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Władysław III of Poland

Władysław III known as Władysław of Varna, was King of Poland from 1434, King of Hungary and Croatia from 1440, until his death at the Battle of Varna. Władysław III of Varna is known in Hungarian as I. Ulászló. Jagelović. Latin: Wladislaus Dei gracia Polonie, Dalmacie, Rascia etc. rex necnon terrarum Cracouie, Syradie, Cuyauie, Lithuanie princeps supremus, Russieque dominus et heres etc. English: Vladislaus by God's grace king of Poland, Dalmatia, Croatia and lands of Kraków, Sieradz, Łęczyca, Supreme Prince of Lithuania and heir of Pomerania and Ruthenia Władysław was the first-born son of Władysław II Jagiełło and Sophia of Halshany, he ascended the throne at the age of ten and was surrounded by a group of advisors headed by Cardinal Zbigniew Oleśnicki, who wanted to continue to enjoy his high status at court. In spite of that, the young ruler and his ambitious mother were aware that there was opposition to them. Despite the agreements signed between Władysław II and the Polish magnates to ensure the succession for his sons, the opposition wanted another candidate for the Polish throne: Frederick of Brandenburg, betrothed to Hedwig, Jagiełło's daughter by his second wife.

However, the conspiracy was resolved by the death of the princess, rumoured to have been poisoned by Queen Sophia. The young king's reign was difficult from the outset, his coronation was interrupted by Spytko of Melsztyn. On the next day, the customary homage of the townsfolk of Kraków did not take place due to a dispute between the temporal and spiritual lords of Mazovia over their place in the retinue. Neither did Władysław have much to say about matters of state, which were run by the powerful cleric and chancellor Oleśnicki; the situation did not change after the Sejm had gathered in Piotrków in 1438, declared the fourteen-year-old king to have attained his majority. This situation continued until 1440. However, accepting it would have led to numerous problems. Hungary was under a growing threat from the Ottoman Empire, some Polish magnates did not want to agree to the king of Poland being the monarch of Hungary, while Elisabeth, widow of the deceased King of Hungary, Albert II of Germany, attempted to keep the crown for her yet unborn child.

Such inconveniences aside, Władysław took the Hungarian throne, having engaged in a two-year civil war against Elisabeth. He had received significant support from Pope Eugene IV, in exchange for his help in organising an anti-Musilim crusade; the eighteen-year-old king, although thus far a king by title, became involved in the war against the Ottomans, having been brought up in the standard of a pious Christian monarch and ideal Christian knight, paid no heed to the interests of Poland and of the Jagiellonian dynasty. The "bulwark of Christianity" and other slogans put forward by the papal envoy Giuliano Cesarini, together with much more reasonable but only verbal promises of Venetian and papal fleets blockading the Dardanelles Straits, along with an enticing vision of a promise of victory in the Crusade of Varna against the Muslims, persuaded Władysław to engage his freshly victorious forces for another season of war, thus breaching the ten-year truce with the aggressive and still powerful Ottoman Empire.

Despite their alleged forthcoming help, the Venetian fleet carried the Muslim army from Asia into Europe but failed to sail to Varna, a surprising move that Władysław and his most senior military commander John Hunyadi failed to anticipate. The Venetian treachery placed the huge Muslim army under sultan Murad II in close proximity to the unsuspecting crusaders; as a result, when the Battle of Varna began on 10 November 1444, the Polish king and his multi-ethnic subjects did not sense that this would be for many of them their final fight. Facing the desperate circumstance the king, seeing the experienced Hunyadi fight and break the Sipahi cavalry, decided to gamble and directly attack the sultan, protected by the guard cavalry and formidable Janissary infantry; the young king was killed while leading his own 500-strong royal Polish heavy cavalry company, his charge losing impetus and coming to a standstill amongst the unyielding Janissaries protecting the sultan. The Janissaries killed the king's beheaded Władysław, displaying his head on a pole.

Disheartened by the death of their king, the Hungarian army fled the battlefield. Neither the king's body nor his armor were found. Władysław III did not marry. There is nothing strange about it because Władysław III died when he was 10 days old; the chronicler Jan Długosz, known for his antipathy towards the king and his father, alleged that there was something unusual about Władysław's sexuality, though Długosz did not specify what: "too subject to his carnal desires", "he did not abandon his lewd and despicable habits". The same Długosz wrote about him some sentences later: "No age has seen and will never see a more Catholic and holy ruler who, according to his highest goodness, has never harmed any Christian. Like a holy king and a second angel on earth, he lived a unmarried and virgin life at home and during

