Philadelphia, sometimes known colloquially as Philly, is the largest city in the U. S. state and Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, the sixth-most populous U. S. city, with a 2017 census-estimated population of 1,580,863. Since 1854, the city has been coterminous with Philadelphia County, the most populous county in Pennsylvania and the urban core of the eighth-largest U. S. metropolitan statistical area, with over 6 million residents as of 2017. Philadelphia is the economic and cultural anchor of the greater Delaware Valley, located along the lower Delaware and Schuylkill Rivers, within the Northeast megalopolis; the Delaware Valley's population of 7.2 million ranks it as the eighth-largest combined statistical area in the United States. William Penn, an English Quaker, founded the city in 1682 to serve as capital of the Pennsylvania Colony. Philadelphia played an instrumental role in the American Revolution as a meeting place for the Founding Fathers of the United States, who signed the Declaration of Independence in 1776 at the Second Continental Congress, the Constitution at the Philadelphia Convention of 1787.
Several other key events occurred in Philadelphia during the Revolutionary War including the First Continental Congress, the preservation of the Liberty Bell, the Battle of Germantown, the Siege of Fort Mifflin. Philadelphia was one of the nation's capitals during the revolution, served as temporary U. S. capital while Washington, D. C. was under construction. In the 19th century, Philadelphia became a railroad hub; the city grew from an influx of European immigrants, most of whom came from Ireland and Germany—the three largest reported ancestry groups in the city as of 2015. In the early 20th century, Philadelphia became a prime destination for African Americans during the Great Migration after the Civil War, as well as Puerto Ricans; the city's population doubled from one million to two million people between 1890 and 1950. The Philadelphia area's many universities and colleges make it a top study destination, as the city has evolved into an educational and economic hub. According to the Bureau of Economic Analysis, the Philadelphia area had a gross domestic product of US$445 billion in 2017, the eighth-largest metropolitan economy in the United States.
Philadelphia is the center of economic activity in Pennsylvania and is home to five Fortune 1000 companies. The Philadelphia skyline is expanding, with a market of 81,900 commercial properties in 2016, including several nationally prominent skyscrapers. Philadelphia has more outdoor murals than any other American city. Fairmount Park, when combined with the adjacent Wissahickon Valley Park in the same watershed, is one of the largest contiguous urban park areas in the United States; the city is known for its arts, culture and colonial history, attracting 42 million domestic tourists in 2016 who spent US$6.8 billion, generating an estimated $11 billion in total economic impact in the city and surrounding four counties of Pennsylvania. Philadelphia has emerged as a biotechnology hub. Philadelphia is the birthplace of the United States Marine Corps, is the home of many U. S. firsts, including the first library, medical school, national capital, stock exchange and business school. Philadelphia contains 67 National Historic Landmarks and the World Heritage Site of Independence Hall.
The city became a member of the Organization of World Heritage Cities in 2015, as the first World Heritage City in the United States. Although Philadelphia is undergoing gentrification, the city maintains mitigation strategies to minimize displacement of homeowners in gentrifying neighborhoods. Before Europeans arrived, the Philadelphia area was home to the Lenape Indians in the village of Shackamaxon; the Lenape are a Native American tribe and First Nations band government. They are called Delaware Indians, their historical territory was along the Delaware River watershed, western Long Island, the Lower Hudson Valley. Most Lenape were pushed out of their Delaware homeland during the 18th century by expanding European colonies, exacerbated by losses from intertribal conflicts. Lenape communities were weakened by newly introduced diseases smallpox, violent conflict with Europeans. Iroquois people fought the Lenape. Surviving Lenape moved west into the upper Ohio River basin; the American Revolutionary War and United States' independence pushed them further west.
