Federal Communications Commission
The Federal Communications Commission is an independent agency of the United States government created by statute to regulate interstate communications by radio, wire and cable. The FCC serves the public in the areas of broadband access, fair competition, radio frequency use, media responsibility, public safety, homeland security; the FCC was formed by the Communications Act of 1934 to replace the radio regulation functions of the Federal Radio Commission. The FCC took over wire communication regulation from the Interstate Commerce Commission; the FCC's mandated jurisdiction covers the 50 states, the District of Columbia, the Territories of the United States. The FCC provides varied degrees of cooperation and leadership for similar communications bodies in other countries of North America; the FCC is funded by regulatory fees. It has an estimated fiscal-2016 budget of US $388 million, it has 1,688 federal employees, made up of 50% males and 50% females as of December, 2017. The FCC's mission, specified in Section One of the Communications Act of 1934 and amended by the Telecommunications Act of 1996 is to "make available so far as possible, to all the people of the United States, without discrimination on the basis of race, religion, national origin, or sex, efficient and world-wide wire and radio communication services with adequate facilities at reasonable charges."
The Act furthermore provides that the FCC was created "for the purpose of the national defense" and "for the purpose of promoting safety of life and property through the use of wire and radio communications."Consistent with the objectives of the Act as well as the 1999 Government Performance and Results Act, the FCC has identified four goals in its 2018-22 Strategic Plan. They are: Closing the Digital Divide, Promoting Innovation, Protecting Consumers & Public Safety, Reforming the FCC's Processes; the FCC is directed by five commissioners appointed by the President of the United States and confirmed by the United States Senate for five-year terms, except when filling an unexpired term. The U. S. President designates one of the commissioners to serve as chairman. Only three commissioners may be members of the same political party. None of them may have a financial interest in any FCC-related business. † Commissioners may continue serving until the appointment of their replacements. However, they may not serve beyond the end of the next session of Congress following term expiration.
In practice, this means that commissioners may serve up to 1 1/2 years beyond the official term expiration dates listed above if no replacement is appointed. This would end on the date that Congress adjourns its annual session no than noon on January 4; the FCC is organized into seven Bureaus, which process applications for licenses and other filings, analyze complaints, conduct investigations and implement regulations, participate in hearings. The Consumer & Governmental Affairs Bureau develops and implements the FCC's consumer policies, including disability access. CGB serves as the public face of the FCC through outreach and education, as well as through their Consumer Center, responsible for responding to consumer inquiries and complaints. CGB maintains collaborative partnerships with state and tribal governments in such areas as emergency preparedness and implementation of new technologies; the Enforcement Bureau is responsible for enforcement of provisions of the Communications Act 1934, FCC rules, FCC orders, terms and conditions of station authorizations.
Major areas of enforcement that are handled by the Enforcement Bureau are consumer protection, local competition, public safety, homeland security. The International Bureau develops international policies in telecommunications, such as coordination of frequency allocation and orbital assignments so as to minimize cases of international electromagnetic interference involving U. S. licensees. The International Bureau oversees FCC compliance with the international Radio Regulations and other international agreements; the Media Bureau develops and administers the policy and licensing programs relating to electronic media, including cable television, broadcast television, radio in the United States and its territories. The Media Bureau handles post-licensing matters regarding direct broadcast satellite service; the Wireless Telecommunications Bureau regulates domestic wireless telecommunications programs and policies, including licensing. The bureau implements competitive bidding for spectrum auctions and regulates wireless communications services including mobile phones, public safety, other commercial and private radio services.
