Frank Whitehead (American politician)
Caulie Frank Whitehead was an American politician. He was Mayor of Jacksonville, from 1945 to 1949, he was a member of the Democratic Party. Whitehead ran for Mayor of Jacksonville in 1945, he defeated the incumbent John T. Alsop, Jr., mayor for eighteen years from 1923 to 1937 and from 1941 to 1945, in the Democratic primary. Among his initiatives was a plan to ease the city's growing traffic problems by building a new bridge out of pontoons over the St. Johns River; this plan never came to fruition, but influenced the construction of the conventional Fuller Warren Bridge. Whitehead was defeated in the 1949 mayoral race by the upstart W. Haydon Burns, who courted African-American voters to overcome Whitehead. In Whitehead's years he owned and ran a room-and-boarding house in Jacksonville, he died in 1976. Political Graveyard
United States Navy
The United States Navy is the naval warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces and one of the seven uniformed services of the United States. It is the largest and most capable navy in the world and it has been estimated that in terms of tonnage of its active battle fleet alone, it is larger than the next 13 navies combined, which includes 11 U. S. allies or partner nations. With the highest combined battle fleet tonnage and the world's largest aircraft carrier fleet, with eleven in service, two new carriers under construction. With 319,421 personnel on active duty and 99,616 in the Ready Reserve, the Navy is the third largest of the service branches, it has 282 deployable combat vessels and more than 3,700 operational aircraft as of March 2018, making it the second-largest air force in the world, after the United States Air Force. The U. S. Navy traces its origins to the Continental Navy, established during the American Revolutionary War and was disbanded as a separate entity shortly thereafter.
The U. S. Navy played a major role in the American Civil War by blockading the Confederacy and seizing control of its rivers, it played the central role in the World War II defeat of Imperial Japan. The US Navy emerged from World War II as the most powerful navy in the world; the 21st century U. S. Navy maintains a sizable global presence, deploying in strength in such areas as the Western Pacific, the Mediterranean, the Indian Ocean, it is a blue-water navy with the ability to project force onto the littoral regions of the world, engage in forward deployments during peacetime and respond to regional crises, making it a frequent actor in U. S. foreign and military policy. The Navy is administratively managed by the Department of the Navy, headed by the civilian Secretary of the Navy; the Department of the Navy is itself a division of the Department of Defense, headed by the Secretary of Defense. The Chief of Naval Operations is the most senior naval officer serving in the Department of the Navy.
The mission of the Navy is to maintain and equip combat-ready Naval forces capable of winning wars, deterring aggression and maintaining freedom of the seas. The U. S. Navy is a seaborne branch of the military of the United States; the Navy's three primary areas of responsibility: The preparation of naval forces necessary for the effective prosecution of war. The maintenance of naval aviation, including land-based naval aviation, air transport essential for naval operations, all air weapons and air techniques involved in the operations and activities of the Navy; the development of aircraft, tactics, technique and equipment of naval combat and service elements. U. S. Navy training manuals state that the mission of the U. S. Armed Forces is "to be prepared to conduct prompt and sustained combat operations in support of the national interest." As part of that establishment, the U. S. Navy's functions comprise sea control, power projection and nuclear deterrence, in addition to "sealift" duties, it follows as certain as that night succeeds the day, that without a decisive naval force we can do nothing definitive, with it, everything honorable and glorious.
Naval power... is the natural defense of the United States The Navy was rooted in the colonial seafaring tradition, which produced a large community of sailors and shipbuilders. In the early stages of the American Revolutionary War, Massachusetts had its own Massachusetts Naval Militia; the rationale for establishing a national navy was debated in the Second Continental Congress. Supporters argued that a navy would protect shipping, defend the coast, make it easier to seek out support from foreign countries. Detractors countered that challenging the British Royal Navy the world's preeminent naval power, was a foolish undertaking. Commander in Chief George Washington resolved the debate when he commissioned the ocean-going schooner USS Hannah to interdict British merchant ships and reported the captures to the Congress. On 13 October 1775, the Continental Congress authorized the purchase of two vessels to be armed for a cruise against British merchant ships. S. Navy; the Continental Navy achieved mixed results.