In the 1860s, the United States government sent most Lenape remaining in the eastern United States to the Indian Territory under the Indian removal policy. In the 21st century, most Lenape reside in Oklahoma, with some communities living in Wisconsin, in their traditional homelands. Europeans came to the Delaware Valley in the early 17th century, with the first settlements founded by the Dutch, who in 1623 built Fort Nassau on the Delaware River opposite the Schuylkill River in what is now Brooklawn, New Jersey; the Dutch considered the entire Delaware River valley to be part of their New Netherland colony. In 1638, Swedish settlers led by renegade Dutch established the colony of New Sweden at Fort Christina and spread out in the valley. In 1644, New Sweden supported the Susquehannocks in their military defeat of the English colony of Maryland. In 1648, the Dutch built Fort Beversreede on the west bank of the Delaware, south of the Schuylkill near the present-day Eastwick neighborhood, to reassert their dominion over the area.
The Swedes responded by building Fort Nya Korsholm, or New Korsholm, named after a town in Finland with a Swedish majority. In 1655, a
Camden, New Jersey
Camden is a city and the county seat of Camden County, New Jersey, United States. Camden is located directly across the Delaware River from Pennsylvania. At the 2010 U. S. Census, the city had a population of 77,344. Camden is the 12th most populous municipality in New Jersey; the city was incorporated on February 13, 1828. Camden has been the county seat of Camden County since the county was formed on March 13, 1844; the city derives its name from 1st Earl Camden. Camden is made up of over twenty different neighborhoods. Beginning in the early 1900s, Camden was a prosperous industrial city, remained so throughout the Great Depression and World War II. During the 1950s, Camden manufacturers began closing their factories and moving out of the city. With the loss of manufacturing jobs came a sharp decline in population numbers; the growth of the interstate highway system played a large role in "white flight." Sub urbanization influenced the drop in population. Civil unrest and crime became common in Camden.
In 1971, civil unrest reached its peak with riots breaking out in response to the death of Horacio Jimenez, a Puerto Rican motorist, killed by two American police officers. The Camden waterfront holds the USS New Jersey; the city is the home of Rutgers University–Camden, founded as the South Jersey Law School in 1926, Cooper Medical School of Rowan University, which opened in 2012. Camden houses both Cooper University Hospital and Our Lady of Lourdes Medical Center; the "eds and meds" institutions account for 45% of Camden's total employment. There were 23 murders in Camden in 2017, the lowest in the city in three decades, part of a significant decline in violent crime since 2012. In 1626, Fort Nassau was established by the Dutch West India Company in the area, now known as Camden, New Jersey. Europeans settled along the Delaware River. Throughout the 17th century more Europeans arrived in the area, developing it and making improvements. After the restoration period the land was controlled by nobles who served under King Charles II.
Ln 1673, the land was sold off to a group of New Jersey Quakers. The growth of the colony was the result of Philadelphia, a Quaker colony directly across from Camden along the Delaware River. In the Ferry systems were established to facilitate trade between Fort Philadelphia; the ferry system operated along the east side of the Delaware River. The ferry system built by William Royden was located along Cooper Street and was turned over to Daniel Cooper in 1695; the creation of the ferry system resulted in the creation of small settlements along the Delaware River which would develop into Camden. The initial structures and settlements that formed Camden were established by three families: The Coopers, The Kaighns, the Mickels; the Cooper family had the greatest impact on the formation of Camden. In 1773, Jacob Cooper developed some of the land he had inherited through his family into a "townsite." It was Jacob Cooper. The lands that these families owned would be combined to create the future city.
For over 150 years, Camden served as a secondary economic and transportation hub for the Philadelphia area. However, that status began to change in the early 19th century. Camden was incorporated as a city on February 13, 1828, from portions of Newton Township, while the area was still part of Gloucester County; the city derives its name from 1st Earl Camden. One of the U. S.'s first railroads, the Camden and Amboy Railroad, was chartered in Camden in 1830. The Camden and Amboy Railroad allowed travelers to travel between New York City and Philadelphia via ferry terminals in South Amboy, New Jersey and Camden; the railroad terminated on the Camden waterfront, passengers were ferried across the Delaware River to their final Philadelphia destination. The Camden and Amboy Railroad opened in 1834 and helped to spur an increase in population and commerce in Camden. Horse ferries, or team boats, served Camden in the early 1800s; the ferries connected Camden and other Southern New Jersey towns to Philadelphia.
