Quedlinburg is a town situated just north of the Harz mountains, in the district of Harz in the west of Saxony-Anhalt, Germany. In 1994, the castle and old town were added to the UNESCO World Heritage List. Quedlinburg has a population of more than 24,000; the town was the capital of the district of Quedlinburg until 2007. Several locations in the town are designated stops along a scenic holiday route, the Romanesque Road; the town of Quedlinburg is known to have existed since at least the early 9th century, when there was a settlement known as Gross Orden on the eastern bank of the River Bode. It was first mentioned as a town in 922 as part of a donation by King Henry the Fowler; the records of this donation were held by the abbey of Corvey. According to legend, Henry had been offered the German crown at Quedlinburg in 919 by Franconian nobles, giving rise to the town being called the "cradle of the German Reich". After Henry's death in 936, his widow Saint Matilda founded a religious community for women on the castle hill, where daughters of the higher nobility were educated.
The main task of this collegiate foundation, Quedlinburg Abbey, was to pray for the memory of King Henry and the rulers who came after him. The Annals of Quedlinburg were compiled there; the first abbess was a granddaughter of King Henry and St. Matilda; the Quedlinburg castle complex, founded by King Henry I and built up by Emperor Otto I in 936, was an imperial Pfalz of the Saxon emperors. The Pfalz, including the male convent, was in the valley, where today the Roman Catholic Church of St. Wiperti is situated, while the women's convent was located on the castle hill. In 973, shortly before the death of Emperor Otto I, a Reichstag was held at the imperial court in which Mieszko, duke of Polans, Boleslav, duke of Bohemia, as well as numerous other nobles from as far away as Byzantium and Bulgaria, gathered to pay homage to the emperor. On the occasion, Otto the Great introduced his new daughter-in-law Theophanu, a Byzantine princess whose marriage to Otto II brought hope for recognition and continued peace between the rulers of the Eastern and Western empires.
In 994, Otto III granted the right of market and coining, established the first market place to the north of the castle hill. The town became a member of the Hanseatic League in 1426. Quedlinburg Abbey disputed the independence of the town, which sought the aid of the Bishopric of Halberstadt. In 1477, Abbess Hedwig, aided by her brothers Ernest and Albert, broke the resistance of the town and expelled the bishop's forces. Quedlinburg was forced to leave the Hanseatic League and was subsequently protected by the Electorate of Saxony. Both town and abbey converted to Lutheranism in 1539 during the Protestant Reformation. In 1697, Elector Frederick Augustus I of Saxony sold his rights to Quedlinburg to Elector Frederick III of Brandenburg for 240,000 thalers. Quedlinburg Abbey contested Brandenburg-Prussia's claims throughout the 18th century, however; the abbey was secularized in 1802 during the German Mediatisation, Quedlinburg passed to the Kingdom of Prussia as part of the Principality of Quedlinburg.
Part of the Napoleonic Kingdom of Westphalia from 1807–13, it was included within the new Prussian Province of Saxony in 1815. In all this time, ladies ruled Quedlinburg as abbesses without "taking the veil"; the last of these ladies was a Swedish princess, an early fighter for women's rights, Sofia Albertina. During the Nazi regime, the memory of Henry I became a sort of cult, as Heinrich Himmler saw himself as the reincarnation of the "most German of all German" rulers; the collegiate church and castle were to be turned into a shrine for Nazi Germany. The Nazi Party tried to create a new religion; the cathedral was closed during the war. The local crematory was kept busy burning the victims of the Langenstein-Zwieberge concentration camp. Georg Ay was local party chief from 1931 until the end of the war. Liberation in 1945 brought back the Protestant bishop and the church bells, the Nazi-style eagle was taken down from the tower. During the last months of World War II, the United States military had occupied Quedlinburg.
