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WCW Monday Nitro

WCW Monday Nitro is a professional wrestling television program, produced by World Championship Wrestling and broadcast weekly every Monday night on TNT from September 4, 1995 to March 26, 2001, when WCW's assets were purchased by the WWF. For its entirety, the program went head-to-head with the World Wrestling Federation's Monday Night Raw. Created by Eric Bischoff and Ted Turner, the debut of Nitro began the Monday Night Wars, a television ratings battle between the WWF and WCW that saw each company resort to cutthroat tactics. Although comparable to Raw in popularity from the beginning, Nitro began to dominate its rival in television ratings, based on the strength of the New World Order, a rebellious group of wrestlers that wanted to take over WCW. Beginning in June 1996, Nitro beat Raw in the ratings for 83 consecutive weeks, forcing WWF owner Vince McMahon to usher in the more adult-oriented "Attitude Era"; as the nWo storyline grew stagnant, fan interest waned and Raw began to close the ratings gap.

In April 1998, a few weeks after Stone Cold Steve Austin won his first WWF Championship, Raw beat Nitro in the ratings for the first time in two years. The shows would continue to trade ratings wins back and forth until November 1998 when Raw pulled ahead of Nitro for good. Besides broadcasting from various arenas and locations across the United States and Canada, Nitro organized special broadcasts from the Disney-MGM Studios in Orlando in 1996, aired annual Spring Break-Out episodes from Panama City Beach, Florida or South Padre Island, Texas starting in March 1997, filmed some episodes in Australia and the United Kingdom during the fall of 2000; the rights to Nitro now belong to WWE. As of June 30, 2016, all episodes have been made available for streaming on the WWE Network. WWE has released three Best of WCW Monday Nitro DVD sets; the first episode of Nitro was broadcast from the Mall of America in Minneapolis, Minnesota on September 4, 1995. The featured matches on the one-hour broadcast were Brian Pillman versus Jushin Thunder Liger, Ric Flair versus WCW United States Heavyweight Champion Sting, WCW World Heavyweight Champion Hulk Hogan taking on Big Bubba Rogers.

The show was highlighted by the return of Lex Luger to WCW after having spent the previous two plus years wrestling for the WWF, where he had been one of the promotion's top stars. Luger's appearance was jarring because he had just wrestled a match for the WWF the previous evening; the event set the tone for Nitro's "anything can happen" atmosphere, prefigured the similar defections of WWF wrestlers Scott Hall and Kevin Nash the following year. The title video for the debut episode of Nitro featured multiple shots of Big Van Vader, who parted ways with WCW following a backstage altercation with Paul Orndorff. Absent from the first episode, he had been scheduled to face Hogan for the WCW World Heavyweight Championship on the September 11 edition, but was replaced by Lex Luger, who issued a challenge to Hogan on the debut show. Vader would never perform on Nitro, embarked on a WWF career in January 1996; the advent of Monday Nitro brought with it an intense rivalry between that show and the WWF's Monday Night Raw program.

This rivalry is known to wrestling fans as the "Monday Night Wars". Throughout the Monday Night Wars between Eric Bischoff and Vince McMahon, Nitro was gaining on its WWF counterpart popularity-wise. Soon Nitro would surpass Raw in the TV ratings. Nitro beat Raw in the ratings for 84 consecutive weeks until Raw regained ground in the ratings war. At its peak, the rivalry resulted in performers on either show trading verbal insults and challenges. At one point, Eric Bischoff challenged Vince McMahon to face him in a match to be held at Slamboree 1998. McMahon never did not appear. Nitro became popular as result of WCW's extensive roster of stars. Randy Savage and Hulk Hogan were some of the major stars signed with WCW and appearing on the Nitro program at this time. WCW's lineup of cruiserweights – smaller wrestlers known for their crowd-pleasing high-flying wrestling maneuvers – provided a strong set of setup matches for their main events. With the introduction of the New World Order, Nitro started its unprecedented run of ratings domination.

With former WWF wrestlers Scott Hall, Kevin Nash and Hogan as rebellious heels, the company seemed to have a winning story and a great future. Since Nitro was live and Raw was taped, Nitro was seen as far less predictable and thus more entertaining than its WWF counterpart. Only sixty minutes in length, Nitro was expanded to two hours following the 1996 NBA Playoffs while Raw waited until February 1997 to expand to a second hour. Nitro remained a two-hour program from May 27, 1996 until January 1998, when WCW and TNT agreed to a third hour for the still-#1 wrestling program in the country. Eric Bischoff soon became the voice of Nitro and began to air Nitro a couple of minutes before Raw so he could give away the results of the WWF program so fans had no reason to switch over to the competition provided that week's Raw was taped. While Raw was taking a new approach to programming with its "WWF Attitude Era", Nitro would start producing lackluster shows with the same storylines. Hogan and the rest of the nWo never lost and the once elite group was now bloated in size and recruiting midcard wrestlers.



