William Claude Dukenfield, better known as W. C. Fields, was an American comedian, actor and writer. Fields' comic persona was a misanthropic and hard-drinking egotist, who remained a sympathetic character despite his supposed contempt for children and dogs, his career in show business began in vaudeville, where he attained international success as a silent juggler. He incorporated comedy into his act and was a featured comedian in the Ziegfeld Follies for several years, he became a star in the Broadway musical comedy Poppy, in which he played a colorful small-time con man. His subsequent stage and film roles were similar scoundrels or henpecked everyman characters. Among his recognizable trademarks were his raspy grandiloquent vocabulary; the characterization he portrayed in films and on radio was so strong it was identified with Fields himself. It was maintained by the publicity departments at Fields' studios and was further established by Robert Lewis Taylor's biography, W. C. Fields, His Follies and Fortunes.
Beginning in 1973, with the publication of Fields' letters and personal notes in grandson Ronald Fields' book W. C. Fields by Himself, it was shown that Fields was married, financially supported their son and loved his grandchildren. Fields was born William Claude Dukenfield in Darby, the oldest child of a working-class family, his father, James Lydon Dukenfield, was from an English family that emigrated from Sheffield, England, in 1854. James Dukenfield served in Company M of the 72nd Pennsylvania Infantry Regiment in the American Civil War and was wounded in 1863. Fields' mother, Kate Spangler Felton, was a Protestant of British ancestry; the 1876 Philadelphia City Directory lists James Dukenfield as a clerk. After marrying, he worked as a part-time hotel-keeper. Claude Dukenfield had a volatile relationship with his short-tempered father, he ran away from home beginning at the age of nine to stay with his grandmother or an uncle. His education was sporadic, did not progress beyond grade school.
At age twelve, he worked with his father selling produce from a wagon, until the two had a fight that resulted in Fields running away once again. In 1893, he worked at the Strawbridge and Clothier department store, in an oyster house. Fields embellished stories of his childhood, depicting himself as a runaway who lived by his wits on the streets of Philadelphia from an early age, but his home life is believed to have been reasonably happy, he had discovered in himself a facility for juggling, a performance he witnessed at a local theater inspired him to dedicate substantial time to perfecting his juggling. At age 17, he was performing a juggling act at church and theater shows. In 1904 Fields' father visited him for two months in England while he was performing there in music halls. Fields enabled his father to retire, purchased him a summer home, encouraged his parents and siblings to learn to read and write, so they could communicate with him by letter. Inspired by the success of the "Original Tramp Juggler", James Edward Harrigan, Fields adopted a similar costume of scruffy beard and shabby tuxedo and entered vaudeville as a genteel "tramp juggler" in 1898, using the name W. C.
Fields. His family supported his ambitions for the stage and saw him off on the train for his first stage tour. To conceal a stutter, Fields did not speak onstage. In 1900, seeking to distinguish himself from the many "tramp" acts in vaudeville, he changed his costume and makeup, began touring as "The Eccentric Juggler", he manipulated cigar boxes and other objects in his act, parts of which are reproduced in some of his films, notably in the 1934 comedy The Old Fashioned Way. By the early 1900s, while touring, he was called the world's greatest juggler, he became a headliner in North America and Europe, toured Australia and South Africa in 1903. When Fields played for English-speaking audiences, he found he could get more laughs by adding muttered patter and sarcastic asides to his routines. According to W. Buchanan-Taylor, a performer who saw Fields' performance in an English music hall, Fields would "reprimand a particular ball which had not come to his hand accurately", "mutter weird and unintelligible expletives to his cigar when it missed his mouth".