The Wireline Competition Bureau develops policy concerning wire line telecommunications. The Wireline Competition Bureau's main objective is to promote growth and economical investments in wireline technology infrastructure, development and services; the Public Safety and Homeland Security Bureau was launched in 2006 with a focus on critical communications infrastructure. The FCC has eleven Staff Offices; the FCC's Offices provide support services to the Bureaus. The Office of Administrative Law Judges is responsible for conducting hearings ordered by the Commission; the hearing function includes acting on interlocutory requests filed in the proceedings such as petitions to intervene, petitions to enlarge issues, contested discovery requests. An Administrative Law Judge, appointed under the Administrative Procedure Act, presides at the hearing during which documents and sworn testimony are received in evidence, witnesses are cross-examined. At the co
Hillsborough River (Florida)
The Hillsborough River is a river located in the state of Florida in the United States. It arises in the Green Swamp near the juncture of Hillsborough and Polk counties, flows 60 miles through Pasco and Hillsborough Counties to an outlet in the city of Tampa on Tampa Bay, it includes 4 nature trails extending for over seven miles. The name Hillsborough River first appeared on a British map in 1769. At the time, the Earl of Hillsborough was the British Secretary of State for the Colonies, thus controlled the pensions of the surveyors working in the American colonies, which included East Florida. Geological data suggests. Humans first made their way to this area 12,000 - 15,000 years ago. In the late 18th century the watershed of the Hillsborough River was a land covered by a rich, old growth forest. Majestic bald cypress, longleaf pine, sand live oak were hundreds of years old. In the mid to late 19th century to about 1913 the watershed of this old growth forest began to be logged; as a result of this lumbering activity, most of the trees within the Hillsborough River basin are now less than one hundred years in age.
The harvesting of the old growth trees altered the ecosystems. Trees such as water ash and water locust were able to grow in the sun-lit spaces created when bigger trees were removed; the riverine swamp forest as it exists today has a much different ecology than the ecosystem that had existed along the Hillsborough for the previous ten to fifteen thousand years. Tocobaga Native American culture. Pánfilo de Narváez, a Spanish explorer, lands near Tampa Bay, he and the four hundred men with him find the Tocobaga culture established in the area. Hernando de Soto, another Spaniard, comes to Tampa Bay and lands at what was the Hillsborough River. By the early 18th century the Tocobaga people, through slavery, are nearly exterminated. A survey of the Hillsborough River is done by Don Francisco Maria Celi, pilot of the Spanish Royal Fleet, he ventures up to the Temple Terrace area in search of longleaf pine to use as masts for his ships. He names the pine forest of the area "El Pinal de la Cruz de Santa Teresa" or "The Pines of the Cross of Saint Teresa".
There is a plaque commemorating his exploration at Riverhills Park in Temple Terrace. A map drawn and sent to the Earl of Hillsborough, English Governor of West Florida, shows the river named as the Hillsborough. During the mid and late 18th century, Native Americans from the north Creek, begin to migrate to Florida; these immigrants become known as Seminoles. Florida becomes a United States territory. Construction of Fort Brooke begins at the mouth of the Hillsborough River; the Fort King Military Road is built to connect Fort King in Ocala with Fort Brooke in what was the settlement of Tampa. A bridge is built to cross the Hillsborough. Congress passes the Indian Removal Act; the American government begins efforts to remove the Seminole from Tampa Bay and relocate them to a reservation west of the Mississippi. Tensions between Seminole and Americans continue. Seminoles burn the bridge at the Fort King Road’s river crossing. Conflict continues. Fort Foster is established at the Hillsborough River crossing to protect this strategically advantageous position.
The Armed Occupation Act promises one hundred 60 acres of land to any man who can bear arms, build a house and cultivate 5 acres for five years. The Jean Street Shipyard is founded on the Hillsborough River in what will be the neighborhood of Seminole Heights; the first ferry crossing on the Hillsborough River is established. This widens the growth of Tampa to both sides of the river. During the American Civil War, Tampa Bay is blockaded by federal troops to prevent goods from leaving Tampa or from coming into Tampa. Federal troops march upriver to a location near the present day site of Lowry Park Zoo. There they discover a blockade-running sloop loaded with cotton; the ships are burned. The skirmish that follows is the only Civil War action on the Hillsborough River; the Tampa Bay Hotel, now the Henry B. Plant Museum, opens with a grand ball. At a cost of $150,000 an electrical dam is built on the river by Consumers Electric Light and Street Railway Company; the dam was located halfway between present-day 40th Street and 56th Street on the Hillsborough River On December 13, 1898 the dam is dynamited by cattle barons angry at the loss of grazing land.