Philbert Blair

Philbert Duncan Blair is a former Guyanese cricketer who played first-class cricket from 1968 to 1974. He did not play Test cricket. A fast bowler, Philbert Blair made his first-class debut for Guyana in 1967-68; when the West Indies Test team were away touring Australia and New Zealand in 1968-69 he was the leading wicket-taker in the Shell Shield, with 23 wickets at an average of 21.26. He took 5 for 5 for 63 against Trinidad, he was one of the four inexperienced pace bowlers chosen for the 1969 tour, alongside Vanburn Holder, John Shepherd and Grayson Shillingford, none of whom had played Test cricket. Blair played only nine of the 19 first-class matches, taking 14 wickets at 36.35, the other three pace bowlers were preferred for the Tests. In the one-day match against Ireland, West Indies were 12 for 9 before Blair joined Shillingford to raise the final total to 25. Blair continued to play for Guyana with moderate success until the end of the 1973-74 season. Philbert Blair at Cricket Archive Philbert Blair at Cricinfo

Steve Tikolo

Stephen Ogonji Tikolo is a former Kenya cricketer, a former ODI captain. He is serving as the Head Coach of Uganda national cricket team, he was regarded as the greatest Kenyan cricketer Tikolo has scored the most runs and taken the second most wickets for the team in ODI's. Tikolo came from a cricketing family with his oldest brother Tom being a former captain of Kenya while his other brother David Tikolo played in the 1996 Cricket World Cup. Tikolo is a right-handed middle order batsman and part-time right-arm medium pace and off-spin bowler. Tikolo has represented Border in South African domestic cricket and has spent time playing in England and Bangladesh. Most he has been playing club cricket in England and in Kenya he plays for Swamibapa Cricket Club in Nairobi. In 2005 Tikolo was signed by Haverigg to play cricket in England. In 2008 Tikolo was selected as captain of The Eastern Aces in Kenya's Domestic Tournament, the Sahara Elite League In 1996 Cricket World Cup, Tikolo made his ODI debut for Kenya.

Coming in at 3 for his maiden innings Tikolo made 65 against India. Tikolo went on to play a couple more impressive innings in the Cup, top scoring for his side with 29 in their historic victory over West Indies at Pune and 96 against Sri Lanka at Kandy. Tikolo further enhanced his reputation as Kenya's premier batsman with 147 against Bangladesh in the 1997 ICC Trophy final; the innings gave them official ODI status and booked Kenya's place in England for the 1999 Cricket World Cup. It was another successful World Cup for Tikolo as he made a pair of 50's against England. In 2002 Tikolo was named as the new Kenyan captain and led from the front in the 2002 ICC Champions Trophy with innings of 93 and 69. Tikolo led the Kenyan national side during their run to the semi finals of the 2003 Cricket World Cup; this was a huge feat for a country that has not been granted Test status, still rated as the best performance by Kenya in international arena. After a poor 2004 ICC Champions Trophy, he quit as captain and instead led a players' strike in protest of internal politics.

The strike forced a new regime and he returned as captain. In 2007 he became the first player from a non Test playing country to appear in 100 ODI games and 2,500 ODI runs, his last appearance as captain, was the 2009 ICC World Cup Qualifier, where Kenya secured place for the 2011 Cricket World Cup. In August 2010, months after walking out on the team and indicating he would not play international cricket again, Tikolo announced his availability for the 2011 World Cup, he announced his retirement after the World Cup but returned at age of 42 when he was recalled for 2013 ICC World Twenty20 Qualifier in UAE. Tikolo has represented an Africa XI against an Asia XI. Tikolo's dominance of Kenyan cricket, is well highlighted that as of January 2007 he possessed six of the nine highest scores by a Kenyan batsman in ODI cricket. Tikolo has made three ODI centuries, he has been dismissed in the 90s on three occasions. In July 2012 it was announced that Tikolo had been appointed the batting coach of the Ugandan national team but in May 2013, he was coach of Kenya national under-19 cricket team and his first assignment was at the ICC under-19 World Cup Africa qualifiers.

During that tenure, Uganda won the T20 African Premier League and qualified for the World Cricket League Division II. He was named interim coach of Kenya national cricket team when he replaced Robin Brown as head coach after Kenya's failure to qualify for the 2014 ICC World Twenty20. In May 2016, Tikolo was appointed as head coach of the Uganda national cricket team ahead of World Cricket League Division Three and is scheduled to take place in 2017, he is serving as the Head Coach of the team. Steve Tikolo at ESPNcricinfo


Gnomonics is the study of the design and use of sundials. The foundations of gnomonics were known to the Ancient Greek Anaximander, which augmented the science of shadows brought back from Egypt by Thales of Miletus. Gnomonics was used by Roman architects from 25 BCE for the design of buildings. Modern gnomonics has its root in the nascent European astronomy of the 16th Century; the first works, in Latin, were published by Sebastian Münster in 1531 and Oronce Fine in 1532 followed by books in French. At the end of the 17th century, gnomonics developed notably in the application of spherical trigonometry. Several methods, both graphical and analytical, were published in books which allowed the creation of sundials of greater or lesser precision to be placed on buildings and in gardens. In his Histoire de la Gnomonique ancienne et moderne, Jean-Étienne Montucla sums up gnomonics in these words:a Qu’on ait douze plans se coupant tous à angles égaux dans une même ligne, et que ces plans, indéfiniment prolongés, en rencontrent un autre dans une situation quelconque, il s’agit de déterminer les lignes dans lesquelles ils le coupent.