In August 1785, after the Revolutionary War had drawn to a close, Congress had sold Alliance, the last ship remaining in the Continental Navy due to a lack of funds to maintain the ship or support a navy. In 1972, the Chief of Naval Operations, Admiral Elmo Zumwalt, authorized the Navy to celebrate its birthday on 13 October to honor the establishment of the Continental Navy in 1775; the United States was without a navy for nearly a decade, a state of affairs that exposed U. S. maritime merchant ships to a series of attacks by the Barbary pirates. The sole armed maritime presence between 1790 and the launching of the U. S. Navy's first warships in 1797 was the U. S. Revenue-Marine, the primary predecessor of the U. S. Coast Guard. Although the USRCS conducted operations against the pirates, their depredations far outstripped its abilities and Congress passed the Naval Act of 1794 that established a permanent standing navy on 27 March 1794; the Naval Act ordered the construction and manning of six frigates and, by October 1797, the first three were brought into service: USS United States, USS Constellation, USS Constitution.
Due to his strong posture on having a strong standing Navy during this period, John Adams is "often called the father of the American Navy". In 1798–99 the Navy was involved in an undeclared Quasi-War with France. From 18
United States Secretary of the Navy
The Secretary of the Navy is a statutory officer and the head of the Department of the Navy, a military department within the Department of Defense of the United States of America. The Secretary of the Navy must be a civilian by law, at least 5 years removed from active military service; the Secretary is appointed by the President and requires confirmation by a majority vote of the Senate. The Secretary of the Navy was, from its creation in 1798, a member of the President's Cabinet until 1949, when the Secretary of the Navy was by amendments to the National Security Act of 1947 made subordinate to the Secretary of Defense; the Department of the Navy consists of two Uniformed Services: the United States Navy and the United States Marine Corps. The Secretary of the Navy is responsible for, has statutory authority to "conduct all the affairs of the Department of the Navy", i.e. as its chief executive officer, subject to the limits of the law, the directions of the President and the Secretary of Defense.
In effect, all authority within the Navy and Marine Corps, unless exempted by law, is derivative of the authority vested in the Secretary of the Navy. Enumerated responsibilities of the SECNAV in the before-mentioned section are: recruiting, supplying, training and demobilizing; the Secretary oversees the construction and repair of naval ships and facilities. SECNAV is responsible for the formulation and implementation of policies and programs that are consistent with the national security policies and objectives established by the President or the Secretary of Defense; the Secretary of the Navy is a member of the Defense Acquisition Board, chaired by the Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition and Logistics. Furthermore, the Secretary has several statutory responsibilities under the Uniform Code of Military Justice with respect to the administration of the military justice system for the Navy & the Marine Corps, including the authority to convene general courts-martial and to commute sentences.
The principal military advisers to the SECNAV are the two service chiefs of the naval services: for matters regarding the Navy the Chief of Naval Operations, for matters regarding the Marine Corps the Commandant of the Marine Corps. The CNO and the Commandant act as the principal executive agents of the SECNAV within their respective services to implement the orders of the Secretary; the United States Navy Regulations is the principal regulatory document of the Department of the Navy, any changes to it can only be approved by the Secretary of the Navy. Whenever the United States Coast Guard operates as a service within the Department of the Navy, the Secretary of the Navy has the same powers and duties with respect to the Coast Guard as the Secretary of Homeland Security when the Coast Guard is not operating as a service in the Department of the Navy; the Office of the Secretary of the Navy known within DoD as the Navy Secretariat or just as the Secretariat in a DoN setting, is the immediate headquarters staff that supports the Secretary in discharging his duties.
The principal officials of the Secretariat include the Under Secretary of the Navy, the Assistant Secretaries of the Navy, the General Counsel of the Department of the Navy, the Judge Advocate General of the Navy, the Naval Inspector General, the Chief of Legislative Affairs, the Chief of Naval Research. The Office of the Secretary of the Navy has sole responsibility within the Department of the Navy for acquisition, auditing and information management, legislative affairs, public affairs and development; the Chief of Naval Operations and the Commandant of the Marine Corps have their own separate staffs, the Office of the Chief of Naval Operations and Headquarters Marine Corps. Military awards of the United States Department of the Navy Secretary of the Navy Council of Review Boards Stephen Mallory, the only Secretary of the Navy of the Confederate States of America Official website
Massachusetts the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, is the most populous state in the New England region of the northeastern United States. It borders on the Atlantic Ocean to the east, the states of Connecticut and Rhode Island to the south, New Hampshire and Vermont to the north, New York to the west; the state is named after the Massachusett tribe, which once inhabited the east side of the area, is one of the original thirteen states. The capital of Massachusetts is Boston, the most populous city in New England. Over 80% of Massachusetts's population lives in the Greater Boston metropolitan area, a region influential upon American history and industry. Dependent on agriculture and trade, Massachusetts was transformed into a manufacturing center during the Industrial Revolution. During the 20th century, Massachusetts's economy shifted from manufacturing to services. Modern Massachusetts is a global leader in biotechnology, higher education and maritime trade. Plymouth was the site of the second colony in New England after Popham Colony in 1607 in what is now Maine.