They tried three times. The first on January 8, 1897,shortly after construction was completed; when the water is low, remnants of the dynamited dam can be seen. TECO buys the Consumers Electric Light and Street Railway Company and builds a new electric generating dam downstream of the current site north of Sulphur Springs. Tampa's first water plant is built by the private Tampa Waterworks Company, it pumped well water to supply the City of Tampa until March 6, 1923, when the people voted to purchase the Waterworks plant. The Sulphur Springs property is open to the public. Hillsborough Bay is channelized to the mouth of the Hillsborough River with the Rivers and Harbors Act of 1899. Up to 1913 the Hillsborough River watershed is logged for its valuable cypress, longleaf pine and oak. Bertha Potter Palmer completes purchases of 19,000 acres border
The Tampa Tribune
The Tampa Tribune was a daily newspaper published in Tampa, Florida. One of two major newspapers published in the Tampa Bay area, the Tribune was second in circulation and readership to the Tampa Bay Times; the newspaper published a St. Petersburg Tribune edition and distributed in Pinellas County, it published Florida Accent, during the 1960s and 1970s. The Tampa Tribune operated Highlands Today, a daily newspaper in Sebring; the Tribune stopped publishing the Hernando Today, located in Brooksville, on Dec. 1, 2014, citing "a tough newspaper advertising climate."On May 3, 2016, the Tampa Bay Times announced that it had acquired the Tribune, was combining the Times and Tribune's operations, ending publication of the Tribune. Daily publication of the Tribune started in 1895 when Wallace Stovall upgraded printing from once a week. In 1927, newspaper mogul John Stewart Bryan partnered with vice-president and general manager of the Chicago Tribune Samuel Emory Thomason to purchase The Tampa Tribune for $900,000.
The Tampa Tribune Publishing company grew to include the Tampa Tribune, the Tampa Times, TBO.com, TampaBayOnline.com, WFLA radio, WFLA-TV. In 1966, the Tampa Tribune, along with sister properties WFLA-AM-FM-TV, was purchased by Richmond Newspapers, becoming Media General in 1969. Since 2000, the Tribune partnered with WFLA-TV and TBO.com in a converged arrangement, all connected with one another under owner Media General. The large media complex is located on Parker Street in Downtown Tampa; the Tribune was a flagship newspaper under the Media General banner until it was sold in 2012. Executive editor Janet Coats left the paper in December 2009 and was not replaced until May 17, 2012, when managing editor Richard "Duke" Maas was promoted to executive editor. On May 17, 2012, it was announced that investment company Berkshire Hathaway would be acquiring Media General's newspaper division. No reason was given as to why Media General was retaining the Tribune, but there was speculation that the paper would be sold to another party, such as Halifax Media Group or a different owner, or that the paper would merge with the Tampa Bay Times.
In October 2012, The Tampa Tribune and its associated print and digital products were acquired by Tampa Media Group, Inc. a new company formed by Revolution Capital Group. On May 3, 2016, the Tampa Bay Times announced that it had acquired the Tribune, was combining the Times and Tribune's operations, ending publication of the Tribune; the acquisition includes Highlands Today, weekly newspaper The Suncoast News, weekly Spanish-language newspaper Centro. The Tampa Tribune name will be repurposed as a neighborhood news section of the Times. In 1958, the struggling evening newspaper the Tampa Daily Times was bought out by the Tribune Company and was published as The Tampa Times until 1982; until the end of the publication of the Tribune, the logo for The Tampa Times continued to be displayed in the masthead on the front section, as a way for the Tribune to keep its trademark on the Tampa Times name, to avoid confusion with the Tampa Bay Times, which publishes an edition for Tampa. In 2006, it was decided in a lawsuit that the Tribune could keep its exclusive use of the Tampa Times name, but only for five years.
