SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

W. B. Yeats

William Butler Yeats was an Irish poet and one of the foremost figures of 20th-century literature. A pillar of the Irish literary establishment, he helped to found the Abbey Theatre, in his years served two terms as a Senator of the Irish Free State, he was a driving force behind the Irish Literary Revival along with Lady Gregory, Edward Martyn and others. Yeats was born in Sandymount and educated there and in London, he spent childhood holidays in County Sligo and studied poetry from an early age, when he became fascinated by Irish legends and the occult. These topics feature in the first phase of his work, which lasted until the turn of the 20th century, his earliest volume of verse was published in 1889, its slow-paced and lyrical poems display debts to Edmund Spenser, Percy Bysshe Shelley, the poets of the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood. From 1900, his poetry grew more realistic, he renounced the transcendental beliefs of his youth, though he remained preoccupied with physical and spiritual masks, as well as with cyclical theories of life.

In 1923, he was awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature. William Butler Yeats was born in Sandymount in Ireland, his father, John Butler Yeats, was a descendant of Jervis Yeats, a Williamite soldier, linen merchant, well-known painter, who died in 1712. Benjamin Yeats, Jervis's grandson and William's great-great-grandfather, had in 1773 married Mary Butler of a landed family in County Kildare. Following their marriage, they kept the name Butler. Mary was of the Butler of Neigham Gowran family, descended from an illegitimate brother of the 8th Earl of Ormond. At the time of his marriage, William's father, John Yeats, was studying law, but would pursue art studies at Heatherley School of Fine Art, in London. William's mother, Susan Mary Pollexfen, came from Sligo, from a wealthy merchant family, which owned a milling and shipping business. Soon after William's birth, the family relocated to the Pollexfen home at Merville, Sligo, to stay with her extended family, the young poet came to think of the area as his childhood and spiritual home.

Its landscape became, over time and symbolically, his "country of the heart". So too did its location by the sea; the Butler Yeats family were artistic. Yeats was raised a member of the Protestant Ascendancy, at the time undergoing a crisis of identity. While his family was broadly supportive of the changes Ireland was experiencing, the nationalist revival of the late 19th century directly disadvantaged his heritage and informed his outlook for the remainder of his life. In 1997, his biographer R. F. Foster observed that Napoleon's dictum that to understand the man you have to know what was happening in the world when he was twenty "is manifestly true of W. B. Y." Yeats's childhood and young adulthood were shadowed by the power-shift away from the minority Protestant Ascendancy. The 1880s saw the rise of the home rule movement; these developments had a profound effect on his poetry, his subsequent explorations of Irish identity had a significant influence on the creation of his country's biography.

In 1867, the family moved to England to aid John, to further his career as an artist. At first, the Yeats children were educated at home, their mother entertained them with Irish folktales. John provided an erratic education in geography and chemistry and took William on natural history explorations of the nearby Slough countryside. On 26 January 1877, the young poet entered the Godolphin school, he did not distinguish himself academically, an early school report describes his performance as "only fair. Better in Latin than in any other subject. Poor in spelling". Though he had difficulty with mathematics and languages, he was fascinated by zoology. In 1879 the family moved to Bedford Park taking a two-year lease on 8 Woodstock Road. For financial reasons, the family returned to Dublin toward the end of 1880, living at first in the suburbs of Harold's Cross and Howth. In October 1881, Yeats resumed his education at Dublin's Erasmus Smith High School, his father's studio was nearby and William spent a great deal of time there, where he met many of the city's artists and writers.

During this period he started writing poetry, and, in 1885, the Dublin University Review published Yeats's first poems, as well as an essay entitled "The Poetry of Sir Samuel Ferguson". Between 1884 and 1886, William attended the Metropolitan School of Art—now the National College of Art and Design—in Thomas Street. In March 1888 the family moved to 3 Blenheim Road in Bedford Park; the rent on the house was £50 a year. He began writing his first works. Other pieces from this period include a draft of a play about a bishop, a monk, a woman accused of paganism by local shepherds, as well as love-poems and narrative lyrics on German knights; the early works were both conventional and, according to the critic Charles Johnston, "utterly unIrish", seeming to come out of a "vast murmurous gloom of dreams". Although Yeats's early works drew on Shelley, Edmund Spenser, on the dictio