Ferry systems allowed Camden to generate economic growth. "These businesses included lumber dealers, manufacturers of wooden shingles, pork sausage manufacturers, candle factories, coachmaker shops that manufactured carriages and wagons, tanneries and harness makers." The Cooper's Ferry Daybook, 1819–1824, documenting Camden's Point Pleasant Teamboat, survives to this day. A suburban town with ferry service to Philadelphia, Camden evolved into its own city; until 1844, Camden was a part of Gloucester County. In 1840 the city's population had reached 3,371 and Camden appealed to state legislature, which resulted in the creation of Camden County in 1844; the poet Walt Whitman spent his years in Camden. He bought a house on Mickle Street in March 1884. Whitman died in 1892 of a stroke. Whitman was a prominent member of the Camden community at the end of the nineteenth century. Camden became an industrialized city in the half of the nineteenth century. In 1860 Census takers recorded eighty factories in the city and the number of factories grew to 125 by 1870.
Camden began to industrialize in 1891 when Joseph Campbell incorporated his business Campbell's Soup. Through the Civil War era Camden gained a large immigrant population which formed the base of its industrial workforce. Between 1870 and 1920 Camden's population grew by 96,000 people due to the large influx of immigrants. Like other industrial cities, Camden prospered during stro
A webcast is a media presentation distributed over the Internet using streaming media technology to distribute a single content source to many simultaneous listeners/viewers. A webcast may either be distributed live or on demand. Webcasting is "broadcasting" over the Internet; the largest "webcasters" include existing radio and TV stations, who "simulcast" their output through online TV or online radio streaming, as well as a multitude of Internet only "stations". Webcasting consists of providing non-interactive linear streams or events. Rights and licensing bodies offer specific "webcasting licenses" to those wishing to carry out Internet broadcasting using copyrighted material. Webcasting is used extensively in the commercial sector for investor relations presentations, in e-learning, for related communications activities. However, webcasting does not bear much, if any, relationship to web conferencing, designed for many-to-many interaction; the ability to webcast using cheap/accessible technology has allowed independent media to flourish.
There are many notable independent shows that broadcast online. Produced by average citizens in their homes they cover many interests and topics. Webcasts relating to computers and news are popular and many new shows are added regularly. Webcasting differs from podcasting in that webcasting refers to live streaming while podcasting refers to media files placed on the Internet. Webcasting is the distribution of media files through the internet; the earliest graphically-oriented web broadcasts were not streaming video, but were in fact still frames which were photographed with a web camera every few minutes while they were being broadcast live over the Internet. One of the earliest instances of sequential live image broadcasting was in 1991 when a camera was set up next to the Trojan Room in the computer laboratory of the University of Cambridge, it provided a live picture every few minutes of the office coffee pot to all desktop computers on that office's network. A couple of years its broadcasts went to the Internet, became known as the Trojan Room Coffee Pot webcam, gained international notoriety as a feature of the fledgling World Wide Web.
In 1996 an American college student and conceptual artist, Jenny Ringley, set up a web camera similar to the Trojan Room Coffee Pot's webcam in her dorm room. That webcam photographed her every few minutes while it broadcast those images live over the Internet upon a site called JenniCam. Ringley wanted to portray all aspects of her lifestyle and the camera captured her doing everything – brushing her teeth, doing her laundry, having sex with her boyfriend, her website generated millions of hits upon the Internet, became a pay site in 1998, spawned hundreds of female imitators who would use streaming video to create a new billion dollar industry called camming, brand themselves as camgirls or webcam models. One of the earliest webcast equivalent of an online concert and one of the earliest examples of webcasting itself was by Apple Computer's Webcasting Group in partnership with the entrepreneurs Michael Dorf and Andrew Rasiej. Together with David B. Pakman from Apple, they launched the Macintosh New York Music Festival from July 17–22, 1995.