Voiles is a composition by Claude Debussy for solo piano from 1909. It is the second piece in a set of twelve préludes published in 1910; the title of the piece may be translated to English as either sails. Except for some mild, localized chromaticism and a short pentatonic passage, the entire piece uses the whole tone scale. In their published form, the Préludes have their individual titles printed not at the start, but at the end—and in parentheses; the composition studies the whole tone scale intensively, with the exception of a brief six-measure section in the pentatonic scale. The structure of the piece follows a ternary form. A begins in m. 1. This three-part form is articulated by the dynamic structure: A and A' have only soft dynamics, while B has a wider dynamic from piano to forte; the B section is set apart by a faster tempo and increased density of notes. The A and A' sections are characterized by a whole-tone scale, while the B section is characterized by an E-flat minor pentatonic scale.

The whole-tone scale and the soft dynamics give A' sections a mysterious and eerie mood. In the B section, the louder dynamics, the faster passage, the more consonant and familiar pentatonic scale give the listener a break from the eerie tone, allowing a brief moment of clarity. If interpreting the movement in light of "veils," the eerie, mysterious mood of the A section sounds veiled; the clearer, more open sound of the B section generates an impression that the veil is removed, but returns for the A' section. If one takes "sails" as a possible understanding of the title, that leads to a possible image of a becalmed ship in the A and A' sections, with the clearer, brighter B section denoting a more open sea and sails full of wind. However, there is no clear structure that the piece fits into; some say that the pentatonic section forms the B part but, in truth, it is not clear enough to state it is ABA. Others argue that it follows a Rounded Binary form more than Ternary form due to the fact that there is an A part, B part and another bit at the end, concluding all of his ideas.

List of compositions by Claude Debussy by genre AttributionThis article contains information translated from the corresponding article of the German Wikipedia. A list of contributors can be found there at the History section. Voiles music score from Préludes at IMSLP Notes on Voiles on Preludes, Book 1 No. 2 Voiles by Arturo Benedetti Michelangeli on YouTube


STS-62 was a Space Shuttle program mission flown aboard Space Shuttle Columbia. The primary payloads were the USMP-02 microgravity experiments package and the OAST-2 engineering and technology payload, both in the orbiter's cargo bay; the two-week mission featured a number of biomedical experiments focusing on the effects of long duration spaceflight. The landing was chronicled by the 1994 Discovery Channel special about the Space Shuttle program and served as the show's opening. A C. F. Martin backpacker guitar was flown aboard Columbia during the mission. Flight Day One consisted of ascent operations and reconfiguration of the orbiter in order to support orbital operations, an OMS-2 burn to circularize Columbia's orbit to a 160-by-163-nautical-mile orbit, USMP-2 activation, PSE operations, APCG activation, CPCG operations, RMS checkout, DEE operations, CGBA activation; the payload bay doors were opened at 10:26 am EDT. On Flight Day Two, the astronauts took turns on the crew cabin exercise facility in an effort to slow down the effects of muscle atrophy.

Pilot Andrew M. Allen and mission specialist Charles D. Gemar spent time in the Lower Body Negative Pressure Container. Mission specialists Pierre J. Thuot and Marsha S. Ivins started the Protein Crystal Growth Experiment and the Physiological Systems Experiment, while scientists on the ground in the Payload Operations Control Center controlled eleven other experiments mounted in the orbiter's payload bay. Mission controllers in Houston investigated a problem in a fuel line pressure sensor on one of Columbia's three Auxiliary Power Units. Higher than normal pressures were detected and returned to normal after engineers powered up heaters on the unit; the APUs provided hydraulic power to operate key landing systems and only one of the three was needed for a successful landing. However, flight rules called for a shortened mission in the event. On Flight Day Three, following a morning of medical studies, the crew spent the last half of the day exercising and continuing to study the behavior of a space station truss model in weightlessness.