In the 1980s, upon the death of one of the US military men, the theft of medieval art from Quedlinburg came to light. Quedlinburg was administered within Bezirk Halle while part of the Communist East Germany from 1949 to 1990, it became part of the state of Saxony-Anhalt upon German reunification in 1990. During Quedlinburg's Communist era, restoration specialists from Poland were called in during the 1980s to carry out repairs on the old architecture. Today, Quedlinburg is a center of restoration of Fachwerk houses; the town is located north of the Harz mountains, about 123 m above NHN. The nearest mountains reach 181 m above NHN; the largest part of the town is located in the western part of the Bode river valley. This river comes from the Harz mountains and flows into the river Saale, a tributary of the river Elbe; the municipal area of Quedlinburg is 120.42 square kilometres. Before the incorporation of the two municipalities of Gernrode and Bad Suderode in January 2014 it was only 78.14 square kilometres.
Quedlinburg has a oceanic climate resulting from prevailing westerlies, blowing from the high-pressure area in the central Atlantic towards Scandinavia. Snowfall occurs every winter. January and February are the coldest months of the year, with an average temperature of 0.5 °C and 1.5 °C. July and August are the hottest months, with an average temperature of 17 °C and 18 °C; the average annual precipitation is close t
Zbigniew of Poland
Zbigniew, was a Prince of Poland during 1102-1107. He was first-born son of Władysław I Herman and Przecława, a member of the Prawdzic family. Zbigniew was considered illegitimate, after the birth of his half-brother Bolesław was destined for the Church. At the end of the 11th century, when real power in the country was held by the Palatine Sieciech, the opposition of some Silesian magnates caused the return of Zbigniew to Poland and forced Władysław I to recognize him as his successor; the intrigues of Sieciech and Władysław I's second wife Judith Maria caused Zbigniew and his younger half-brother to become allies, both in the end forced their father to divide the country between them and to exile the Palatine. After the death of his father, Zbigniew obtained the northern part of the country as an equal ruler with Bolesław. However, conflicts between them arose, because Zbigniew, as the elder, considered himself the sole rightful heir of the kingdom, he began to search for allies against Bolesław.
During 1102-1106 a fratricidal war for supremacy ensued, in which Zbigniew suffered complete defeat and was forced to go into exile in Germany. Under the pretext of restoring him, Emperor Henry V invaded Poland in 1109, but was defeated at Głogów. In subsequent years, Boleslaw failed to defeat Bohemia, in 1111 had to make peace with it and with his overlord, the Emperor. One of the conditions of Henry V was the return of Zbigniew to Poland, where he received a minor domain. For unknown reasons, shortly after his return Zbigniew was blinded, died. According to 15th-century reports, Władysław I Herman married a Pole, a member of the Prawdzic family; this union took place ca. 1070 under Slavic rites without a church ceremony. Some scholars argue, they claim that not until the end of the 12th century did the Papal legate Peter of Capua, who stayed in Poland during 1197, order that only marriages performed under Church rites would be considered as legitimate, following the writings of the Rocznik krakowsk.
The exact birth date of Władysław I Herman's first-born son is unknown. According to Oswald Balzer, Zbigniew was born in the first half of the 1070s, Gerard Labuda agrees a birth date in the early 1070s, while Roman Grodecki argues for Zbigniew's birth taking place around 1073, Kazimierz Jasiński for a birth date between 1070 and 1073. Zbigniew's legitimacy was questioned in the years of his life, when it was bruited abroad that he was the son of Władysław I's concubine. Despite this Zbigniew grew up in Władysław I's court and in the absence of others, was recognized as his father's heir. In 1079 after his older brother Bolesław II the Generous was deposed, Władysław I became in the ruler of Poland. By this time he had already had Masovia as his own separate district. According to historians, the new ruler was noted as incompetent, the population began to miss the achievements of the exiled Prince. In 1080, Władysław I married daughter of Duke Vratislaus II of Bohemia; the elevation of his father to the Princely throne, the departure of his mother, sent with her family meant for young Zbigniew his removal from the first place in the succession.
Around 1086 Władysław I's rule in Poland was threatened by the coronation of his father-in-law Vratislaus II as King of Bohemia and Poland, who at the same time concluded an alliance with King Ladislaus I of Hungary. Władysław I's legitimacy was questioned by the supporters of the exiled Bolesław II and his only son and rightful heir, Mieszko Bolesławowic. Afraid of losing his position, in 1086 Władysław I recalled his nephew from their Hungarian exile. Mieszko received the district of Kraków and married with a Rurikid princess; these moves led the opposition to stop questioning the legality of Władysław I's rule. The situation was further complicated by the prince. Zbigniew, his first-born son, couldn't be considered as heir, because he was a product of a union not recognized by the Church. In 1086, Judith of Bohemia gave birth to a son, the future Bolesław III Wrymouth, with this Zbigniew's situation changed dramatically. In that year, he was placed in the Canonry of Kraków, despite he was too young to be ordained a priest.