This exclusivity ended at the end of 2011, allowing the St. Petersburg Times to rename itself the Tampa Bay Times, effective January 1, 2012; the decision did not restrict the use of The Tampa Times name by the Tribune after the expiration of exclusivity. The Tampa Tribune won a Pulitzer Prize in 1966 for local investigative specialized reporting; the award went to John Anthony Frasca for his "investigation and reporting of two robberies that resulted in the freeing of an innocent man." List of newspapers in Florida The Tampa Tribune at the Wayback Machine "In Tampa Bay, a singular newspaper kills off a rival in a bid for its own future". Columbia Journalism Review. 2016
The National Broadcasting Company is an American English-language commercial terrestrial television network, a flagship property of NBCUniversal, a subsidiary of Comcast. The network is headquartered at 30 Rockefeller Plaza in New York City, with additional major offices near Los Angeles and Philadelphia; the network is one of the Big Three television networks. NBC is sometimes referred to as the "Peacock Network", in reference to its stylized peacock logo, introduced in 1956 to promote the company's innovations in early color broadcasting, it became the network's official emblem in 1979. Founded in 1926 by the Radio Corporation of America, NBC is the oldest major broadcast network in the United States. At that time the parent company of RCA was General Electric. In 1930, GE was forced to sell the companies as a result of antitrust charges. In 1986, control of NBC passed back to General Electric through its $6.4 billion purchase of RCA. Following the acquisition by GE, Bob Wright served as chief executive officer of NBC, remaining in that position until his retirement in 2007, when he was succeeded by Jeff Zucker.
In 2003, French media company Vivendi merged its entertainment assets with GE, forming NBC Universal. Comcast purchased a controlling interest in the company in 2011, acquired General Electric's remaining stake in 2013. Following the Comcast merger, Zucker left NBCUniversal and was replaced as CEO by Comcast executive Steve Burke. NBC has thirteen owned-and-operated stations and nearly 200 affiliates throughout the United States and its territories, some of which are available in Canada and/or Mexico via pay-television providers or in border areas over-the-air. During a period of early broadcast business consolidation, radio manufacturer Radio Corporation of America acquired New York City radio station WEAF from American Telephone & Telegraph. Westinghouse, a shareholder in RCA, had a competing outlet in Newark, New Jersey pioneer station WJZ, which served as the flagship for a loosely structured network; this station was transferred from Westinghouse to RCA in 1923, moved to New York City. WEAF acted as a laboratory for AT&T's manufacturing and supply outlet Western Electric, whose products included transmitters and antennas.
The Bell System, AT&T's telephone utility, was developing technologies to transmit voice- and music-grade audio over short and long distances, using both wireless and wired methods. The 1922 creation of WEAF offered a research-and-development center for those activities. WEAF maintained a regular schedule of radio programs, including some of the first commercially sponsored programs, was an immediate success. In an early example of "chain" or "networking" broadcasting, the station linked with Outlet Company-owned WJAR in Providence, Rhode Island. C. WCAP. New parent RCA saw an advantage in sharing programming, after getting a license for radio station WRC in Washington, D. C. in 1923, attempted to transmit audio between cities via low-quality telegraph lines. AT&T refused outside companies access to its high-quality phone lines; the early effort fared poorly, since the uninsulated telegraph lines were susceptible to atmospheric and other electrical interference. In 1925, AT&T decided that WEAF and its embryonic network were incompatible with the company's primary goal of providing a telephone service.
AT&T offered to sell the station to RCA in a deal that included the right to lease AT&T's phone lines for network transmission. RCA spent $1 million to purchase WEAF and Washington sister station WCAP, shut down the latter station, merged its facilities with surviving station WRC; the division's ownership was split among RCA, its founding corporate parent General Electric and Westinghouse. NBC started broadcasting on November 15, 1926. WEAF and WJZ, the flagships of the two earlier networks, were operated side-by-side for about a year as part of the new NBC. On January 1, 1927, NBC formally divided their respective marketing strategies: the "Red Network" offered commercially sponsored entertainment and music programming. Various histories of NBC suggest the color designations for the two networks came from the color of the pushpins NBC engineers used to designate affiliate stations of WEAF and WJZ, or from the use of double-ended red and blue colored pencils. On April 5, 1927, NBC expanded to the West Coast with the launch of the NBC Orange Network known as the Pacific Coast Network.