Sioux Falls Storm

The Sioux Falls Storm are a professional indoor football team based in Sioux Falls, South Dakota. The Storm joined the original Indoor Football League as an expansion team in 1999 as the Sioux Falls Cobras, first took the field for the 2000 season, they participate in another iteration of the Indoor Football League. In the newer IFL, the Storm have won seven of the eleven championships in the league as of 2019, they play their home games at Denny Sanford Premier Center. In mid-April 2014, the team announced that the 2014 season would be its last at the aging Sioux Falls Arena constructed in 1961. In 2015, the Storm followed the Sioux Falls Stampede of the United States Hockey League to the newly constructed Denny Sanford Premier Center; the Storm were founded as an expansion team in the original Indoor Football League in 1999 as the Sioux Falls Cobras. In their inaugural 2000 season, they won their first game defeating the Sioux City Attack 44–30, they finished fourth in the Southern Division. After one season, the became members of the National Indoor Football League and changed their name to the Storm.

The Storm hosted the 2004 NIFL championship game against the Lexington Horsemen in the Storm Shelter in front of a sellout crowd. The Horsemen won the championship game, but the Storm defeated the Horsemen a year in the second round of the 2005 UIF playoffs in Lexington; the Sioux Falls Storm were charter members of United Indoor Football in 2005 and were the first UIF champions with a win over the Sioux City Bandits, 40–38 at Sioux City. Sioux Falls won its second consecutive UIF championship in 2006 at their home ground, the Arena, defeating the Lexington Horseman 72–64 on July 29, 2006. Quarterback Terrance Bryant was named United Bowl II MVP after throwing eight touchdowns in the match. Defensive end Nate Fluit recorded 16.5 sacks in 2005 and 15.5 in 2006. Sioux Falls became one of the few teams in indoor football history to post a shutout, beating the Peoria Rough Riders 71–0 on June 3, 2006. On Saturday, August 4, 2007, the Storm defeated the Lexington Horsemen for the second United Bowl in a row, 62 to 59.

With 19 seconds left to go in the game Storm quarterback Terrance Bryant threw up a prayer, though protested by the small crowd of Horsemen fans, it was ruled a touchdown pass. With three seconds left in the game, with the help of a frantic fan going for the game ball, the Horsemen gained 15 yards for a chance to kick a field goal and tie the game, but the kick was missed by Horsemen kicker Collin Barber. On March 29, 2008, the Storm lost to the Omaha Beef 34–18, ending their historic 40-game winning streak and giving them their first loss since July 15, 2005, they went on to win their fourth United Bowl that season against the Bloomington Extreme. On April 25, 2009, after switching to the Indoor Football League, the Storm were found in violation of the IFL's rule of not complying with regulations related to workers compensation coverage; as punishment, the team's first five wins of the 2009 season were forfeited. The other three losses all came to the Billings Outlaws. In 2010, the Storm rebounded to reach the United Bowl before losing 43-34 to the Outlaws.

After a tornado dubbed the Father's Day Tornado hit Billings' Rimrock Auto Arena on June 20, 2010, causing major damage, the Outlaws franchise folded, their star quarterback Chris Dixon signed with the Storm. Led by Dixon, Sioux Falls scored an astounding 1022 points on the 2011 regular season, with 70 or more points in 10 games and opening with a 105-71 win over the Kent Predators in Kent, Washington. Only twice did the Storm fall short of 50 points and both were against the Omaha Beef, who handed them a 41-37 loss in the regular season finale after Sioux Falls had started 13-0; the two teams met in the next game, the playoff opener. The Storm won it, 52-39 beat Green Bay 52-12 to return to the United Bowl. Although they tied their lowest scoring game of the season, Sioux Falls rolled over the Tri-Cities Fever 37-10 to earn the league championship after a two-year hiatus and win its first IFL title. Dixon and the Storm dominated again in 2012, this time with a perfect 14-0 record and 941 points in the regular season.

