HD Radio is a trademarked term for Xperi's in-band on-channel digital radio technology used by AM and FM radio stations to transmit audio and data by using a digital signal embedded "on-frequency" above and below a station's standard analog signal, providing the means to listen to the same program in either HD or as a standard broadcast. The HD format provides the means for a single radio station to broadcast one or more different programs in addition to the program being transmitted on the radio station's analog channel, it was developed by iBiquity. In September 2015 iBiquity was acquired by DTS bringing the HD Radio technology under the same banner as DTS' eponymous theater surround sound systems.. It was acquired by Xperi in 2016, it was selected by the U. S. Federal Communications Commission in 2002 as a digital audio broadcasting method for the United States, is the only digital system approved by the FCC for digital AM/FM broadcasts in the United States, it is known as NRSC-5, with the latest version being NRSC-5-D.
Other digital radio systems include FMeXtra, Digital Audio Broadcasting, Digital Radio Mondiale, Compatible AM-Digital. While HD Radio does allow for an all-digital mode, this system is used by some AM and FM radio stations to simulcast both digital and analog audio within the same channel as well as to add new FM channels and text information. Although HD Radio broadcasting's content is free-to-air, listeners must purchase new receivers in order to receive the digital portion of the signal. By May 2018, HD Radio technology was claimed to be used by more than 3500 individual services in the United States; this compares with more than 2200 services operating with the DAB system. HD Radio increases the bandwidth required in the FM band to 400 kHz for the analog/digital hybrid version; this makes adoption outside the United States problematic. In the United States the FM broadcast band channels have a spacing of 200 kHz, as opposed to the 100 kHz, normal elsewhere; the 200 kHz spacing means that in practice, stations having concurrent or adjacent coverage areas will not be spaced at less than 400 kHz in order to respect protection ratios which would not be met with 200 kHz spacing.
This leaves space for the digital sidebands. Outside the US, spacing can be 300 kHz; the FCC has not indicated any intent to force off analog radio broadcasts as it has with analog television broadcasts, as it would not result in the recovery of any radio spectrum rights which could be sold. Thus, there is no deadline. In addition, there are many more analog AM/FM radio receivers than there were analog televisions, many of these are car stereos or portable units that cannot be upgraded. Digital information is transmitted using OFDM with an audio compression algorithm called HDC.. HD Radio equipped stations pay a one-time licensing fee for converting their primary audio channel to iBiquity's HD Radio technology, 3% of incremental net revenues for any additional digital subchannels; the cost of converting a radio station can run between $100,000 and $200,000. Receiver manufacturers pay a royalty. If the primary digital signal is lost the HD Radio receiver will revert to the analog signal, thereby providing seamless operation between the newer and older transmission methods.
The extra HD-2 and HD-3 streams are not simulcast on analog, causing the sound to drop-out or "skip" when digital reception degrades. Alternatively the HD Radio signal can revert to a more-robust 20 kilobit per second stream, though the sound is reduced to AM-like quality. Datacasting is possible, with metadata providing song titles or artist information. IBiquity Digital claims that the system approaches CD quality audio and offers reduction of both interference and static. Sending pure digital data through the 20 kilohertz AM channel is equivalent to sending data through two 33 kbit/s analog telephone lines, thus limiting the maximum throughput possible. By using spectral band replication the HDC+SBR codec is able to simulate the recreation of sounds up to 15,000 Hz, thus achieving moderate quality on the bandwidth-tight AM band; the HD Radio AM hybrid mode offers two options which can carry 40 or 60 kbit/s of data, but most AM digital stations default to the more-robust 40 kbit/s mode which features redundancy.
HD Radio provides a pure digital mode, which lacks an analog signal for fallback and instead reverts to a 20 kbit/s signal during times of poor reception. The pure digital mode transmissions will stay within the AM station's channel instead of spilling into the channels next to the station transmitting "HD radio" as the hybrid stations do; the AM version of HD Radio technology uses the 20 kHz channel, overlaps 5 kHz into the opposite sideband of the adjacent channel on both sides. When operating in pure digital mode, the AM HD Radio signal fits inside a standard 20 kHz channel or an extended 30 kHz channel, at the discretion of the station manager; as AM radio stations are spaced at 9 kHz or 10 kHz intervals, much of the digital information overlaps adjacent channels when in hybrid mode. Some nigh
In telecommunications, a repeater is an electronic device that receives a signal and retransmits it. Repeaters are used to extend transmissions so that the signal can cover longer distances or be received on the other side of an obstruction; some types of repeaters broadcast an identical signal, but alter its method of transmission, for example, on another frequency or baud rate. There are several different types of repeaters. A broadcast relay station is a repeater used in broadcast television; when an information-bearing signal passes through a communication channel, it is progressively degraded due to loss of power. For example, when a telephone call passes through a wire telephone line, some of the power in the electric current which represents the audio signal is dissipated as heat in the resistance of the copper wire; the longer the wire is, the more power is lost, the smaller the amplitude of the signal at the far end. So with a long enough wire the call will not be audible at the other end.
The farther from a radio station a receiver is, the weaker the radio signal, the poorer the reception. A repeater is an electronic device in a communication channel that increases the power of a signal and retransmits it, allowing it to travel further. Since it amplifies the signal, it requires a source of electric power; the term "repeater" originated with telegraphy in the 19th century, referred to an electromechanical device used to regenerate telegraph signals. Use of the term has continued in data communications. In computer networking, because repeaters work with the actual physical signal, do not attempt to interpret the data being transmitted, they operate on the physical layer, the first layer of the OSI model; this is used to increase the range of telephone signals in a telephone line. Land line repeaterThey are most used in trunklines that carry long distance calls. In an analog telephone line consisting of a pair of wires, it consists of an amplifier circuit made of transistors which use power from a DC current source to increase the power of the alternating current audio signal on the line.