This was followed by the debut of the NBC Gold Network known as the Pacific Gold Network, on October 18, 1931. The Orange Network carried Red Network programming, the Gold Network carried programming from the Blue Network; the Orange Network recreated Eastern Red Network programming for West Coast stations at KPO in San Francisco. In 1936, the Orange Network affiliate stations became part of the Red Network, at the same time the Gold Network became part of the Blue Network. In the 1930s, NBC developed a network for shortwave radio stations, called the NBC White Network. In 1927, NBC moved its operations to 711 Fifth Avenue in Manhattan, occupying the upper floors of a building de
Very high frequency
High frequency is the ITU designation for the range of radio frequency electromagnetic waves from 30 to 300 megahertz, with corresponding wavelengths of ten meters to one meter. Frequencies below VHF are denoted high frequency, the next higher frequencies are known as ultra high frequency. Common uses for radio waves in the VHF band are FM radio broadcasting, television broadcasting, two way land mobile radio systems, long range data communication up to several tens of kilometers with radio modems, amateur radio, marine communications. Air traffic control communications and air navigation systems work at distances of 100 kilometres or more to aircraft at cruising altitude. In the Americas and many other parts of the world, VHF Band I was used for the transmission of analog television; as part of the worldwide transition to digital terrestrial television most countries require broadcasters to air television in the VHF range using digital rather than analog format. Radio waves in the VHF band propagate by line-of-sight and ground-bounce paths.
They do not follow the contour of the Earth as ground waves and so are blocked by hills and mountains, although because they are weakly refracted by the atmosphere they can travel somewhat beyond the visual horizon out to about 160 km. They can penetrate building walls and be received indoors, although in urban areas reflections from buildings cause multipath propagation, which can interfere with television reception. Atmospheric radio noise and interference from electrical equipment is less of a problem in the band than at lower frequencies; the VHF band is the first band at which efficient transmitting antennas are small enough that they can be mounted on vehicles and portable devices, so the band is used for two-way land mobile radio systems, such as walkie-talkies, two way radio communication with aircraft and ships. When conditions are right, VHF waves can travel long distances by tropospheric ducting due to refraction by temperature gradients in the atmosphere. For analog TV, VHF transmission range is a function of transmitter power, receiver sensitivity, distance to the horizon, since VHF signals propagate under normal conditions as a near line-of-sight phenomenon.
The distance to the radio horizon is extended over the geometric line of sight to the horizon, as radio waves are weakly bent back toward the Earth by the atmosphere. An approximation to calculate the line-of-sight horizon distance is: distance in nautical miles = 1.23 × A f where A f is the height of the antenna in feet distance in kilometers = 12.746 × A m where A m is the height of the antenna in meters. These approximations are only valid for antennas at heights that are small compared to the radius of the Earth, they may not be accurate in mountainous areas, since the landscape may not be transparent enough for radio waves. In engineered communications systems, more complex calculations are required to assess the probable coverage area of a proposed transmitter station; the accuracy of these calculations for digital TV signals is being debated. VHF is the first band at which wavelengths are small enough that efficient transmitting antennas are short enough to mount on vehicles and handheld devices, a quarter wave whip antenna at VHF frequencies is 25 cm to 2.5 meter long.
So the VHF and UHF wavelengths are used for two-way radios in vehicles and handheld transceivers and walkie-talkies. Portable radios use whips or rubber ducky antennas, while base stations use larger fiberglass whips or collinear arrays of vertical dipoles. For directional antennas, the Yagi antenna is the most used as a high gain or "beam" antenna. For television reception, the Yagi is used, as well as the log-periodic antenna due to its wider bandwidth. Helical and turnstile antennas are used for satellite communication since they employ circular polarization. For higher gain, multiple Yagis or helicals can be mounted together to make array antennas. Vertical collinear arrays of dipoles can be used to make high gain omnidirectional antennas, in which more of the antenna's power is radiated in horizontal directions. Television and FM broadcasting stations use collinear arrays of specialized dipole antennas such as batwing antennas. Certain subparts of the VHF band have the same use around the world.