This event audio webcast concerts from more than 15 clubs in New York City. Apple webcast a concert by Metallica on June 10, 1996 live from Slim's in San Francisco. In 1995, Benford E. Standley produced one of the first audio/video webcasts in history. On October 31, 1996, UK rock band Caduseus broadcast their one-hour concert from 11 pm to 12 midnight at Celtica in Machynlleth, Wales, UK – the first live streamed audio and simultaneous live streamed video multicast – around the globe to more than twenty direct "mirrors" in more than twenty countries. In September 1997, Nebraska Public Television started webcasting Big Red Wrap Up from Lincoln, Nebraska which combined highlights from every Cornhusker football game, coverage of the coaches' weekly press conferences, analysis with Nebraska sportswriters, appearances by special guests and questions and answers with viewers. On August 13, 1998, it is believed the first webcast wedding took place, between Alan K'necht and Carrie Silverman in Toronto Canada.
On October 22, 1998, the first Billy Graham Crusade was broadcast live to a worldwide audience from the Raymond James Stadium in Tampa Florida courtesy of Dale Ficken and the WebcastCenter in Pennsylvania. The live signal was broadcast via satellite to PA encoded and streamed via the BGEA website; the first teleconferenced/webcast wedding to date is believed to have occurred on December 31, 1998. Dale Ficken and Lorrie Scarangella wed on this date as they stood in a church in Pennsylvania, were married by Jerry Falwell while he sat in his office in Lynchburg, Virginia. All major broadcasters now have a webcast of their output, from the BBC to CNN to Al Jazeera to UNTV in television to Radio China, Vatican Radio, United Nations Radio and the World Service in radio. On November 4, 1994, Stef van der Ziel distributed the first live video images over the web from the Simplon venue in Groningen. On November 7, 1994, WXYC, the college radio station of the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill became the first radio station in the world to broadcast its signal over the internet.
Translated versions including Subtitling are now possible using SMIL Synchronized Multimedia Integration Language. A wedcast of a wedding. Allows family and friends of the couple to watch the wedding in real time on the Internet, it is sometimes used for weddings in exotic locations, such as Cancun and the Riviera Maya, Hawaii or the Caribbean, for which it is expensive or difficul
Mount Holly, New Jersey
Mount Holly is a township in Burlington County, New Jersey, United States. It is the county seat of Burlington County as well as an eastern suburb of Philadelphia; as of the 2010 United States Census, the township's population was 9,536, reflecting a decline of 1,192 from the 10,728 counted in the 2000 Census, which had in turn increased by 89 from the 10,639 counted in the 1990 Census. Mount Holly gives its name to the National Weather Service's Weather Forecast Office for the Philadelphia metropolitan area, though the office is located in adjacent Westampton. What is now Mount Holly was formed as Northampton on November 6, 1688. Northampton was incorporated as one of New Jersey's first 104 townships by an act of the New Jersey Legislature on February 21, 1798. Portions of the township were taken to form Little Egg Harbor Township, Washington Township, Pemberton borough, Coaxen Township, Pemberton Township, Westampton Township and Lumberton Township; the township was renamed Mount Holly as of November 6, 1931, based on the results of a referendum held three days earlier.
The township was named for hills covered with holly trees. Some areas of today's Mount Holly were known as Bridgetown; the first European settlement in what is now Mount Holly began in 1677, when Walter Reeves acquired land from the Lenape Native Americans living in the area. He constructed a dam on Rancocas Creek to channel water through a raceway to power a grist mill and saw mill. Edward Gaskill and his sons hand dug the mill race on their property between 1720 and 1723. After the mills were established, more settlers were attracted to the area and built houses and commercial buildings on High, White and Pine streets, including the Shinn Curtis Log House. By 1800, over 250 dwellings had been built. Today no mills remain on the raceway, which still flows in its original course from the Rancocas just above the dam; the raceway proved a way for herring to make their way above the dam and was the scene of an annual fish run in the spring which provided fresh herring for slating and eating. The former mill land has been preserved as the Mill Dam Park.