Pilot Allen and mission specialists Ivins and Gemar each took a turn on a stationary bicycle mounted in Columbia's middeck. The stationary bike had long been a staple of shuttle flights to allow exercise that countered the effect of weightlessness on the muscles; the bike aboard Columbia, featured a new mounting system of shock-absorbing springs, evaluated as a method of keeping vibrations from exercise, which could disturb sensitive experiments, to a minimum. Gemar set up a model of a scaffold-like truss structure that could be applied to a future space station design in the lower deck; the model, linked to sensitive recorders in a shuttle locker, was used to determine the characteristics of such structures in orbit. The model and its reactions were studied in several different configurations during the day. Other activities for the crew included photography of the glow created as the orbiter's outer skin interacted with atomic oxygen in orbit, continued monitoring of protein crystal growth experiments in the cabin.

Although not visible except to the Earth-bound scientists watching over them, Columbia's wide assortment of external payloads continued their investigations throughout the day. The second United States Microgravity Payload experiments continued to produce a wealth of data for scientists on the ground; the Critical Fluid Light Scattering Experiment, or ZENO, science team reported that they expected to locate the critical temperature of xenon at "any time." Team members watched computer data traces which indicate their experiment was near the critical temperature—the goal of a lengthy, methodical "sensitive" search process. This was a more precise search for the critical temperature after its location had been determined within a narrow band. Once the temperature was located, the team spent nearly 24 hours taking a good look at the phenomenon they waited years to see, they studied the properties of xenon at its critical point, taking subtle optical measurements in the region surrounding it. A fluid's "critical point" occurs at a condition of temperature and pressure where the fluid is a gas and a liquid.

By understanding how matter behaves at the critical point, scientists hope to gain a better insight into a variety of physics problems ranging from phase changes in fluids to changes in the composition and magnetic properties of solids. The Space Acceleration Measurement System continued to measure the microgravity environment on the USMP-2 carrier in support of the four other experiments on board; the SAMS team began sending results of their data collection during various orbiter activities to the crew, as they were interested in how they could minimize their influence on the microgravity environment. Measurements were made with the system at specific times when microgravity disturbances were caused by events such as crew exercise and movement of the orbiter's Ku-band antenna; such observations collected "signatures" which the team were able to identify in future data. A related system, the Orbital Acceleration Research Experiment, was managed by NASA's Johnson Space Center, it was useful on missions such as USMP-2 where it was important to characterize a wide variety of disturbances in the microgravity environment.

Working with SAMS, the OARE recorded any low-frequency activity such as the orbiter's friction with the rarefied upper atmosphere. SAMS was most suitable for recording higher-frequency activity such as crew exercise; the Isothermal Dendritic Growth Experiment continued to assemble data to test theories concerning the effec

Poitevin mule

The Poitevin mule or French: mule Poitevine is a type of large mule from the former province of Poitou in western central France. It is the product of mating between a Baudet du Poitou jack or donkey stallion with a mare of the Poitevin Mulassier breed of draught horse. Mule production was an important industry in Poitou for three hundred years or more, the number of mule foal births may have reached 30,000 per year.:40 In the early twentieth century there were about 50,000 Poitevin Mulassier brood mares, which gave birth to some 18,000–20,000 mule foals per year.:156The Poitevin mule was well known for its size and strength, was exported to many countries, among them Germany, Italy, Portugal and Turkey. By the 1990s the Poitevin Mulassier was critically endangered, mares were put to Mulassier stallions in order to increase breed numbers. Twenty Poitevin mules are born each year. In 2017 there were 195 active Mulassier brood-mares. Of these, about 25% were covered by Baudet jacks; the Poitevin mule was recognised by the Haras Nationaux of France in 2002.

Carrot virus Y

Carrot virus Y is a ss-RNA virus that affects crops of the carrot family, such as carrots, chervil, cumin and parsnip. Carrots are the only known crop. Infection by the virus leads to deformed mottled leaves; the virus is spread through insect vectors, is only found in Australia. The symptoms of CarVY in carrot foliage may include chlorotic mottle, marginal leaflet necrosis or reddening, generalised chlorosis of leaves, plant stunting. Necrosis occurs when a living organism's tissues die or degenerate. Plant necrosis causes leaves and other parts of the plant to darken and wilt; this is a result of the virus using the plant as a host, as the plant's energy is diverted to the virus rather than to the plant's growth. Over time, this energy depletion leads to necrosis in the infected area where the virus is replicating itself. In plant chlorosis, tissues that are green become pale, yellow, or bleached; this results from chlorophyll failing to develop due to the infection of the virus. Additionally, the infected plant can portray a ‘feathery’ appearance due to an increase in the subdivisions of the carrot leaflets.