This position was arranged by Judith of Bohemia to keep Zbigniew away from the line of succession. Dowager Duchess Maria Dobroniega, Zbigniew's paternal grandmother, guided his ecclesiastical studies. It's known that the first teacher of Zbigniew was Otto, who became Bishop of Bamberg. In addition to the religion teachings, he taught him there dialectic and the works of Isidore of Seville. Due to his young age, Zbigniew hadn't received the customary priestly journey. A few months after the birth of her son, Judith of Bohemia died. In 1089 Władysław I married again; the chosen bride was Judith Maria, sister of Henry IV, Holy Roman Emperor and widow of the ex-King Solomon of Hungary. Zbigniew's relationship with her was a cold one; the position of Bolesław as legitimate heir was still threatened by Mieszko Bolesławowic, popular with the Polish aristocracy. This contributed with his death in 1089 poisoned by orders of Sieciech and Judith Maria. In that year, Zbigniew was sent to Saxony, thanks to the intrigues of his new stepmother.
Once there he was placed in Quedlinburg Abbey. There w
Mazovia is a historical region in mid-north-eastern Poland. It spans the North European Plain between Lodz and Bialystok, with Warsaw being the unofficial capital and largest city. Throughout the centuries, Mazovia developed a separate sub-culture featuring diverse folk songs, architecture and traditions different to those of other Poles. Historical Mazovia existed from the Middle Ages until the partitions of Poland and consisted of three voivodeships with the capitals in Warsaw, Płock and Rawa; the main city of the region was Płock, however, in the Early Modern Times it lost its importance to Warsaw, which became the capital of Poland. From 1138, Mazovia was governed by a separate branch of the Piast dynasty and when the last ruler of the independent Duchy of Mazovia died, it was incorporated to the Polish Crown in 1526. During the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth over 20% of Mazovian population was categorized as petty nobility. Between 1816 and 1844, the Mazovian Governorate was established, which encompassed the south of the region along with Łęczyca Land and south-eastern Kuyavia.
The former inhabitants of Mazovia are the Masurians, who, as Protestants, took refuge in neighboring East Prussia in the so-called region of Masuria. The borders of contemporary Mazovian Voivodeship, created in 1999, do not reflect its original size as they don't include the Mazovian cities of Łomża and Łowicz, but include the Lesser Polish Radom and Siedlce. Mazovia has a landscape without lakes, it is spread over the Mazovian Lowland, on both sides of the Vistula river and its confluence with Narew and Bug. Forests cover one-fifth of the region, with the large Kampinos Forest, Puszcza Biała and Puszcza Zielona. In the north Mazovia borders on the Masurian subregion of former Prussia, in the east on Podlachia, in the south on Lesser Poland and in the west on Greater Poland; the area of Mazovia is 33,500 km2. It has population of 5 million; when the Slavs came to this region from the surrounding area of Polesie, they mingled with the descendants of Vistula Veneti and with other people who had settled here such as the Wielbark people.
This created a Lechitic tribe: Mazovians. The historical region of Mazovia in the beginning encompassed only the territories on the right bank of Vistula near Płock and had strong connections with Greater Poland. In the period of the rule of the first monarchs of the Piast State, Płock was one of their seats, on the Cathedral Hill they raised palatium. In the period 1037 -- 1047 it was the capital of the Mazovian state of Masław. Between 1079 and 1138 this city was de facto the capital of Poland. Since 1075 it has been the seat of the diocese encompassing northern Mazovia. During the 9th century Mazovia was inhabited by the tribe of Mazovians, it was incorporated into the Polish state in the second half of 10th century under the Piast ruler Mieszko I. In 1138 the duchy of Mazovia was established, during the 12th and 13th centuries it joined temporarily various adjacent lands and endured invasions of Prussians and Ruthenians. To protect its northern section Conrad I of Mazovia called in the Teutonic Knights in 1226 and granted them the Chełmno Land.
