value attached to them. In some cases rules for ownership and trade were created and agreed upon by the respective peoples. By the above periods metalworkers were skilled at creating objects of adornment, religious artifacts, trade instruments of precious metals, as well as weaponry of ferrous metals and/or alloys; these skills were finely honed and well executed. The techniques were practiced by artisans, atharvavedic practitioners and other categories of metalworkers around the globe. For example, the granulation technique was employed by numerous ancient cultures before the historic record shows people traveled to far regions to share this process.
This and many other ancient techniques are still used by metalsmiths today. As time progressed metal objects became more common, more complex; the need to further acquire and work metals grew in importance
Saint Petersburg is Russia's second-largest city after Moscow, with 5 million inhabitants in 2012, part of the Saint Petersburg agglomeration with a population of 6.2 million. An important Russian port on the Baltic Sea, it has a status of a federal subject. Situated on the Neva River, at the head of the Gulf of Finland on the Baltic Sea, it was founded by Tsar Peter the Great on 27 May 1703. During the periods 1713–1728 and 1732–1918, Saint Petersburg was the capital of Imperial Russia. In 1918, the central government bodies moved to Moscow, about 625 km to the south-east. Saint Petersburg is one of the most modern cities of Russia, as well as its cultural capital; the Historic Centre of Saint Petersburg and Related Groups of Monuments constitute a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Saint Petersburg is home to the Hermitage, one of the largest art museums in the world. Many foreign consulates, international corporations and businesses have offices in Saint Petersburg. An admirer of everything German, Peter the Great named the city, Sankt-Peterburg.
On 1 September 1914, after the outbreak of World War I, the Imperial government renamed the city Petrograd, meaning "Peter's city", in order to expunge the German name Sankt and Burg. On 26 January 1924, shortly after the death of Vladimir Lenin, it was renamed to Leningrad, meaning "Lenin's City". On 6 September 1991, Sankt-Peterburg, was returned. Today, in English the city is known as "Saint Petersburg". Local residents refer to the city by its shortened nickname, Piter; the city's traditional nicknames among Russians are the Window to Europe. Swedish colonists built Nyenskans, a fortress at the mouth of the Neva River in 1611, in what was called Ingermanland, inhabited by Finnic tribe of Ingrians; the small town of Nyen grew up around it. At the end of the 17th century, Peter the Great, interested in seafaring and maritime affairs, wanted Russia to gain a seaport in order to trade with the rest of Europe, he needed a better seaport than the country's main one at the time, on the White Sea in the far north and closed to shipping during the winter.
On 12 May 1703, during the Great Northern War, Peter the Great captured Nyenskans and soon replaced the fortress. On 27 May 1703, closer to the estuary 5 km inland from the gulf), on Zayachy Island, he laid down the Peter and Paul Fortress, which became the first brick and stone building of the new city; the city was built by conscripted peasants from all over Russia. Tens of thousands of serfs died building the city; the city became the centre of the Saint Petersburg Governorate. Peter moved the capital from Moscow to Saint Petersburg in 1712, 9 years before the Treaty of Nystad of 1721 ended the war. During its first few years, the city developed around Trinity Square on the right bank of the Neva, near the Peter and Paul Fortress. However, Saint Petersburg soon started to be built out according to a plan. By 1716 the Swiss Italian Domenico Trezzini had elaborated a project whereby the city centre would be located on Vasilyevsky Island and shaped by a rectangular grid of canals; the project is evident in the layout of the streets.
In 1716, Peter the Great appointed Frenchman Jean-Baptiste Alexandre Le Blond as the chief architect of Saint Petersburg. The style of Petrine Baroque, developed by Trezzini and other architects and exemplified by such buildings as the Menshikov Palace, Kunstkamera and Paul Cathedral, Twelve Collegia, became prominent in the city architecture of the early 18th century. In 1724 the Academy of Sciences and Academic Gymnasium were established in Saint Petersburg by Peter the Great. In 1725, Peter died at the age of fifty-two, his endeavours to modernize Russia had met with opposition from the Russian nobility—resulting in several attempts on his life and a treason case involving his son. In 1728, Peter II of Russia moved his seat back to Moscow, but four years in 1732, under Empress Anna of Russia, Saint Petersburg was again designated as the capital of the Russian Empire. It remained the seat of the Romanov dynasty and the Imperial Court of the Russian Tsars, as well as the seat of the Russian government, for another 186 years until the communist revolution of 1917.