Some national uses are detailed below. 50–54 MHz: Amateur Radio 6-meter band. 108–118 MHz: Air navigation beacons VOR and Instrument Landing System localizer. 118–137 MHz: Airband for air traffic control, AM, 121.5 MHz is emergency frequency 144–148 MHz: Amateur Radio 2-meter band. The VHF TV band in Australia was allocated channels 1 to 10-with channels 2, 7 and 9 assigned for the initial services in Sydney and Melbourne, the same channels were assigned in Brisbane and Perth. Other capital cities and regional areas used a combination of these and other frequencies as available; the initial commercial services in Hobart and Darwin were allocated channels 6 and 8 rather than 7 or 9. By the early 1960s it became apparent that the 10 VHF channels were insufficient to support the growth of television services; this was rectified by the addition of th
WTTA, virtual channel 38, is a MyNetworkTV-affiliated television station licensed to St. Petersburg, United States and serving Tampa; the station is owned by Nexstar Media Group, as a part of a duopoly with Tampa-licensed NBC affiliate WFLA-TV. The two stations share studios on South Parker Street in downtown Tampa along the Hillsborough River, transmitter facilities in Riverview, Florida. On cable, WTTA is available on Charter Spectrum and Wide Open West channel 6, on Comcast Xfinity channel 11 in Sarasota County and channel 29 in Hardee County; the UHF channel 38 allotment in the Tampa–St. Petersburg market had been home to the area's first television station, WSUN-TV, which operated from 1953 to 1970; the station, along with WSUN-AM was licensed to the City of St. Petersburg; the transmitter was collocated in the WSUN-AM 620 kHz transmitter building on the north side of the Gandy causeway at the west end of the Gandy bridge. The transmitting antenna was mounted on top of the north tower of WSUN-AM, modified to hold it without exceeding the original 502-foot AGL height.
The north tower was and remains adjacent to the transmitter building used as a daytime 620 kHz non-directional radiator while the south tower, on the south side of the Gandy causeway was used only at night as a directional array. The transmitter building still contains a ladder which descends into a bomb shelter below the bay water as 620 was the original CONELRAD station for the area; the original towers, each located on pilings in Tampa Bay deteriorated with the salt water and sea bird roosting residues and were replaced with new shorter towers on the original pilings in the early 2000s, eliminating the final traces of channel 38 at the 620 kHz transmitting plant. The station had served as the area's original ABC affiliate until WLCY signed on in 1965 resulting in WSUN becoming an independent station until it went dark in 1970. Great 38 will air NBC programming at times its sister station WFLA-TV is unable to; such was the case during Hurricane Irma in 2017, when WTTA carried the Sunday Night Football Week 1 contest between the New York Giants and Dallas Cowboys while WFLA-TV had hurricane coverage.
In 1986, a local group won a new license to operate a station on UHF channel 38. WTTA affiliated in September 1990 with the Star Television Network, which offered a mix of older programming and infomercials; that month, there was an ad for "TV Heaven 38" in the Tampa/Sarasota edition of TV Guide. The construction permit was sold to Bay TV, owned by the Smith family, including David Smith of Baltimore, the owners of Sinclair Broadcast Group making the station a subsidiary of that company. On June 21 of that year, WTTA signed on the air as an independent station consisting of syndicated programs passed over by the market's other stations, barter programming, network shows not cleared by WFLA-TV, WTSP and WTVT and infomercials. Due to its low budget, weekend programming tended to consist of infomercials. WTTA presented a televised simulcast of the WRBQ-FM weekday morning radio show, the Q Morning Zoo, until that station changed formats to country music in the early 1990s. On December 12, 1994, Fox programming moved from WFTS-TV to WTVT as part of a group deal with its then-owners, New World Communications.
At the same time, the E. W. Scripps Company cut an affiliation deal with ABC, which resulted in WFTS selling most of its syndicated shows to WTTA. Meanwhile, CBS would move from WTVT to WTSP. Upon the changeover, WTVT chose not to carry the network's children's program block, Fox Kids, picked up by WTTA instead. Channel 38 picked up some syndicated programs that WFTS had no room for on its schedule due to ABC's network-heavy schedule, giving WTTA a stronger programming inventory. Fox Kids moved to rival WMOR-TV, which carried the successor 4KidsTV block on Sunday mornings until it was discontinued by Fox on December 28, 2008. At one time WTTA was a local broadcast partner of the Tampa Bay Lightning hockey club, they last aired a series of nine Lightning games during the 1999–2000 season. In September 1999, WTTA became Tampa Bay's affiliate of The WB, two years after the network entered into a group deal with Sinclair to affiliate the company's independent stations and UPN affiliates with The WB.