Leaf symptoms and plant stunting symptoms differ between different carrot varieties. Some plants will develop obvious symptoms that can be seen from a distance. However, others can express symptoms that are so mild that they are difficult to see upon close inspection of affected plants. In growing carrot crops, foliage symptoms of CarVY are confused with the symptoms of nutritional deficiencies. Additionally, growers stop adding fertilizers at the end of each growing season to reduce post-harvest carrot disorders; this results in leaf yellowing symptoms, which can be confused with the symptoms that resemble those caused by CarVY. The roots of carrot plants become deformed as a result of CarVY infection; when carrot plants become infected with CarVY at an early stage in the growth cycle, they portray stubby roots with severe distortion and knobliness. Carrots that are infected in the life cycle are thinner and longer than carrots infected earlier. Furthermore, in plants infected early, the tops of the roots tend to emerge from the soil and become exposed to the sun.

This results in the ‘shoulders’ of the carrots turning a green color. Early infected plants have severe distortion of the internal vascular cambium. Instead of its normal circular shape, carrots exhibit a star-like vascular cambium consisting of multiple contortions. Entire fields have been abandoned due to crop infection; the severe root defomalities associated with early virus infection make the carrots unmarketable. Carrots infected in the growth cycle do not display such dramatic deformations, but are still considered less-desirable and are sold and a lower price. CarVY belongs to the Potyviridae family of viruses. Potyviruses are non-enveloped viruses; these filamentous viruses are 720-850 nm long and 12-15 nm in diameter. Their flexuous virions can be identified in infected carrot leaf samples using electron microscopy; the non-segmented, linear genome of CarVY is 1,754 kb. CarVY is 11 nm wide and 770 nm long. CarVY is transmitted between plants by aphids, including those that do not colonize carrots.

Aphids are soft-bodied insects. Their sucking mouthparts allow for viruses to be transmitted between plants. With their ability to reproduce asexually, they are able to multiply and colonize quickly; this allows them to spread a virus quickly. Myzus persicae, a small green aphid most known as the green peach aphid, is the most efficient transmitter of the virus. By feeding on the sap of the carrot plant, aphids injest the virus of the host, which they can transmit to other uninfected plants that they will feed on. Other colonizing species, such as Aphis spiraecola and D. apiifolia, can be successful virus vectors. Non-colonizing species such as Lipahis erysimi and Acyrthosiphon kondoi, may serve as efficient transmitters, it is unknown. If CarVY is confirmed to be transmissible in future research, it is expected that it will only be at low levels, as Lettuce mosaic virus, a potyvirus, is only transmissible at low levels. LMV is a potyvirus. If seed transmission is confirmed, seed stock will need to be tested before sowing.

If an aphid is able to take up a virion, the virion remains stable, the virus can be transmitted to a new host. In relation to the aphid, potyviruses are noncirculative viruses. Noncirculative viruses are associated with the mouthparts and foregut, giving them a more superficial and transient relationship with the vector. CarVY does not appear to harm its aphid vector. Virus transmission consists of at least three steps: The first step in viral transmission is acquisition, which consists of the uptake of the virus from an infected source. Aphids are well designed for their roles as vectors, their mouthparts consist of a needle-like stylet, capable of piercing plant cells walls in order to feed on the plant’s sugary sap. Aphids can facilitate the uptake and delivery of virions into plant cells without causing too much irreversible damage to the host; the purpose of the second step of transmission is the stable retention of acquired virions in the vector at specific sites. A virus destined for inoculation is retained at sites within the stylet and food canal, or in the

106 & Gospel

106 & Gospel was an inspirational version of the top-ten video countdown show 106 & Park, that aired Sundays on BET. The show debuted on January 11, 2009 and features a live audience, gospel music videos, choir battles and many celebrity guests; the show was canceled in April 2009 due to low ratings on the network. The program played the top ten most requested videos of the day, as requested by viewers who could vote by telephone or online. In addition to the music video countdown, a typical show aired one new music video known as the New Joint of the Day, a music video from the past known as the Flashback Joint of the Day. Viewers were able to view videos from singers who talked about how the gospel had an impact in their lives. Angel Taylor from Trin-i-tee 5:7 and Jor'el Quinn from 21:03 were the hosts of the show; the show featured Tye Tribbett, where his segment "Tye's Tidbits",Tye talked about upcoming events and releases from gospel singers. 106 & Park 106 & Gospel