After the reunification of the Polish state by Władysław I in the early 14th century, Mazovia became its fief in 1351. In the second half of 15th century western Mazovia and in 1526/1529 the main part was incorporated into the Polish state. In the 15th century the eastern part of the region was settled by the yeomanry. Mazovia was considered underdeveloped in comparison with Greater Poland and Lesser Poland, with the lowest urban population. In the Early Modern Times Mazovia was known for exporting grain and fur, it was distinct because there was no reformation here. Mazovia was divided into three voivodeships, each of them divided into lands, each of them divided into counties; the Polish-Lithuanian Union of Lublin established Mazovia as the central region of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, with Warsaw rising to prominence as the seat of the state legislature. In 1596 King Sigismund III Vasa moved the Polish capital from Kraków to Warsaw. During the 17th and 18th centuries Swedish, Transylvanian and Russian invasions wreaked havoc on the region.
In 1793 western Mazovia, two years the rest of the region became part of Prussia. In 1807 it became part of the Duchy of Warsaw. In 1815 the region was incorporated into the Congress Kingdom of Poland, dependent on Russia. In the 19th century Mazovia was the site of Polish rebellions against Russian rule. In that era pre-partition Mazovia was divided among Płock and Augustów. Since 1918 Mazovia has been a part of the resurrected Poland, being equivalent to the Warsaw Voivodeship. Under the German occupation of Warsaw during World War II, the city’s population decreased as a result of executions, the extermination of the city’s Jews, the deaths of some 200,000 inhabitants during the Warsaw Uprising of 1944, the deportation of the city’s left-bank population following the uprising. Shortly after
Mainz is the capital and largest city of Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany. The city is located on the Rhine river at its confluence with the Main river, opposite Wiesbaden on the border with Hesse. Mainz is an independent city with a population of 206,628 and forms part of the Frankfurt Rhine-Main Metropolitan Region. Mainz was founded by the Romans in the 1st Century BC during the Classical antiquity era, serving as a military fortress on the northernmost frontier of the Roman Empire and as the provincial capital of Germania Superior. Mainz became an important city in the 8th Century AD as part of the Holy Roman Empire, becoming the capital of the Electorate of Mainz and seat of the Archbishop-Elector of Mainz, the Primate of Germany. Mainz is famous as the home of Johannes Gutenberg, the inventor of the movable-type printing press, who in the early 1450s manufactured his first books in the city, including the Gutenberg Bible. Before the 20th century, the city was known in English as Mentz and in French as Mayence.
Mainz was damaged during World War II, with more than 30 air raids destroying about 80 percent of the city's center, including most of the historic buildings. Today, Mainz is a center of wine production. Mainz is located on the 50th latitude, on the left bank of the river Rhine, opposite the confluence of the Main with the Rhine; the population in the early 2012 was 200,957, an additional 18,619 people maintain a primary residence elsewhere but have a second home in Mainz. The city is part of the Rhein Metro area comprising 5.8 million people. Mainz can be reached from Frankfurt International Airport in 25 minutes by commuter railway. Mainz is a river port city as the Rhine which connects with its main tributaries, such as the Neckar, the Main and the Moselle and thereby continental Europe with the Port of Rotterdam and thus the North Sea. Mainz's history and economy are tied to its proximity to the Rhine handling much of the region's waterborne cargo. Today's huge container port hub allowing trimodal transport is located on the North Side of the town.
The river provides another positive effect, moderating Mainz's climate. After the last ice age, sand dunes were deposited in the Rhine valley at what was to become the western edge of the city; the Mainz Sand Dunes area is now a nature reserve with a unique landscape and rare steppe vegetation for this area. While the Mainz legion camp was founded in 13/12 BC on the Kästrich hill, the associated vici and canabae were erected in direction to the Rhine. Historical sources and archaeological findings both prove the importance of the military and civilian Mogontiacum as a port city on the Rhine. Mainz experiences an oceanic climate; the Roman stronghold or castrum Mogontiacum, the precursor to Mainz, was founded by the Roman general Drusus as early as 13/12 BC. As related by Suetonius the existence of Mogontiacum is well established by four years though several other theories suggest the site may have been established earlier. Although the city is situated opposite the mouth of the Main, the name of Mainz is not from Main, the similarity being due to diachronic analogy.