It marks the importance of mills to the early settlements. On December 17, 1776, Colonel Samuel Griffin of the Continental Army crossed the Delaware River with 600 men — untrained men and boys, with little equipment — and marched to Mount Holly, where he set up a few "3-pounder" artillery pieces on Iron Works Hill. Hessian commanders von Block and Carl von Donop, were told that there were 3,000 American troops at Mount Holly. By December 23, 1776, 2,000 Hessians were moved from Bordentown and positioned at The Mount in Mount Holly, where they engaged in a three-day-long artillery exchange, known as the Battle of Iron Works Hill or Battle of Mount Holly, with the Americans on Iron Works Hill; the Americans slipped away that night. After George Washington crossed the Delaware River on December 25, 1776, the fact that thousands of Hessian troops had been drawn to Mount Holly aided in the Continental Army's success in the Battle of Trenton the next day, a surprising American victory that helped turn the Army's fading morale after the disastrous defeat at the Battle of Fort Washington just weeks before and the ignominious retreat through New Jersey.
The 1793 state legislature approved the relocation of the Burlington County seat from Burlington City to Mount Holly, approved by voters in a 1796 referendum. Several important municipal buildings were constructed, including the courthouse in 1796 and the county prison built circa 1819; the Burlington County Prison was designed by Robert Mills, a nationally known architect who designed the Washington Monument. The town has numerous 18th and 19th-century buildings, most of which are included in the Mount Holly Historic District. Commercial buildings were constructed along High Street. In 1849, the Burlington and Mount Holly Railroad was established, connecting communities along the Delaware River to Philadelphia, the major city of the area; the railroad supported industrialization along its route. The Camden and Mount Holly Railroad constructed a station 20 years near the intersection of Washington and King streets. A trolley station was built in 1904 for the passengers making connections to Burlington City and Moorestown.
New municipal buildings were constructed during the 20th century, including the Town Hall on Washington Street and the U. S. Post Office located across the street, both federally funded and constructed as Works Progress Administration projects under President Franklin D. Roosevelt during the Great Depression. In the late 1950s, Mount Holly began to have economic difficulties due to industrial restructuring and the loss of working-class jobs. In the post-World War II period, numerous blue collar, family wage jobs disappeared as the community's traditional employers, the mills and dye factories, were shut down. At first these job losses were offset in part by gains at the nearby military bases, Fort Dix and McGuire Air Force Base during the Vietnam War. In 1970, the residential vacancy rate in Mount Holly was 4.3%. By 1980, the vacancy rate had climbed to 8.7% as a result of the nearby military installations' downsizing after the end of the Vietnam War. During this same period, 1970–1980, shopping malls proliferated in the suburban Philadelphia area, retail business in Mount Holly suffered.
Mount Holly had a total area of 2.852 square miles, including 2.806 square miles of land and 0.04
Harold Egbert Camping was an American Christian radio broadcaster and evangelist. Beginning in 1958, he served as president of Family Radio, a California-based radio station group that broadcasts to more than 150 markets in the United States. In October 2011, he retired from active broadcasting following a stroke, but still maintained a role at Family Radio until his death. Camping is notable for issuing a succession of failed predictions of dates for the End Times, which temporarily gained him a global following and millions of dollars of donations. Camping first predicted that the Judgment Day would occur on or about September 6, 1994; when it failed to occur, he revised the date to September 29 and to October 2. In 2005, Camping predicted the Second Coming of Christ to May 21, 2011, whereupon the saved would be taken up to heaven in the rapture, that "there would follow five months of fire and plagues on Earth, with millions of people dying each day, culminating on October 21, 2011, with the final destruction of the world."His prediction for May 21, 2011 was reported, in part because of a large-scale publicity campaign by Family Radio, it prompted ridicule from atheist organizations and rebuttals from Christian organizations.
After May 21 passed without the predicted incidents, Camping said he believed that a "spiritual" judgment had occurred on that date, that the physical Rapture would occur on October 21, 2011 with the final destruction of the universe by God. Except for one press appearance on May 23, 2011, Camping avoided press interviews after May 21 after he suffered a stroke in June 2011. After October 21, 2011 passed without the predicted apocalypse, the mainstream media labeled Camping a "false prophet" and commented that his ministry would collapse after the "failed'Doomsday' prediction". Camping was reported to have retired from his position at Family Radio on October 16, 2011, only days before his last predicted date for the end of the world. However, his daughter clarified that he had not retired outright, but was maintaining a role at Family Radio while working from home. Camping admitted in a private interview that he no longer believed that anybody could know the time of the Rapture or the end of the world, in stark contrast to his staunch position on the subject.
