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W. E. B. Du Bois

William Edward Burghardt Du Bois was an American sociologist, historian, civil rights activist, Pan-Africanist, author and editor. Born in Great Barrington, Massachusetts, Du Bois grew up in a tolerant and integrated community, after completing graduate work at the University of Berlin and Harvard, where he was the first African American to earn a doctorate, he became a professor of history and economics at Atlanta University. Due to his contributions in the African-American community he was seen as a member of a Black elite that supported some aspects of eugenics for blacks. Du Bois was one of the founders of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People in 1909. Before that, Du Bois had risen to national prominence as the leader of the Niagara Movement, a group of African-American activists that wanted equal rights for blacks. Du Bois and his supporters opposed the Atlanta compromise, an agreement crafted by Booker T. Washington which provided that Southern blacks would work and submit to white political rule, while Southern whites guaranteed that blacks would receive basic educational and economic opportunities.

Instead, Du Bois insisted on full civil rights and increased political representation, which he believed would be brought about by the African-American intellectual elite. He referred to this group as the Talented Tenth, a concept under the umbrella of Racial uplift, believed that African Americans needed the chances for advanced education to develop its leadership. Racism was the main target of Du Bois's polemics, he protested against lynching, Jim Crow laws, discrimination in education and employment, his cause included people of color everywhere Africans and Asians in colonies. He was a proponent of Pan-Africanism and helped organize several Pan-African Congresses to fight for the independence of African colonies from European powers. Du Bois made several trips to Europe and Asia. After World War I, he surveyed the experiences of American black soldiers in France and documented widespread prejudice and racism in the United States military. Du Bois was a prolific author, his collection of essays, The Souls of Black Folk, is a seminal work in African-American literature.

Borrowing a phrase from Frederick Douglass, he popularized the use of the term color line to represent the injustice of the separate but equal doctrine prevalent in American social and political life. He opens The Souls of Black Folk with the central thesis of much of his life's work: "The problem of the twentieth century is the problem of the color-line." He wrote one of the first scientific treatises in the field of American sociology, he published three autobiographies, each of which contains essays on sociology and history. In his role as editor of the NAACP's journal The Crisis, he published many influential pieces. Du Bois believed that capitalism was a primary cause of racism, he was sympathetic to socialist causes throughout his life, he advocated nuclear disarmament. The United States' Civil Rights Act, embodying many of the reforms for which Du Bois had campaigned his entire life, was enacted a year after his death. William Edward Burghardt Du Bois was born on February 23, 1868, in Great Barrington, Massachusetts, to Alfred and Mary Silvina Du Bois.

Mary Silvina Burghardt's family was part of the small free black population of Great Barrington and had long owned land in the state. She was descended from Dutch and English ancestors. William Du Bois's maternal great-great-grandfather was Tom Burghardt, a slave, held by the Dutch colonist Conraed Burghardt. Tom served in the Continental Army during the American Revolutionary War, which may have been how he gained his freedom during the late 18th century, his son Jack Burghardt was the father of Othello Burghardt, who in turn was the father of Mary Silvina Burghardt. William Du Bois claimed Elizabeth Freeman as his relative, but Freeman was 20 years older than Burghardt, no record of such a marriage has been found. It may have been Freeman's daughter, Betsy Humphrey, who married Burghardt after her first husband, Jonah Humphrey, left the area "around 1811", after Burghardt's first wife died. If so, Freeman would have been William Du Bois's step-great-great-grandmother. Anecdotal evidence supports Humphrey's marrying Burghardt.