Main is from the name the Romans used for the river. Linguistic analysis of the many forms that the name "Mainz" has taken on make it clear that it is a simplification of Mogontiacum; the name appears to be Celtic and it is. However, it had become Roman and was selected by them with a special significance; the Roman soldiers defending Gallia had adopted the Gallic god Mogons, for the meaning of which etymology offers two basic options: "the great one", similar to Latin magnus, used in aggrandizing names such as Alexander magnus, "Alexander the Great" and Pompeius magnus, "Pompey the great", or the god of "might" personified as it appears in young servitors of any type whether of noble or ignoble birth. Mogontiacum was an important military town throughout Roman times due to its strategic position at the confluence of the Main and the Rhine; the town of Mogontiacum grew up between the river. The castrum was the base of Legio XIV Gemina and XVI Gallica, XXII Primigenia, IV Macedonica, I Adiutrix, XXI Rapax, XIV Gemina, among others.
Mainz was a base of a Roman river fleet, the Classis Germanica. Remains of Roman troop ships and a patrol boat from the late 4th century were discovered in 1982/86 and may now be viewed in the Museum für Antike Schifffahrt. A temple dedicated to Isis Panthea and Magna Mater is open to the public; the city was the provincial capital of Germania Superior, had an important funeral monument dedicated to Drusus, to which people made pilgrimages for an annual festival from as far away as Lyon. Among the famous buildings were a bridge across the Rhine; the city was the site of the assassination of emperor Severus Alexander in 235. Alemanni forces under Rando sacked the city in 368. From the last day of 405 or 406, the Siling and Asding Vandals, the Suebi, the Alans, other Germanic tribes crossed the Rhine at Mainz. Christian chronicles relate that the bishop, was put to death by the Alemannian Crocus; the way was open to the invasion of Gaul. Throughout the changes of time, the Roman castrum never seems to have been permanently abandoned as a military installation, a testimony to Roman military judgemen
Łęczyca is a town of 14,362 inhabitants in central Poland. Situated in the Łódź Voivodeship, it is the county seat of the Łęczyca County; the town was named after a Slavic tribe called Leczanie, which inhabited central Poland in the early Middle Ages. Some scholars however claim that the town was named after an Old Polish word łęg, which means a swampy plain. In medieval Latin documents, Łęczyca is called Lonsin, Lunciz, Loncizia and Lunchicia. In the early 12th century, Gallus Anonymus called Łęczyca “Lucic”, in 1154, Arab geographer Muhammad al-Idrisi named it Nugrada, placing it among other main towns of the Kingdom of Poland, such as Kraków, Gniezno, Wrocław and Santok. Łęczyca lies in the middle of the county, has the area of 8.95 km2. In the past, the town was the capital of the Land of Łęczyca, turned into Łęczyca Voivodeship. In the Second Polish Republic and in 1945 - 1975, Łęczyca belonged to Lodz Voivodeship. In 1975-1998, it was part of Plock Voivodeship; the geometric centre of Poland is located near Łęczyca.
Łęczyca is one of the oldest Polish cities, mentioned in the 12th century. It was the place of the first recorded meeting of Sejm, the Polish parliament, in 1182. In 1229 it became the capital of the Duchy of Łęczyca, which in 1263 was split into two parts - the Duchy of Łęczyca and the Duchy of Sieradz. In the early 14th century, the Łęczyca Voivodeship was created; this administrative unit of the Kingdom of Poland existed until the Partitions of Poland in the late 18th century. Łęczyca, which lies in the centre of Poland, was for centuries one of the most important cities of the country. It received Magdeburg rights before 1267, in 1331 the Teutonic Knights sacked the city during one of their repeated incursions into Poland. A considerable number of buildings were burned down, including two churches. A few decades on the initiative of Casimir the Great, the city was walled and a castle built to the southeast of the city.Łęczyca prospered in the period between the mid-14th and mid-17th centuries.