In March 2012, he stated that his attempt to predict a date was "sinful", that his critics had been right in emphasizing the words of Matthew 24:36: "of that day and hour knoweth no man". He added that he was now searching the Bible "even more fervently...not to find dates, but to be more faithful in understanding." After the failure of Camping's prophecies, Family Radio suffered a significant loss of assets and revenue. Harold Egbert Camping was born on July 19, 1921, in Boulder and moved at an early age to California. Both his parents came from the Netherlands – his mother from Friesland, his father from Groningen – but they first met each other in the United States. In 1942, Camping earned a B. S. degree in civil engineering from the University of California, Berkeley. In 1943, he married his wife, Shirley, he and his family were members of the Christian Reformed Church until 1988. In 1958, Camping joined with other individuals of Christian Reformed, Bible Baptist, conservative Presbyterian backgrounds to purchase an FM radio station in San Francisco, California.
The radio station – KEAR at 97.3 MHz – was used to broadcast traditional Christian Gospel to the conservative Protestant community and minister to the general public. Through the 1960s, Family Radio acquired six additional FM stations and seven AM stations under guidelines established by the Federal Communications Commission. In 1961, Family Radio began running the Open Forum, a live, weeknight call-in program that Camping hosted until 2011. Listeners were invited to call in with questions about the meaning of certain passages from the Bible, Camping answered them by means of interpretations with reference to other Biblical passages. Questions were posed relating to general Christian doctrine, ranging from the nature of sin and salvation to matters involving everyday life, such as marriage, sexual morality and education; the Open Forum continued running until Camping's partial retirement in July 2011, was broadcast on the more than 150 stations owned by Family Radio in the United States. The Open Forum was translated into many foreign languages and was broadcast worldwide via shortwave station WYFR, a network of AM and FM radio stations, a cable television station and the Internet.
In October 2012, over a year after the failure of Camping's prophecies, Family Radio began airing repeats of his broadcasts. Family Radio runs various programs on its radio stations. Before Camping started teaching that the "Church Age" had ended, programs produced outside of Family Radio were welcome provided they did not accept any "extra-Biblical revelation", were associated with teachings accepted by the historic Christian faith. Family Radio utilized at least three television stations: WFME-TV in the New York City area. Following the digital transition of 2009, Family Radio used its subchannels of WFME and KFTL for various purposes – in WFME's case, the digital signal of that station broadcasts ten separate subchannels, the first being the main channel, the others carrying audio feeds of other Family Radio services, as well as one broadcasting NOAA Weather Radio. Family Radio spent over US$100 million on the information campaign for Camping's 2011 end times prediction, financed by sales and swaps of broadcast outlets.
WFAN-FM known as "Sports Radio 66 and 101.9 FM" or "The Fan", is a commercial FM sports radio station licensed to New York City. The station is owned and operated by Entercom, is simulcast with WFAN. WFAN-FM's studios are located in the combined Entercom facility in the Hudson Square neighborhood of Manhattan and its transmitter is located at the Empire State Building; the station traces its origin to an experimental Apex band radio station, W2XWF on 42.18 MHz, authorized in 1940 and licensed to radio engineer William G. H. Finch. In 1941 the station was authorized to convert to a commercial FM station, W55NY transmitting on 45.5 MHz. In 1943 the call letters were changed to WFGG, which were changed to WGHF in 1945. One of the uses of the station was to test Finch's broadcast facsimile system. By 1946, the station was broadcasting on 99.7 MHz, moving to 101.9 in 1947. In late 1948, it became the New York City affiliate of the farm-oriented Rural Radio Network based in Ithaca, New York, which owned a group of upstate stations that would associate with WQXR.