In 1736–1737 the city suffered from catastrophic fires. To rebuild the damaged boroughs, a committee under Burkhard Christoph von Münnich commissioned a new plan in 1737; the city was divided into five boroughs, the city centre was moved to the Admiralty borough, situated on the east bank between the Neva and Fontanka. It developed along three radial streets, which meet at the Admiralty building and are now one street known as Nevsky Prospekt, Gorokhovaya Street and Voznesensky Prospekt. Baroque architecture became dominant in the city during the first sixty years, culminating in the Elizabethan Baroque, represented most notably by Italian Bartolomeo Rastrelli with such buildings as the Winter Palace. In the 1760s, Baroque architecture was succeeded by neoclassical architecture. Established in 1762, the Commission of Stone Buildings of Moscow and Saint Petersburg ruled that no structure in the
Vytegorsky District is an administrative and municipal district, one of the twenty-six in Vologda Oblast, Russia. It is located in the northwest of the oblast and borders with Pudozhsky District of the Republic of Karelia in the north, Kargopolsky District of Arkhangelsk Oblast in the east, Kirillovsky and Belozersky Districts in the southeast, Vologodsky District in the southeast, Babayevsky District in the southwest, with Podporozhsky District of Leningrad Oblast in the west; the area of the district is 13,100 square kilometers, making it the largest district in Vologda Oblast. Its administrative center is the town of Vytegra. Population: 27,139 ; the population of Vytegra accounts for 38.6% of the district's total population. The northwestern border of the district is the shore of Lake Onega, the area of the district is divided between several drainage basins; the western and the central parts belong to the basins of the rivers flowing into Lake Onega, most notably the Vytegra, the Vodla, the Andoma, the Megra.
Lake Onega belongs to the basin of the Neva River. From the east, the Andoma Hills separate the basin of Lake Onega from the basins of the Kovzha and the Kema Rivers, which are the tributaries of Lake Beloye and thus belong to the basin of the Volga. Minor areas in the northeast of the district are in the basin of Lake Lacha, itself in the basin of the Onega River. In the northeast of the district there is a point, a triple divide of the basins of the Neva, the Volga, the Onega, thus the basins of the Atlantic Ocean, the Arctic Ocean, the endorheic basins of the interior of Eurasia; this is one of the few such triple divides in the world and the only one in Russia. There are many lakes in the district; the biggest lakes are Lake Kovzhskoye, Lake Kemskoye, Lake Soydozero, Lake Kushtozero in the basin of Lake Beloye, Lake Megrskoye, Lake Tudozero, Lake Lukhtozero, Lake Shimozero in the basin of Lake Onega. Most of the area of the district is covered by coniferous forests. There are many swamps in the southwest and the east of the district.
The name originates from Finnic language, the exact meaning is unknown. The area was populated by the Finno-Ugric peoples and colonized by the Novgorod Republic. Vytegra was first mentioned in 1496, it was located on the trade route from the Volga River to Lake Onega, on the route from Saint Petersburg to Arkhangelsk. In the course of the administrative reform carried out in 1708 by Peter the Great, the area was included into Ingermanland Governorate. In 1727, it was transferred to the newly established Novgorod Governorate. In 1773, Vytegra was chartered, in 1776, Vytegorsky Uyezd was established as one of the uyezds of newly established Novgorod Viceroyalty, it became a part of Olonets Oblast. A sequence of administrative reforms followed. In 1781, Olonets Oblast was transferred to Saint Petersburg Governorate, in 1784, it was transformed into an independent administrative unit, Olonets Viceroyalty. In 1785, Vytegorsky Uyezd was merged into Pudozhsky Uyezd. In 1799, Olonets Viceroyalty was abolished and divided between Novgorod and Arkhangelsk Governorates.
Vytegorsky Uyezd was returned to Novgorod Governorate. In 1801, Olonets Governorate was established, Vytegorsky Uyezd became one of several uyezds of the governorate. In 1922, Olonets Governorate was abolished, Vytegorsky Uyezd was transferred to Petrograd Governorate, with the exception of three volosts, which were transferred to Kargopolsky Uyezd of Vologda Governorate. On February 7, 1927, Vytegorsky Uyezd was abolished and merged into Lodeynopolsky Uyezd of Leningrad Oblast. On August 1, 1927, the uyezds in Leningrad Oblast were abolished. On the territory of former Vytegorsky Uyezd four districts were established: Vytegorsky District, Andomsky District, Kovzhinsky District, Oshtinsky District; the four districts were a part of Lodeynoye Pole Okrug of Leningrad Oblast. On September 23, 1937, all four districts were transferred to newly established Vologda Oblast. During World War II, parts of Oshtinsky District were the only areas of Vologda Oblast to be occupied by Finnish troops; the Finnish advance was stopped in October 1941, but the occupation continued until June 1944, when the Soviet Army started to advance.
Andomsky and Kovzhinsky Districts were all abolished in the 1950s. On December 12, 1955, Oshtinsky District was divided between Vytegorsky and Borisovo-Sudsky Districts. On October 17, 1957, Andomsky District was merged into Vytegorsky District. In 1959, Kovzhinsky District was split between Vytegorsky Districts. Vytegorsky District is one of the areas traditionally populated by Vepsians; the Vepsians living in the district speak the central group of Veps dialects. The economy of the district is based on timber industry. There are food industry enterprises. In 1975, limestone production started in the selo of Annensky Most; the enterprise, Bely Ruchey Ore Administration, is owned by the Severstal steel plant, located in Cherepovets, extracted limestone was used for steel production. The agriculture in the district specializes in meat and milk production and has been declining since the 1990s. Vytegra is a road junction where a paved road connecting to Podporozhye in Leningrad Oblast branches