The royal castle, built by Casimir the Great, was located on a small hill, protected by a moat with water from the Bzura river. The complex was made from red brick, set on stone foundations, it was protected with a tower located in its southwestern corner. Gate tower was placed in the western wall, in the basement was a prison, in the courtyard there was a two-storey tenement building. Rooms of that building housed meetings of the Royal Council. In 1964, widespread renovation of the complex began. Another building was added at that time. Soon after its completion in the mid-14th century, the castle was named one of royal residences, the seat of the Starosta of Łęczyca. In 1406, it was burned by the Teutonic Knights, but the complex was rebuilt so that in 1409, King Władysław II Jagiełło attended here a meeting of his advisors, discussing the oncoming war with the Knights. Following the Battle of Grunwald, a number of high-ranking Teutonic prisoners was kept here for ransom. Four sessions of the Sejm took place here: in 1420, 1448, 1454 i 1462.
Furthermore, the castle served as headquarters of King Casimir IV Jagiellon, during the Thirteen Years' War. At that time, the Łęczyca Voivodeship was divided into three counties - Orzel and Łęczyca. In 1420, a Bohemian delegation offered here Czech crown to Jagiełło; the city's prominence came to an end with the Swedish invasion of Poland when the castle was overrun and most of the city once again destroyed, it remained in a state of crisis until the Partitions. Following the invasion of Poland at the start of the Second World War, Łęczyca was occupied by Nazi Germany and incorporated into the region known as Reichsgau Wartheland as part of the district of Lentschütz. In January 1942 there was a forced labor camp operating near the town. After the war it was reintegrated into the People's Republic of Poland; because of its royal history Łęczyca is more tourist-worthy than its current size might suggest. Some of the more interesting sights include: The Royal Castle - dating from the 14th century, rebuilt from scratch after 1964.
The Church of St Andrew the Apostle—the current church dates was consecrated in 1425. The former Dominican monastery in Ul. Pocztowa. Former political internees include Władysław Frasyniuk; the Cistercian church and monastery in ul. Poznańska, built between 1636-1643; the defensive walls of Łęczyca, some of which are still extant. The original walls enclosed an area of 9 hectares, amounted to 1150 metres in length and 7 metres in height; the town plan is still recognisably that of a medieval town. A couple of kilometres away are the Collegiate church and the earthworks at the site of the medieval settlement of Tum. 1228-1232 Henry I the Bearded 1232-1233 Konrad of Masovia 1234-1247 Konrad of Masovia 1247-1260 Casimir I of Mazovia 1260-1275 Leszek the Black 1275-1294 divided into two duchies of Sieradz and Łęczyca 1294-1297 Ladislaus I the Short 1297-1305 Wenceslaus II of Bohemia after 1305 parts of the united Kingdom of Poland as two vassal duchies incorporated as Łęczyca Voivodeship and Sieradz Voivodeship.
1233-1234 Konrad of Masovia 1275-1294 Casimir II of Łęczy
Lubusz Land is a historical region and cultural landscape in Poland and Germany on both sides of the Oder river. The settlement area of the West Slavic Leubuzzi tribe, the swampy area was located east of March of Brandenburg and west of Greater Poland, south of Pomerania and north of Silesia. Presently its eastern part lies within the Polish Lubusz Voivodeship, the western part with its historical capital Lebus in the German state of Brandenburg; when in 928 King Henry I of Germany crossed the Elbe river to conquer the lands of the Veleti, he did not subdue the Leubuzzi people settling beyond the Spree. Their territory was either inherited by the first Polish ruler Mieszko I or conquered by him in the early period of his rule. According to the chronicler Widukind of Corvey, in the beginning of Mieszkos' reign he ruled over the tribe called the Licicaviki, now identified with the Leubuzzi of the Lubusz Land. After Mieszkos' death the whole country was inherited by his son Duke, King, Bolesław I Chrobry.