In 1955, its then-owner, changed the call letters to WBFM, reflecting its parent owner. The station aired a mostly-instrumental beautiful music radio format; the station was purchased by the New York Daily News in late 1963. WBFM adopted the WPIX-FM call letters on October 11, 1964, as the station was now co-owned with television station WPIX. Broadcasting from the "Pix Penthouse" on the 28th floor of the Daily News Building, WPIX-FM ushered in what was to become one of the most popular formats in FM radio, Easy Listening, signaling the end of the dominance of instrumental beautiful music, jazz and block programming on the FM band. WPIX-FM would be noted for not being able to settle on a format for any real length of time, was derisively nicknamed "the format of the month station" by many in the New York City radio industry; the station went through 11 different formats during its post-easy listening period: 1971-1975. While still focused on current music, it mixed in rock and roll oldies from about 1964 to what was recent.
1975: Top 40/Disco. The New York Times reported, "Characterized by a strong bass, a simple melody, terse repetitive lyrics...'Disco,' as this music is called...is becoming popular on AM and FM radio stations. WPIX-FM switched several hours of its nightly programming over to'disco'" and leaned disco the rest of the day; the nightly show "Disco 102" was first hosted by "Doctor" Jerry Carroll by Howard Hoffman when Carroll moved to afternoons. By the summer of 1976 the station was back to a gold leaning Top 40 format, popular on FM stations at the time. Mark Simone launches "The Simone Phone," a pioneering FM comedy talk show featuring then-producer/writer Tom Leykis, that contained popular features such as "Dial-A-Date," which were borrowed by other radio shows. 1977-1978: Top 40/Rock. 1978-1980: Punk/New Wave/Rock. At a time when other rock stations in New York were sticking with traditional AOR formats, Adult Top 40 and oldies, WPIX staked out a groundbreaking format focused on new wave and punk but included older rock and roll as well, hence its advertising slogan: "From Elvis to Elvis" It helped break in New York and nationally early records by Costello, The Police, Nick Lowe, The Clash, The Cars, Devo, The Kings, Iggy Pop, Lou Reed, The Buzzcocks, Cheap Trick, Talking Heads, David Johansen, Tom Verlaine and Richard Lloyd, among others.
The station was featured in lyrics from the Squeeze song,'I Think I'm Go Go'. March 1, 1980–July 6, 1981: Rock-based Top 40. A station spokesperson said WPIX-FM was "modifying the format to improve the product to make it more mass acceptable." July 6, 1981- January 15, 1982: Album-oriented rock. January 15–February 28, 1982: CHR. A transitional format to Adult Contemporary. March 1982-1985: adult contemporary. Beginning in January 1983, WPIX-FM positioned itself as "nothing but love songs" in 1983. A series of TV commercials featuring claymation cherubs, starring artists such as the Pointer Sisters, Bette Midler, Sheena Easton and Carly Simon were credited with bringing new listeners to the station. 1985: Hot adult contemporary, a mix of love songs and eclectic music as "the ballads and beat of New York." In 1985, the station began running a nighttime show called "The PIX Penthouse," which played R&B and soul songs. It had been used through the 1960s as the station's tagline for its easy listening format.
August 16, 1986-March, 1987: adult contemporary/standards/eclectic rock "The Bright and Lively Sound of New York." March 1987: Hot Adult Contemporary during the day and urban adult contemporary evenings. September 1987-August 10, 1988: Hot Adult Contemporary during the day and overnights using "Easy Rock" as a slogan. Smooth jazz in the evenings. Notable air personalities during the WPIX-FM period included Mark Simone, Dennis Quinn, Jim Kerr, Alan Colmes, Meg Griffin, Les Marshak, Gus Gossert, Jane Hamburger, Dan Neer, Alfredo Santos, Rick Allison, Bill Vitka, Ted David and Jerry Carroll, who would gain fame as commercial spokesperson for the Crazy Eddie electronics retail chain. Another WPIX-FM personality, Ken Harper, host of the all-night "Manhattan After Hours," from 1964 to 1968, went on to produce "The Wiz" on Broadway; the station gave up qu
An intelligence quotient is a total score derived from several standardized tests designed to assess human intelligence. The abbreviation "IQ" was coined by the psychologist William Stern for the German term Intelligenzquotient, his term for a scoring method for intelligence tests at University of Breslau he advocated in a 1912 book. IQ is a score obtained by dividing a person's mental age score, obtained by administering an intelligence test, by the person's chronological age, both expressed in terms of years and months; the resulting fraction is multiplied by 100 to obtain the IQ score. When current IQ tests were developed, the median raw score of the norming sample is defined as IQ 100 and scores each standard deviation up or down are defined as 15 IQ points greater or less, although this was not always so historically. By this definition two-thirds of the population scores are between IQ 85 and IQ 115. About 2.5 percent of the population scores above 130, 2.5 percent below 70. Scores from intelligence tests are estimates of intelligence.