On April 14, the Storm beat the Allen Wranglers featuring former NFL standout receiver Terrell Owens, 52-45 on the road in Allen, Texas. Dixon threw his 500th career touchdown pass, when he hit James Terry with a 42-yard pass during a May 19 game against the Blizzard. Sioux Falls defeated the Lehigh Valley Steelhawks 79-21 in the playoff opener again beat Green Bay in the semifinal and Tri-Cities in the United Bowl. Dixon left, attempting to make it with the Orlando Predators of the Arena Football League. Sioux Falls did not suffer in 2013 as Storm legend Terrance Bryant returned to play quarterback. Following a 10-4 season, the Storm again prevailed in the playoffs and defeated the Nebraska Danger by a close 43-40 score for the title. Bryant retired again, as on January 6, 2014, it was announced that Dixon would be returning to the Storm, citing his desire to graduate from Augustana College and be close to his family. Dixon did not disappoint, leading the Storm to their eighth title in 2014.

The Storm again defeated Nebraska in the United Bowl by a 63-46 score. The Sioux Falls Storm completed its era at the Sioux Falls Arena with a 112-14 home record including 82-3 from 2006–2014. In 2015, the Storm's first season at the Denny Sanford Premier Center was successful, completing another undefeated season at 16

Redfern (couture)

Redfern & Sons, was a British tailoring firm founded by John Redfern in Cowes on the Isle of Wight that developed into a leading European couture house. By the early 1890s the business had branches in London, Edinburgh and New York; the Paris extension was operated as a couture establishment while its other branches functioned as tailors and importers. John Redfern started out as a tailor in Cowes in 1855, following in the sartorial footsteps of his father John Redfern, who first opened a Cowes specialty clothing shop in 1811. With the support of sons Ernest Redfern and Charles Poynter Redfern, John Redfern opened tailoring houses in London and Paris in 1881, followed by two shops in New York in 1884-85, one for tailoring, the other for furs; the Redferns are credited with making tailored clothing chic for women. Resigned to utilitarian wear, finely tailored dresses and suits, as introduced by Redfern became a craze among sporting aristocrats on holiday at Cowes, spreading soon to Paris. In the 1870s the Redfern yachting suit or dress was swiftly becoming the most recognizably English mode of fashionable apparel.

In this way, the Redfern label was the first high-end sportswear brand. By the early 1890s, due to the patronage of British and European royalty, Redfern's Paris house had developed into a full scale couture business. Ernest directed the London and New York branches, while Charles, John Poynter Redfern, ran the Paris salon. From 1892, when Redfern's sons took control of the business, the house became known as Redfern Ltd; the firm's American outlet, did not prove a success and was partly sustained by a commercial sideline for ready-made corsets. The house in New York did not function as a couture establishment but as an importer of other Parisian fashion brands which were sold alongside its own products. Like the Paris salon, the New York branch was advertised as a ladies' tailoring concern; the first English-based couturier to open full-scale American branches in the U. S. and to enjoy a lengthy success there was Lucile in the'20s. It was in 1871 that the house of Redfern first expanded its tailoring business to include the design and sale of silk dresses and mourning clothes.

But it was tailored garments for women who rode, played tennis and went yachting that remained the Redfern specialty. Although intended for specific sporting pursuits, these tailored dresses and suits were adopted as everyday wear by influential Redfern clients. For example, in 1879 the house created a simple jersey traveling dress for Lillie Langtry, the noted beauty and actress popularly known as the "Jersey Lily," a name deriving from her birthplace in Jersey; the dress was copied and remained a favorite in the Redfern line for many years. In 1888, Redfern was formally named Dressmaker By Royal Appointment to Her Majesty the Queen and H. R. H; the Princess of Wales. Redfern Ltd. was credited with helping popularize the high-waisted, so-called Grecian style of 1908. In the early 1910s, the house's designs were illustrated in Gazette du Bon Ton along with six other leading Paris couturiers – Cheruit, Doucet, Paquin and Worth. In 1916 Redfern created the first designated women's uniform for the Red Cross.

The Paris headquarters of Redfern closed in 1932 reopened in 1936, closed again in 1940. Redfern designs as illustrated in La Gazette du Bon Ton, 1912-14. North, Susan "John Redfern and Sons, 1847 to 1892" Costume 42: pp. 145–68 North, Susan "Redfern Limited, 1892 to 1940" Costume 43: pp. 85–108 Redfern evening dress in Staten Island Historical Society Online Collections Database