William Du Bois's paternal great-grandfather was James Du Bois of Poughkeepsie, New York, an ethnic French-American of Huguenot origin who fathered several children with slave women. One of James' mixed-race sons was Alexander, born on Long Cay in the Bahamas in 1803. Alexander Du Bois traveled and worked in Haiti, where he fathered a son, with a mistress. Alexander returned to Connecticut. Sometime before 1860, Alfred Du Bois immigrated to the United States, he married Mary Silvina Burghardt on February 5, 1867, in a village in Great Barrington. Alfred left Mary in 1870. Mary Du Bois moved with her son back to her parents' house in Great Barrington, they lived there until he was five, she worked to support her family. She died in 1885. G

Pholiota squarrosa

Pholiota squarrosa known as the shaggy scalycap, the shaggy Pholiota, or the scaly Pholiota, is a species of mushroom in the Strophariaceae family. Common in North America and Europe, it is an opportunistic parasite, has a wide range of hosts among deciduous trees, although it can infect conifers, it can live as a saprobe, deriving nutrients from decomposing wood. The mushroom is found growing in clusters at the base of trees and stumps. Both the cap and the stem are covered in small, pointed scales that are pointed downward and backward; the crowded gills are yellowish later rust-brown. The mushroom has an odor that, depending on the author, has been described as resembling garlic, radish, onion, or skunk, it has a strong taste, resembling radishes. Once thought to be edible, it is now considered and known to be poisonous if consumed in combination with alcohol; the mushroom contains unique chemicals thought to help it infect plants by neutralizing defensive responses employed by them. The similar P. squarrosoides differs in having a paler cap, sticky between the scales, smaller spores.

The species was first described scientifically as Agaricus squarrosus in 1790 by George Christian Edler von Oldenburg Oeder, sanctioned under this name by Elias Magnus Fries in his 1821 Systema Mycologicum. It was transferred to the genus Pholiota by the German Paul Kummer, it is the type species of the genus Pholiota. The specific epithet squarrosa is derived from Latin, means "scurfy"; the mushroom is known as the "scaly Pholiota", the "shaggy scalycap", or the "shaggy Pholiota". Like other Pholiota mushrooms, P. squarrosa stem. The cap ranges from 3 to 12 cm in diameter, depending on its age, can range in shape from bell-shaped to rounded to somewhat flattened; the cap color is yellowish-brown to tawny in older specimens. The scales on the cap are yellowish to tawny, recurved; the stem is 4 to 12 cm long by 0.5 to 1.5 cm thick, equal in width throughout. The partial veil that covers the young gills forms a thick, woolly ring on the upper part of the stem. Above the level of the ring, the stem is bare.

The gills have a greenish-brown color. They are crowded together, attached to the stem, notched; the spore print is rusty brown. The spores are elliptic, smooth-walled and measure 6.6–8 by 3.7–4.4 μm. The basidia are club-shaped, four-spored, with dimensions of 16–25 by 5–7 μm. Fruit bodies have an odour described variously as resembling garlic, lemon, onion, or skunk, taste like radish. Although some older sources report P. squarrosa as edible, the mushroom has caused several cases of poisoning. The afflicted individuals had consumed alcohol with the mushroom experienced vomiting and diarrhoea about ten hours later; the toxic effect may be due to the combination of eating the mushrooms and taking alcohol, although the extended time delay between consumption and symptoms suggests the mechanism of toxicity is different than the antabuse-effect experienced from Coprinopsis atramentaria with alcohol. Pholiota squarrosa is similar in appearance to species in the genus Armillaria, but the latter produces white spore prints.

Another similar mushroom is Pholiota squarrosoides, which can be distinguished microscopically by its smaller spores, macroscopically by the stickiness of the cap between the scales. P. squarrosoides lacks the odor of P. squarrosa, has flesh, white, not yellow. Leucopholiota decorosa can be misidentified with P. squarrosa. Pholiota squarrosa is thought to be a white rot fungus, which use cellulose as a carbon source, have the ability to degrade the lignin to carbon dioxide to access the cellulose molecule; the fungus can attack a wide variety of deciduous host trees, including sugar maple, red maple, yellow birch, paper birch, American beech, white ash. It can attack conifers, like spruce; the fungus is a secondary parasite, in that it attacks trees that have been weakened from prior injury or infection by bacteria or other fungi. It functions as a saprobe, can obtain nutrients by breaking down organic matter in dead wood. P. Squarrosa is found in North Europe; the North American distribution extends north to Canada, south to Mexico, where its appearance is restricted to coniferous forests.