After the German Northern March got lost in a 983 Slavic rebellion, Duke Bolesław and King Otto III of Germany in 991 agreed at Quedlinburg to jointly conquer the remaining Lutician territory, Otto coming from the west and Bolesław starting from Lubusz in the east. However, they did not succeed. Instead Otto's successor King Henry II of Germany in the rising conflict over the adjacent Lusatian march concluded an alliance with the Lutici and attacked Bolesław. Lubusz Land remained under Polish control after King Mieszko II Lambert in 1031 had to withdraw from the adjacent, just conquered March of Lusatia and accept the overlordship of Emperor Conrad II. In 1125 Duke Bolesław III Wrymouth of Poland established the Bishopric of Lebus to secure Lubusz Land. 1124-1125 records note that the new Bishop of Lebus was nominated by Duke Bolesław under the Archbishopric of Gniezno. However, from the beginning Gniezno's role as metropolia of the Lebus diocese was challenged by the claims of the mighty Archbishops of Magdeburg, who tried to make Lebus their suffragan.
The Polish position was decisively enfeebled by the process of fragmentation after the death of Duke Bolesław III in 1138. When the Duchy of Silesia was restored to the descendants of Władysław II the Exile in 1163, Lubusz Land together with Lower Silesia was given to his eldest son Bolesław I the Tall. Lubusz remained under the rule of the Silesian Piasts, though Bolesław's son Duke Henry I the Bearded in 1206 signed an agreement with Duke Władysław III Spindleshanks of Greater Poland to swap it for the Kalisz Region; this agreement however did not last as it provoked the revolt of Władysław's nephew Władysław Odonic, while in addition the Lusatian margrave Conrad II of Landsberg took this occasion to invade Lubusz. Duke Henry I appealed to Emperor Otto IV and started an armed expedition, until he was once again able to secure his possession of the region after Margrave Conrad had died in 1210; the resistance against the Imperial expansion waned as the Silesian territories were again fragmented after the death of Duke Henry II the Pious of Wrocław at the Battle of Legnica in 1241.
His younger son Mieszko held the title of a "Duke of Lubusz", but died only one year after which his territory fell to his elder brother Bolesław II the Bald. In 1248 Bolesław II Duke of Legnica sold Lubusz to Magdeburg's Archbishop Wilbrand von Käfernburg and the Ascanian margraves of Brandenburg in 1249, wielding the secular reign; as to secular rule Lubusz Land was separated from Silesia, according to canon law however, the Lebus diocese, comprising most of Lubusz Land, remained subordinate to the Gniezno metropolia. Meanwhile, the Brandenburg margraves forwarded the incorporation of Lubusz Land into their New March and expanded further to the northeast after the acquisition of the Santok castellany in 1296 on the forest areas between the Duchy of Pomerania and Greater Poland; the Lebus bishops tried to maintain their affiliation with Poland and in 1276 therefore moved their residence east of the Oder river to Górzyca, an episcopal fief. When in 1320 the Brandenburg House of Ascania became extinct, King Władysław I the Elbow-high took the chance, allied with Bishop Stephen II and campaigned the New March.
In return the head of secular government in Lubusz, governor Erich of Wulkow, loyal to the new Brandenburg margrave Louis I of Wittelsbach and captured the episcopal possessions in 1325, burning down the Górzyca cathedral. Bishop Stephen fled to Poland. In 1354 Bishop Henry Bentsch reconciled with Margrave Louis II and the episcopal possessions were returned; the see of the bishopric returned to Lebus. In 1373 the diocese was again devastated by a Bohemian army, when Emperor Charles IV of Luxembourg took the Brandenburg margraviate from the House of Wittelsbach; the see of the bishopric now moved to Fürstenwalde. In 1424 the Lebus bishopric became a suffragan of the Archdiocese of Magdeburg leaving the Gniezno ecclesiastical province. In 1518 Bishop Dietrich von Bülow bought the secular lordship of Beeskow-Storkow, in secular respect a Bohemian fief, in religious respect no part of his diocese but of the Diocese of Meissen; the castle in Beeskow became the episcopal residence. The last Catholic bishop was Georg von Blumenthal, who died in 1550 after a heroic non-military counter-reformatory campaign.