The station began using the on-air brand "WB 38", ran cartoons from Kids' WB during the week until January 2006, when the network discontinued its weekday kids block. As a result, Kids' WB programming on WTTA had been relegated to Saturday mornings as of 2006. In 1999, WTTA's operations were taken over by Sinclair after the company entered into a local marketing agreement with Bay Television, which over time had grown become one of the nation's largest television station owners. However, Bay Television was a subsidiary of Sinclair. Bay Television could be considered a shell corporation used for the purpose of circumventing Federal Communication Commission ownership rules; this would apply to a duopoly that Sinclair operates, but the Tampa Bay market is one of the few markets where the company does not own or operate more than one television station. On January 24, 2006, the Warner Bros. unit of Time Warner and CBS Corporation (which spun off from Viacom at the end of
Digital terrestrial television
Digital terrestrial television is a technology for broadcast television in which land-based television stations broadcast television content by radio waves to televisions in consumers' residences in a digital format. DTTV is a major technological advance over the previous analog television, has replaced analog, in common use since the middle of the 20th century. Test broadcasts began in 1998 with the changeover to DTTV beginning in 2006 and is now complete in many countries; the advantages of digital terrestrial television are similar to those obtained by digitising platforms such as cable TV, telecommunications: more efficient use of limited radio spectrum bandwidth, provision of more television channels than analog, better quality images, lower operating costs for broadcasters. Different countries have adopted different digital broadcasting standards; the amount of data that can be transmitted is directly affected by channel capacity and the modulation method of the transmission. North America uses the ATSC standard with 8VSB modulation, which has similar characteristics to the vestigial sideband modulation used for analog television.
This provides more immunity to interference, but is not immune to multipath distortion and does not provide for single-frequency network operation. The modulation method in DVB-T is COFDM with either 16-state Quadrature Amplitude Modulation. In general, 64QAM is capable of transmitting a greater bit rate, but is more susceptible to interference. 16 and 64QAM constellations can be combined in a single multiplex, providing a controllable degradation for more important program streams. This is called hierarchical modulation. DVB-T are designed to work in single frequency networks. Developments in video compression have resulted in improvements on the original H.262 MPEG 2 codec, surpassed by H.264/MPEG-4 AVC and more H.265 HEVC. H.264 enables three high-definition television services to be coded into a 24 Mbit/s DVB-T European terrestrial transmission channel. DVB-T2 increases this channel capacity to 40 Mbit/s, allowing more services. DTTV is received either via a digital set-top box, TV gateway or more now an integrated tuner included with television sets, that decodes the signal received via a standard television antenna.
These devices now include digital video recorder functionality. However, due to frequency planning issues, an aerial capable of receiving a different channel group may be required if the DTTV multiplexes lie outside the reception capabilities of the installed aerial; this is quite common in the UK. Indoor aerials are more to be affected by these issues and need replacing. Main articles: List of digital television deployments by country, Digital television transition Afghanistan launched digital transmissions in Kabul using DVB-T2/MPEG-4 on Sunday, 31 August 2014. Test transmissions had commenced on 4 UHF channels at the start of June 2014. Transmitters were provided by GatesAir. Bangladesh had its first DTT service DVB-T2 / MPEG-4 on April 2016 launched by the GS Group; the service is called RealVU. It is done with partnership with Beximco. GS Group acts as a supplier and integrator of its in-house hardware and software solutions for the operator's functioning in accordance with the modern standards of digital television.
RealVu provides more than 100 TV channels in HD quality. The digital TV set-top boxes developed by GS Group offer such functions as PVR and time-shift, along with an EPG. India adopted DVB-T system for digital television in July 1999; the first DVB-T transmission was started on 26 January 2003 in the four major metropolitan cities by Doordarshan. The terrestrial transmission is available in both digital and analog formats. 4 high power DVB-T transmitters were set up in the top 4 cities, which were upgraded to DVB-T2 + MPEG4 and DVB-H standards. An additional 190 high power, 400 low power DVB-T2 transmitters have been approved for Tier I, II and III cities of the country by 2017; the Indian telecom regulator, TRAI, had recommended the I&B to allow private broadcast companies to use the DTT technology, in 2005. So far, the Indian I&B ministry only permits private broadcast companies to use satellite, cable and IPTV based systems; the government's broadcasting organisation Doordarshan had started the free TV service over DVB - T2 to the mobile phone users from February 25 onwards and extended to cover 16 cities including the four metros from April 5, 2016.
Israel started digital transmissions in MPEG-4 on Sunday, August 2, 2009, anal