In the Netherlands, P. squarrosa is one of many mushrooms that can be found fruiting on ancient timber wharves. The fruit bodies are used as a primary food source by the red squirrel Sciurus vulgaris, have a higher protein content than the other mushrooms consumed by this species. Decaying fruit bodies are used as a food source by fruit flies belonging to the genus Drosophila; the fruit bodies contain unique chemical compounds. The compounds, named squarrosidine and pinillidine, inhibit the enzyme xanthine oxidase. Xanthine oxidase catalyzes the crystallization of uric acid in the joints, a main cause of gouty arthritis, inhibitors of this enzyme are being used clinically to reduce this side effect; the natural function of these compounds may be to quench reactive oxygen species produced by plants as a defensive response to fungal infection. List of Pholiota species

Craig Cutler

Craig Cutler is an American photographer. His editorial work has been featured in Newsweek, The New York Times Magazine, Bon Appetit, Best Life, Details and Men’s Journal, he has photographed ads for a wide range of clients, including Starbucks, Xbox 360, Mobil and Sprint. His photos were featured in the book International Harvester, McCormick, Navistar: Milestones in the Company That Helped Build America. In 2008, Cutler was selected for inclusion in the book American Photography 23, in 2009, he won a Graphis Gold Award. Cutler's work has been exhibited at Galerie-Atelier Beeld in the Hague. Cutler's first documentary film, "The Boxer," will premiere in November 2016 at three film festivals: DOC NYC, the Big Apple Film Festival, New York Short Film Festival; the subject of the short is 2015 National Men's Elite Boxing champion Chordale Booker and his success in the ring following legal issues and a judge's leniency to put him on probation rather than in prison. The film was awarded the Big Apple Film Festival's Best Short Documentary.

"Craig Cutler Just Keeps Shooting," PDN, May 2012. Collaborations with Mason Vickers Productions. Craig Cutler works featured on artnet. "Altpick Photographers Featured in American Photography 23," July 11, 2007. "Creative Ads Placed on Conveyor Belts," 2008. "Q&A: A Time Before Instantaneous," Communication Arts website, March 11, 2009. Official site "The Boxer" Official Film Site

Super Bowl Experience

The Super Bowl Experience is an annual event, held since 1992 at a venue in the host city of the Super Bowl. The event is described as an interactive "theme park", featuring various fan-oriented attractions, including football-related activities and autograph sessions with current and former players. Proceeds from the sale of Super Bowl Experience tickets go to fund the NFL's Youth Education Town initiative, which constructs facilities offering afterschool programs for youth. In November 2017, the NFL opened an NFL Experience attraction at New York City's 20 Times Square, in collaboration with Cirque du Soleil, which featured a similar array of interactive experiences and memorabilia; the NFL began to refer to the travelling event as the Super Bowl Experience beginning in 2018 for Super Bowl LII in Minneapolis–Saint Paul. The Times Square experience was closed; the first NFL Experience was held at the Minneapolis Convention Center in January 1992 prior to Super Bowl XXVI. The NFL's interactive theme park was followed by Major League Baseball's first "FanFest" in San Diego, California six months later.

In 2013 the NFL Experience was hosted at the New Orleans Morial Convention Center. The NFL Experience was not held for Super Bowl XLVIII. Instead, the NFL organized an outdoor festival, Super Bowl Boulevard, along Broadway and Times Square, which featured a similar array of fan-oriented events and attractions; the 2015 NFL Experience was hosted at the Phoenix Convention Center. The 2016 NFL Experience was hosted at the Moscone Center in San Francisco; the 2017 NFL Experience was hosted at George R. Brown Convention Center in Houston; the Houston Super Bowl Host Committee hosted its own outdoor festival, Super Bowl Live, in the adjacent Discovery Green park, which featured entertainment events. For Super Bowl LII, the event was renamed the Super Bowl Experience, was held at the Minneapolis Convention Center; the Super Bowl LIII edition was held at the Georgia World Congress Center. The Super Bowl Experience for Super Bowl LIV will be hosted at the Miami Beach Convention Center. On November 30, 2017, the NFL opened an attraction known as NFL Experience Times Square, within four ground-level floors of 20 Times Square in New York City.