Plymouth was founded in 1620 by passengers of the Mayflower. In 1692, the town of Salem and surrounding areas experienced one of America's most infamous cases of mass hysteria, the Salem witch trials. In 1777, General Henry Knox founded the Springfield Armory, which during the Industrial Revolution catalyzed numerous important technological advances, including interchangeable parts. In 1786, Shays' Rebellion, a populist revolt led by disaffected American Revolutionary War veterans, influenced the United States Constitutional Convention. In the 18th century, the Protestant First Great Awakening, which swept the Atlantic World, originated from the pulpit of Northampton preacher Jonathan Edwards. In the late 18th century, Boston became known as the "Cradle of Liberty" for the agitation there that led to the American Revolution; the entire Commonwealth of Massachusetts has played a powerful commercial and cultural role in the history of the United States. Before the American Civil War, Massachusetts was a center for the abolitionist and transcendentalist movements.
In the late 19th century, the sports of basketball and volleyball were invented in the western Massachusetts cities of Springfield and Holyoke, respectively. In 2004, Massachusetts became the first U. S. state to recognize same-sex marriage as a result of the decision in Goodridge v. Department of Public Health by the Massachusetts Supreme Judicial Court. Many prominent American political dynasties have hailed from the state, including the Adams and Kennedy families. Harvard University in Cambridge is the oldest institution of higher learning in the United States, with the largest financial endowment of any university, Harvard Law School has educated a contemporaneous majority of Justices of the Supreme Court of the United States. Kendall Square in Cambridge has been called "the most innovative square mile on the planet", in reference to the high concentration of entrepreneurial start-ups and quality of innovation which have emerged in the vicinity of the square since 2010. Both Harvard University and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in Cambridge, have been ranked among the most regarded academic institutions in the world.
Massachusetts' public-school students place among the top tier in the world in academic performance, the state has been ranked as one of the top states in the United States for citizens to live in, as well as one of the most expensive. The Massachusetts Bay Colony was named after the indigenous population, the Massachusett derived from a Wôpanâak word muswach8sut, segmented as mus "big" + wach8 "mountain" + -s "diminutive" + -ut "locative", it has been translated as "near the great hill", "by the blue hills", "at the little big hill", or "at the range of hills", referring to the Blue Hills, or in particular the Great Blue Hill, located on the boundary of Milton and Canton. Alternatively, Massachusett has been represented as Moswetuset—from the name of the Moswetuset Hummock in Quincy, where Plymouth Colony commander Myles Standish, hired English military officer, Squanto, part of the now disappeared Patuxet band of the Wampanoag peoples, met Chief Chickatawbut in 1621; the official name of the state is the "Commonwealth of Massachusetts".
While this designation is part of the state's official name, it has no practical implications. Massachusetts has powers within the United States as other states, it may have been chosen by John Adams for the second draft of the Massachusetts Constitution because unlike the word "state", "commonwealth" at the time had the connotation of a republic, in contrast to the monarchy the former American colonies were fighting against. Massachusetts was inhabited by tribes of the Algonquian language family such as the Wampanoag, Nipmuc, Pocomtuc and Massachusett. While cultivation of crops like squash and corn supplemented their diets, these tribes were dependent on hunting and fishing for most of their food. Villages consisted of lodges called wigwams as well as longhouses, tribes were led by male or female elders known as sachems. In the early 1600s, after contact had been made with Europeans, large numbers of the indigenous peoples in the northeast of what is now the United States were killed by virgin soil epidemics such as smallpox, measles and leptospirosis.
Between 1617 and 1619, smallpox killed ap
Claude R. Kirk Jr.