Unlike, for example and mass, a concrete measure of intelligence cannot be achieved given the abstract nature of the concept of "intelligence". IQ scores have been shown to be associated with such factors as morbidity and mortality, parental social status, and, to a substantial degree, biological parental IQ. While the heritability of IQ has been investigated for nearly a century, there is still debate about the significance of heritability estimates and the mechanisms of inheritance. IQ scores are used for educational placement, assessment of intellectual disability, evaluating job applicants; when students improve their scores on standardized tests, they do not always improve their cognitive abilities, such as memory and speed. In research contexts they have been studied as predictors of job performance, income, they are used to study distributions of psychometric intelligence in populations and the correlations between it and other variables. Raw scores on IQ tests for many populations have been rising at an average rate that scales to three IQ points per decade since the early 20th century, a phenomenon called the Flynn effect.
Investigation of different patterns of increases in subtest scores can inform current research on human intelligence. Before IQ tests were devised, there were attempts to classify people into intelligence categories by observing their behavior in daily life; those other forms of behavioral observation are still important for validating classifications based on IQ test scores. Both intelligence classification by observation of behavior outside the testing room and classification by IQ testing depend on the definition of "intelligence" used in a particular case and on the reliability and error of estimation in the classification procedure; the English statistician Francis Galton made the first attempt at creating a standardized test for rating a person's intelligence. A pioneer of psychometrics and the application of statistical methods to the study of human diversity and the study of inheritance of human traits, he believed that intelligence was a product of heredity, he hypothesized that there should exist a correlation between intelligence and other observable traits such as reflexes, muscle grip, head size.
He set up the first mental testing centre in the world in 1882 and he published "Inquiries into Human Faculty and Its Development" in 1883, in which he set out his theories. After gathering data on a variety of physical variables, he was unable to show any such correlation, he abandoned this research. French psychologist Alfred Binet, together with Victor Henri and Théodore Simon had more success in 1905, when they published the Binet-Simon test, which focused on verbal abilities, it was intended to identify mental retardation in school children, but in specific contradistinction to claims made by psychiatrists that these children were "sick" and should therefore be removed from school and cared for in asylums. The score on the Binet-Simon scale would reveal the child's mental age. For example, a six-year-old child who passed all the tasks passed by six-year-olds—but nothing beyond—would have a mental age that matched his chronological age, 6.0.. Binet came under the control of practical judgment.
In Binet's view, there were limitations with the scale and he stressed what he saw as the remarkable diversity of intelligence and the subsequent need to study it using qualitative, as opposed to quantitative, measures. American psychologist Henry H. Goddard published a translation of it in 1910. American psychologist Lewis Terman at Stanford University revised the Binet-Simon scale, which resulted in the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scales, it became the most popular test in the United States for decades. The many different kinds of IQ tests include a wide variety of item content; some test items are visual. Test items vary from being based on abstract-reasoning problems to concentrating on arithmetic, vocabulary, or general knowledge; the British psychologist Charles Spearman in 1904 made the first formal factor analysis of correlations between the tests. He observed that children's school grades across unrelated school subjects were positively correlated, reasoned that these correlations reflected the influence of an underlying general mental ability that entered into performance on all kinds of mental tests.
He suggested that all mental performance could be conceptualized in terms of a single general ability factor and a large num