The 40,000 square-foot attraction was a collaboration with Cirque du Soleil Entertainment Group, featured various interactive activities and multimedia experiences, including a 4D film, a simulated locker room and practice area, displays of memorabilia, a bar and restaurant that would feature a rotation of menu selections from NFL stadiums. In February 2018, it was announced that NFL Network's Good Morning Football would move to a studio at the attraction in April, after having used a CBS studio in New York City. In September 2018, it was announced that the attraction would close, citing underperforming attendance numbers, it was to remain open through at least the end of 2018. Good Morning Football moved to SportsNet New York's facilities at 4 World Trade Center in November 2018. Hoop City Official website

Červený Kláštor

Červený Kláštor is a small village and municipality in the far north Kežmarok District in the Prešov Region of northern Slovakia, near the Polish border, in the Zamagurie region. A Camaldolese monastery was established on this location part of the Habsburg-ruled Kingdom of Hungary, in 1710. In 1782, it was secularized as part of Emperor Joseph II's campaign against monastic orders that, in his view, didn't pursue useful activities; the monastery building still exists however. The present village was founded in 1828; the municipality lies at an altitude of 465 metres and covers an area of 3.043 km². It has a population of about 222 people, it lies 8 km east of the centre of Spišská Stará Ves. The governing body of the Pieniny national park is located in the village. Dunajec river, which makes border with Poland, flows near the village, it is used for tourist purposes for rafting. Other attractions in or near the village include the Červený kláštor or walking in the surrounding mountains of Pieniny.

Since 2006, there is a new bridge for pedestrians in operation, connecting Červený Kláštor and Sromowce Niżne. The records for genealogical research are available at the state archive "Statny Archiv in Levoca, Slovakia" Roman Catholic church records: 1766-1832 Lutheran church records: 1809-1920 List of municipalities and towns in Slovakia Official homepage Surnames of living people in Cerveny Klastor

Tyszkiewicz family

The Tyszkiewicz family was a wealthy and influential Polish-Lithuanian magnate family of Ruthenian origin, with roots traced to the times of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. They held the Polish coat of arms Leliwa, their nobility was reaffirmed in the Russian Empire. The family traces its roots to a 15th-century Ruthenian boyar Kalenik Mishkovich and derives from the name of his son, Tysha with the addition of the patronymic, resulting in Tyszkiewicz-Kalenicki. A branch of the family germanised the name to Tischkowitz and a few members of this branch are still to be found in Germany and the UK. Places named Tyszkiewicz Palace, "former Tyszkiewicz Palace", Tiškevičiai Palace, other historical properties of the family are located in Warsaw, Kraków and Vilnius, as well as in numerous towns of modern Poland, Belarus and Ukraine Eustachy Tyszkiewicz Janusz Skumin Tyszkiewicz Janusz Tyszkiewicz Łohojski Katarzyna Eugenia Tyszkiewicz Konstanty Tyszkiewicz Ludwik Skumin Tyszkiewicz, Field Lithuanian Hetman of Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth Count Michal Tyszkiewicz and amateur Egyptologist Count Michał Zygmunt Tyszkiewicz 1903-1974 diplomat and songwriter Samuel Tyszkiewicz Stefan Tyszkiewicz and inventor, soldier and political activist married into the extended Russian imperial family Tadeusz Tyszkiewicz, a general Teodor Skumin Tyszkiewicz, Grand Treasurer of Lithuania of Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth Count Mykhaylo Tyshkevych - Ukrainian politician, patron of Prosvita Society, ambassador of Ukrainian State to Vatican.

See also: Tyszkiewicz Makhnivka, Koziatyn Raion Palaces connected with the Tyszkiewicz family Jerzy Jan Lerski. Historical Dictionary of Poland, 966-1945. Greenwood Publishing. P. 616. Walerian Kalinka, Dzieła, chapter "Żywot Tadeusza Tyskiewicza", 1900, Google Print, p.195-198 Potocka-Wąsowiczowa, Anna z Tyszkiewiczów. Wspomnienia naocznego świadka. Warszawa: Państwowy Instytut Wydawniczy, 1965