Claude Roy Kirk Jr. was the 36th Governor of the U. S. state of Florida. He was the first Republican Governor of Florida since Reconstruction. Kirk was born in California, he lived in Chicago and Montgomery, where he attended Sidney Lanier High School. After graduating at age seventeen, he enlisted in the U. S. Marine Corps reserve and rose to the rank of second lieutenant, having served stateside during World War II, he attended Emory University in Atlanta, Georgia before he transferred to Duke University in Durham, North Carolina, where he earned a Bachelor of Science degree. Kirk was accepted at the University of Alabama School of Law in Tuscaloosa and graduated in 1949, he was recalled to the Marines for the Korean War and was assigned to the 1st Marine Division. He served aboard the battleship USS New Jersey and was discharged as a first lieutenant in 1952. Kirk worked as an insurance salesman and sold building supplies before partnering with W. Ashley Verlander in 1956 to start the American Heritage Life Insurance Company in Jacksonville, Florida.
He had no money of his own, so he recruited investors and his brother-in-law to bankroll the venture. The firm catered to the wealthy and became one of the most successful in the industry, earning Kirk a fortune. Six years he left American Heritage Life and purchased a partnership in the New York securities firm, Hayden Stone, selling investments to Floridians. In 1960, Kirk switched his party affiliation from Democrat to Republican and headed the "Floridians for Nixon" campaign, which helped the Republican Party win the state's ten electoral votes for the third consecutive time. In 1964, Kirk ran as a Republican against veteran Democratic US Senator Spessard Holland, a former governor and epitome of the Florida Democratic establishment, he was considered a placeholder on the ballot, with Republican Presidential nominee Barry M. Goldwater losing Florida to U. S. President Lyndon B. Johnson. Kirk polled 36.1 percent of the vote. Thereafter, Kirk became embroiled in an intraparty squabble with US Representative William C.
Cramer of St. Petersburg. Cramer recalled Kirk having "begged me" to allow him to address meetings held during the 1964 delegate and national committeeman races. Thus, Kirk became acquainted with Republican activists who could be helpful to him his career. In 1966, Kirk scored a huge upset to become governor, defeating Democrat Robert King High, the mayor of Miami, 55-45 percent. High had unseated incumbent Governor Haydon Burns, a Conservative Democrat, in the Democratic primary. In the general election, Kirk won majorities in 56 of the state's 67 counties. Burns's refusal to support High was a major factor in Kirk's decisive victory in the general election. Upon taking the oath of office on January 3, 1967, he became the state's first Republican governor in 90 years. During his single four-year term in office, a new Florida Constitution went into effect in 1968; the governor was at odds with both Democrats and his Republican colleagues in the legislature on issues such as growth and taxes. He earned the nickname Claudius Maximus because of his brash, acerbic style of leadership and opinionated, colorful personality.
A significant event of his tenure was a controversial statewide teachers' strike in 1968. One of the major themes of Kirk's campaign was his strong support for the death penalty, in contrast to Collins', Bryant's and Burns' opposition to capital punishment. Kirk promised to resume executions, but no executions occurred during his administration because of an informal nationwide moratorium. Kirk made headlines when, during the campaign, he visited Florida State Prison and, after shaking hands with several death row inmates, said, "If I'm elected, I may have to sign your death warrants."Kirk's management style was described as flamboyant and confrontational. He opposed court-ordered mandatory busing. In 1970, as he geared for a reelection bid, he tried to halt a desegregation plan in Manatee County, he quipped that the pro-busing judges of the United States Court of Appeals for the Fifth Circuit, based in New Orleans, were "drinking in the French Quarter and reading dirty books."Although he had a Democratic-controlled legislature, Democrats did not have a veto-proof majority during Kirk's term of office.
During Kirk's term, the Dade County Port Authority began secretly buying land in the Everglades to build an airport. Governor Kirk turned a ceremonial shovel of dirt at the groundbreaking. Kirk was a strong supporter of what would have been the world's largest airport despite evidence that it would destroy the water-recharge area South Florida needed, his transportation secretary, Michael O'Neil, stated, "I call the Everglades a swamp. My children can't play in it." The work was halted on September 17, 1969, after an Interior Department study ordered by Nixon. After the publication of John Filo's photograph showing Mary Ann Vecchio of Florida kneeling over the body of Jeffrey Miller at the Kent State University shootings on May 4, 1970 Governor Kirk publicly labeled Vecchio a dissident "communist"; the schism between Cramer and Kirk accelerated in 1966 to the point that in a 1988 interview, Kirk said that he could not recall Cramer having rendered him any assistance at all in either the 1964 or 1966 campaigns: "Cramer never helped me do anything.