However, when in 1547 Bishop Georg tried to recruit and arm troops in order to join the Catholic Imperial forces in the Smalkaldic War, his vassal city of Beeskow refused to obey. From 1555 the bishopric was secularised and became a Lutheran diocese
Płock is a city on the Vistula river in central Poland. It is located in the Masovian Voivodeship, having been the capital of the Płock Voivodeship. According to the data provided by GUS on 30 June 2009 there were 126,675 inhabitants in the city, its full ceremonial name, according to the preamble to the City Statute, is Stołeczne Książęce Miasto Płock. It is used in ceremonial documents as well as for preserving an old tradition. Płock is now a capital of the powiat in the west of the Mazovian Voivodeship. From 1079 - 1138 it was the first historical capital of Poland, its cathedral contains the sarcophagi of a number of Polish monarchs. It is the cultural, scientific and transportation center of the west and north Masovian region; the first Jewish settlers came to the city in the 14th century, responding to the extension of rights by the Polish kings. They built a community and constituted a large portion of the population through the 19th century, sometimes more than 40%. Jews contributed to expansion of trades and crafts, helped the process of industrialization.
In 1939, they made up 26% of the city's population. After the 1939 invasion of Poland, the German Nazis established a Jewish ghetto in Płock in 1940, they exterminated most of them in the Holocaust. By the war's end, only 300 Jewish residents were known to have survived, of more than 10,000 in the region; the area was long inhabited by the pagan peoples. In the 10th century, a fortified location was established high of the Vistula River's bank; this location was strategic for centuries. Its location was a great asset. In 1009 a Benedictine monastery was established here, it became a center of art for the area. In 1075, a diocese seat was created here for the Christian church. Płock was the capital city during the reign of the Polish monarchs Władysław I Herman and Bolesław III Wrymouth, it was a seat of several of the dukes of Masovia. During the rule of the first monarchs of the Piast dynasty prior to the Baptism of Poland, Płock served as one of the monarchial seats, including that of Prince Mieszko I and King Bolesław I the Brave.
The king built the original fortifications on Tumskie Hill. From 1037–1047, Płock was capital of the independent Mazovian state of Masław. Płock has been the residence of many Mazovian princes. From 1079 to 1138, the city was the capital of Poland earning its title as the Ducal Capital City of Płock, it served as the medieval capital during the reigns of the Polish monarchs Władysław I Herman and Bolesław III Wrymouth. The city suffered major losses in population due to plague and warfare, with wars between Sweden and Poland in the late 17th and early 18th centuries. At that time, the Swedes destroyed much of the city. In the late 18th century, it took down the old city walls, made a New Town, filled with many German migrants. In the 19th century, the city was included within the region controlled by the Russian Empire, when Poland was divided among it, Austria-Hungary, it was a seat of an active center. It laid out a new city plan in the early 19th century. Many of its finest buildings were constructed in this period in the Classical style.
It had a scientific society before mid-century, in the late 19th century began to industrialize. Germany attacked Poland in 1939, began to take over its government annecting the town to the Reich as part of the Regierungsbezirk Zichenau, it impressed people as forced laborers for German factories. The Germans renamed the city in 1941 to Schröttersburg, after the former Prussian Upper President Friedrich Leopold von Schrötter; the Museum of Płock Mazowiecki provides exhibits and interpretation of the city and region's history. Płock is the oldest legislated seat of the Roman Catholic diocese, it is one of the five oldest cathedrals in Poland. From the visions of Feliksa Kozłowska in 1893, the Mariavite order of priests originated working to renew clergy within the Roman Catholic Church. Despite repeated attempts, they were not recognized by the Vatican and in the early 20th century established a separate and independent denomination; this site is the main seat of the Mariavite bishops. Their most important church was built here in the beginning of the 20th century.
Poland in total has about 25,000 members of the Old Catholic Mariavite Church, as it is now named, with another 5,000 in France. A smaller breakaway church, the Catholic Mariavite Church, which has an integrated female priesthood, has 3,000 members in Poland; the Jewish presence in Płock dates back many centuries to the 13th and 14th centuries, when records include them. The Polish kings extended rights to them in 1264 and the 14th century, provided continued political support through the centuries. At the beginning of the 19th century, their more than 1200 residents comprised more than 48% of the city's population in what is considered the city's Old Town, it varied as German migrants were arriving in the region, the