In 1905 Fields made his Broadway debut in The Ham Tree. His role in the show required him to deliver lines of dialogue, which he had never before done onstage, he said, "I wanted to become a real comedian, there I was and pigeonholed as a comedy juggler." In 1913 he performed on a bill with Sarah Bernhardt first at the New York Palace, in England in a royal performance for George V and Queen Mary. He continued touring in vaudeville until 1915. Beginning in 1915, he appeared on Broadway in Florenz Ziegfeld's Ziegfeld Follies revue, delighting audiences with a wild billiards skit, complete with bizarrely shaped cues and a custom-built table used for a number of hilarious gags and surprising trick shots, his pool game is reproduced, in part, in some of his films, notably in Six of a Kind in 1934. The act was a success, Fields starred in the Follies from 1916 to 1922, not as a juggler but as a comedian in ensemble sketches. In addition to many editions of the Follies, Fields starred in the 1923 Broadway musical comedy Poppy, wherein he perfected his persona as a colorful small-time con man.
In 1928, he appeared in The Ear
Dupatta, Chunariya, Orhni, or Odhani, is a shawl-like scarf, women's traditionally essential clothing from the Indian subcontinent. The dupatta is used most as part of the women's shalwar kameez costume, worn over the kurta and the gharara; the word dupatta from Sanskrit is a combination of du- and patta, i. e. scarf doubled over the head. Early evidence of the dupatta can be traced to the Indus valley civilization, where the sculpture of the Priest-King whose left shoulder is covered with some kind of a chaddar, suggests that the use of the dupatta dates back to this early Indic culture. Early Sanskrit literature has a wide vocabulary of terms for the veils and scarfs used by women during the ancient period, such as Avagunthana meaning cloak-veil, Uttariya meaning shoulder-veil, Mukha-pata meaning face-veil, Siro-vastra meaning head-veil; the dupatta is believed to have evolved from the ancient Uttariya. Dupatta is worn in many regional styles across the Indian subcontinent, it was worn as a symbol of modesty.
While that symbolism still continues, many today wear it as just a decorative accessory. There is no single way of wearing the dupatta, as time evolves and fashion modernizes, the style of the dupatta has evolved. A dupatta is traditionally worn around the head. However, the dupatta can be worn like a cape around the entire torso; the material for the dupatta varies according to the suit. There are various modes of wearing dupatta; when not draped over the head in the traditional style, it is worn with the middle portion of the dupatta resting on the chest like a garland, with the ends thrown over each shoulder. When the dupatta is worn with the shalwar-kameez it is casually allowed to flow down the front and back. In current fashions, the dupatta is draped over one shoulder, over just the arms. Another recent trend is the short dupatta, more a scarf or a stole worn with a kurti and Indo-Western clothing; the dupatta is treated as an accessory in current urban fashion. When entering a mosque, church, or gurdwara, Indian women cover their head with a dupatta
The position of Dean Ireland's Professor of the Exegesis of Holy Scripture was established at the University of Oxford in 1847. This professorship in the critical interpretation or explanation of biblical texts, a field known as exegesis, was instituted by John Ireland, Dean of Westminster from 1816 until his death in 1842, he founded scholarships in his lifetime at the University of Oxford, which are still awarded after an examination to undergraduates "for the promotion of classical learning and taste". In his will, he left £10,000 to the university, with the interest arising to be applied to the professorship; the first professor, Edward Hawkins, was appointed in 1847. The second Dean Ireland's Professor, Robert Scott, had won an Ireland scholarship in 1833 while studying at Christ Church; as of 2017, 13 men have held the position of Dean Ireland's Professor, with differing interests in scriptural exegesis. Hawkins was elected on the strength of his reputation gained opposing the Oxford Movement.
In contrast, the third professor, Henry Liddon, was a prominent member of the Oxford Movement. Between 1932 and 2014, the holder of the chair held a fellowship at The Queen's College; as of 2017, Markus Bockmuehl is the current professor, having been appointed in 2014. Other professorships in Oxford University's Faculty of Theology: Lady Margaret Professor of Divinity Oriel Professor of the Interpretation of Holy Scripture Regius Professor of Divinity Regius Professor of Ecclesiastical History Regius Professor of Moral and Pastoral Theology