At all times he was a total combatant."Kirk claimed that Cramer wanted the 1966 gubernatorial nomination himself after Burns, the primary loser, refused to endorse Mayor High, an ally of U. S. Senator Robert F. Kennedy of New York. Kirk said that Cramer's legislative assistant, Jack P. Inscoe a real estate developer from Tampa, could verify that C
The Jacksonville Veterans Memorial Coliseum was a multi-purpose arena located in Jacksonville, Florida. Built in 1960 and known as "northern Florida's most historic concert venue", it was home to most of the city's indoor professional sports teams and it hosted various concerts and other events, it was replaced with the Jacksonville Veterans Memorial Arena. The Coliseum was dedicated November 24, 1960; the general contractor was Daniel Construction, construction took two years and cost $3 million. The first event was the first ice hockey game played in Jacksonville, featuring the New York Rovers and Charlotte Clippers on November 30; the first events scheduled included an automobile show, a boat show, boxing matches, the circus, an ice skating show, a pro basketball exhibition game and a tennis tournament. Ice hockey teams based in the Coliseum included the Jacksonville Rockets of the Eastern Hockey League, the Jacksonville Barons, the Jacksonville Bullets, the Jacksonville Lizard Kings; the American Basketball Association franchise known as The Floridians played some of its home games there in 1971 and 1972.
The Jacksonville Dolphins utilized the coliseum for their home basketball games from 1969–99, it hosted the 1981 Sun Belt Conference and 1999 and 2000 Atlantic Sun Conference men's basketball tournaments. The Jacksonville Tea Men of the NASL played indoor soccer home games at the coliseum during the 1980–81 & 1981–82 seasons; the Jacksonville Tomcats of the af2, the Arena Football League's developmental league, called the Coliseum home from 2000–2002. The WCW events WrestleWar 1992 and WCW Greed were staged at the coliseum, as well as some episodes of WCW Monday Nitro. Hundreds of thousands of Duval County high school students received their diplomas at ceremonies in the Coliseum, the Ringling Bros. and Barnum & Bailey Circus train stopped in Jacksonville for two weeks of shows every January for decades. The fairgrounds were adjacent to the Coliseum, the Greater Jacksonville Agricultural Fair incorporated the facility into their November event, hosting music concerts and exhibitions. Monster truck shows, tractor pulls and motocross events were very popular over the years.
The Coliseum hosted hundreds of concerts and shows during its 43-year history, including Rush, Bob Dylan, Duran Duran, Billy Joel, Black Sabbath, Bon Jovi, Frank Sinatra, Jimi Hendrix, Elvis Presley, The Smashing Pumpkins, David Bowie, Bruce Springsteen, Led Zeppelin, Jacksonville's Lynyrd Skynyrd, Journey, AC/DC, Deep Purple, Three Dog Night, Def Leppard and Iron Maiden. Famous Southern rock bands from Jacksonville that played at the Coliseum were The Allman Brothers Band in 1970, Lynyrd Skynyrd in'75, 38 Special in'82, Molly Hatchet in'85, Blackfoot in'80, Limp Bizkit played there in 2000. Tom Petty and the Heartbreakers from Gainesville played there in'87. By the 1990s, it became harder for promoters to fill the seats of the Coliseum; the venue was designed in the late 1950s before the advent of the rock concert, strong bass and drums reverberated off the dome. The facility had not been renovated since its construction in 1960, giving the arena an outdated feel, it looked according to Mayor John Delaney.
Considered a mid-sized venue at best against its larger competitors, concert promoters for the most popular acts wanted venues with at least 15,000 seats. The Eagles, Bon Jovi, Ozzy Osbourne, Dave Matthews and Fleetwood Mac all declined to perform at the Coliseum, although the acts wanted to perform in Jacksonville; the venue was still able to house exhibition shows, special events and several country acts including Alan Jackson, Garth Brooks, Reba McEntire, Wynonna Judd and the Dixie Chicks. The Coliseum was imploded on June 26, 2003 and replaced with the $130 million Jacksonville Veterans Memorial Arena. Extreme care was taken not to damage the black granite Veterans Memorial Wall located just eight feet from east wall of the building. After the debris was cleared, a 2-acre walking park was added to the area around the Memorial