When one has twelve planes all intersecting at equal angles in the same line, these planes, infinitely produced, meet any other, it is a question of determining the lines which intersect them. The Cartesian coordinates of the Sun in the horizontal coordinate system can be determined by successive changes of bases. A transformation matrix from a system B to a system B' allows for calculating the coordinates of a point or vector in system B' when its coordinates are known is system B. For example, to change the system by rotating by an angle α around the Z axis, the coordinates in the new system can be calculated from those in the old system as: = ⋅ Similarly, for rotation of an angle α around the X axis: = ⋅ And for rotation by the angle α around the Y axis: = ⋅ The Cartesian coordinates of the Sun in the horizontal system of coordinates can be calculated using change of basis matrices: = ⋅

Close the Door campaign

The Close the Door campaign is a national campaign in the United Kingdom to encourage retailers to keep their doors closed to conserve energy and reduce carbon emissions. As well as the national campaign, supported by major retailers including Marks and Spencer, John Lewis Partnership and Boots, there are local campaigns in various cities including Cambridge, Birmingham and York. In addition to encouraging the participation of retailers, consumers are encouraged to participate by closing shop doors and boycotting shops that refuse to close their doors; the Campaign is supported by the shopworkers Union USDAW both because of the energy reduction and the increase in staff comfort. The Carbon Trust and the British Retail Consortium are members of the steering group. Energy conservation in the United Kingdom Ethical consumerism Energy in the United Kingdom Close the Door - official site

Woody Boyd

Woodrow Huckleberry Tiberius Boyd is a character on the American television show Cheers, portrayed by Woody Harrelson. Woody came to Cheers at the beginning of the fourth season of Cheers in 1985 in the episode "Birth, Death and Rice". Woody appeared in 200 episodes of Cheers between 1985 and 1993, he made a guest appearance on Frasier in the episode "The Show Where Woody Shows Up". He is portrayed good-hearted. Woody was born on July 23 and hails from Hanover, where he was voted the smartest student in school, his mother's name was Margaret and his father's name is Edgel. He and his childhood sweetheart, Beth Curtis, were voted "Couple Most Likely to Explode," as they were both obese at the time, it was revealed that they always ate, to excess, around one another due to their palpable sexual tension. Woody followed in Coach's footsteps in many ways, failing to understand the most obvious jokes and situations. Woody was a straight man for all of the other characters at Cheers, though his humor stemmed from his misunderstandings.

Woody seemed to have an off-center mentality, misunderstanding others' comments much as Coach had done. For example, when Bill Medley of The Righteous Brothers appears and starts singing "You've Lost That Loving Feeling", Woody asks him, "How come you changed your name from Righteous?" With the exception of Carla and Sam, Woody always addresses other characters by their honorific. Sometimes this leads to awkward phrasing such as referring to Lilith as Mrs. Dr. Sternin-Crane. Woody arrived at Cheers expecting to meet his "pen pal" Coach, with whom he exchanged pens instead of letters. Upon learning of Coach's death, he filled the open bartender position, was accepted by the staff and regulars, he developed a "big brother/little brother" relationship with Sam Malone, the owner of Cheers. In the coming years, he filled the void left by Coach and married the wealthy Kelly Gaines, overcoming her father's objections to Woody's lowly station in life as well as conflicting religious views: he's Lutheran Church–Missouri Synod, she's "Evangelical Lutheran Church of America".

In the final season, Frasier Crane orchestrated an experiment that went awry and resulted in Woody's election to the Boston City Council. He and Kelly were expecting their first child. Frasier extrapolates on Woody's interest in a political career to the point that Woody becomes President of the United States and shows his displeasure with another country by using "The Bomb". Woody Harrelson reprised his role in the 1990 Walt Disney anthology television series episode Disneyland 35th Anniversary Celebration, where his young self in a flashback is played by Branden Maciel; the character appeared on The Simpsons episode "Fear of Flying". Woody makes a guest appearance on Frasier, the spin-off show from Cheers, in the season 6 episode "The Show Where Woody Shows Up". During a visit to Seattle he reconnects with Frasier Crane. After a one-night reunion, the two begin to spend a great deal of time with each other – which turns into an ordeal for both, as they realize they have moved on from their past and settled into new lives, with neither man seeing the other's life as being fulfilling.

The two men decide to part company on good terms, after sharing a final drink with each other, leading Woody to utter his final line: "Cheers". Although this is Woody's only appearance on the show, he is referenced both prior to and after this; when Sam visits Frasier in the season 2 episode, "The Show Where Sam Comes Back", he reveals that Kelly and Woody's first child was a boy, of normal intelligence. In the season 9 episode "Cheerful Goodbyes," Frasier reveals that at his going-away party at Cheers before returning to Seattle, Woody grabbed onto his legs and begged him not to go. Woody's political career was not mentioned in Frasier. "Woody Harrelson, Part 2: When War Comes Home." NPR Nov 16, 2009. Web. Jan 11, 2012. <>. This is Terry Gross's interview with actor Woody Harrelson. Transcript and audio are available