Since the telephone is a duplex communication system, the wire pair carries two audio signals, one going in each direction. So telephone repeaters have to be bilateral, amplifying the signal in both directions without causing feedback, which complicates their design considerably. Telephone repeaters were the first type of repeater and were some of the first applications of amplification; the development of telephone repeaters between 1900 and 1915 made long distance phone service possible. Now, most telecommunications cables are fiber optic cables. Before the invention of electronic amplifiers, mechanically coupled carbon microphones were used as amplifiers in telephone repeaters. After the turn of the 20th century it was found that negative resistance mercury lamps could amplify, they were used; the invention of audion tube repeaters around 1916 made transcontinental telephony practical. In the 1930s vacuum tube repeaters using hybrid coils became commonplace, allowing the use of thinner wires.
In the 1950s negative impedance gain devices were more popular, a transistorized version called the E6 repeater was the final major type used in the Bell System before the low cost of digital transmission made all voiceband repeaters obsolete. Frequency frogging repeaters were commonplace in frequency-division multiplexing systems from the middle to late 20th century. Submarine cable repeaterThis is a type of telephone repeater used in underwater submarine telecommunications cables; this is used to increase the range of signals in a fiber optic cable. Digital information travels through a fiber optic cable in the form of short pulses of light; the light is made up of particles called photons, which can be scattered in the fiber. An optical communications repeater consists of a phototransistor which converts the light pulses to an electrical signal, an amplifier to increase the power of the signal, an electronic filter which reshapes the pulses, a laser which converts the electrical signal to light again and sends it out the other fiber.
However, optical amplifiers are being developed for repeaters to amplify the light itself without the need of converting it to an electric signal first. This is used to extend the range of coverage of a radio signal; the history of radio relay repeaters began in 1898 from the publication by Johann Mattausch in Austrian Journal Zeitschrift für Electrotechnik. But his proposal "Translator" was not suitable for use; the first relay system with radio repeaters, which functioned, was that invented in 1899 by Emile Guarini-Foresio. A radio repeater consists of a radio receiver connected to a radio transmitter; the received signal is amplified and retransmitted on another frequency, to provide coverage beyond the obstruction. Usage of a duplexer can allow the repeater to use one antenna for both receive and transmit at the same time. Broadcast relay station, rebroadcastor or translator: This is a repeater used to extend the coverage of a radio or television broadcasting station, it consists of a secondary television transmitter.
The signal from the main transmitter comes over leased telephone lines or by microwave relay. Microwave relay: This is a specialized point-to-point telecommunications link, consisting of a microwave receiver that receives information over a beam of microwaves from an
WXPN is a non-commercial, public FM radio station licensed to The Trustees of the University of Pennsylvania in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania that broadcasts an adult album alternative radio format, along with many other format shows. WXPN produces World Cafe, a music program distributed by NPR to many non-commercial stations in the United States; the station's call sign, abbreviated to XPN, stands for "Experimental Pennsylvania Network". The broadcast tower used by WXPN is located at, in the antenna farm complex in the Roxborough section of Philadelphia. While the University of Pennsylvania has been involved with radio since 1909 when a wireless station was located in Houston Hall, WXPN itself first came into existence in 1945 as a carrier current station at 730 AM. In 1957, it was granted a full license as a 10-watt college radio station at 88.9 FM in addition to their frequency of 730 AM. From into the mid-1970s, WXPN was a student activity of the university and as it grew, the station initiated unique programming designs including one of the earliest freeform radio formats, Phase II, in the 1960s.
Local DJ Michael Tearson got his start at WXPN in the late 1960s with a radio show The Attic. Tearson went on to replace Dave Herman at WMMR in 1970. In 1975, a controversial broadcast on the talk show The Vegetable Report led to an obscenity complaint with the FCC, which found the charges serious enough to decline renewal of the broadcast license; this incident marked the first time. But a citizen's group organized to petition the FCC to consider XPN's unique service, with a pledge from Penn to create positions for professional staff to run the station, the FCC allowed the license to renew. With this new staff of five managers, WXPN became a steady fountain of high-quality folk, jazz and avant-garde music and public affairs programming produced by a combination of Penn students/alumni and community volunteers. Veterans of WXPN that have gone on to notable achievements in other areas include Broadway producer/director Harold Prince, NBC news correspondent Andrea Mitchell. Shows that have been staples on XPN since the'70s include The Blues Show with Jonny Meister, Sleepy Hollow, Star's End and Amazon Country.
XPN broadcasts the Folk Show with Gene Shay on Sunday evening, which started at WHAT-FM in 1962 and continued on WDAS-FM, WMMR, WIOQ and WHYY-FM but moved to WXPN in the'90s when WHYY changed to a talk format. In 1986 the station qualified for membership in the Corporation for Public Broadcasting and began the legal process to move from 88.9 to 88.5 on the FM broadcast band in order to increase signal coverage. Beginning the late 1980s, the programming and personnel were shifted from its diverse volunteer voice to full-time salaried programmers. Penn student radio activity is carried out on WQHS. In 1988, WXPN started Kids Corner, a daily interactive radio show for kids hosted by Kathy O'Connell. Kids Corner has won numerous awards, including the Armstrong Award. In 2004, WXPN moved to new facilities at 3025 Walnut Street, where the radio station shares space with a music venue called World Cafe Live. In October 2015, WXPN and WNTI jointly announced a sales agreement for transfer of ownership of the Hackettstown, NJ, public radio station owned by Centenary College.
The sale price is another $500,000 in underwriting value over 10 years. A Public Service Operating Agreement enabled WXPN to begin using the WNTI transmission facilities to air WXPN programming, effective October 15, 2015. WNTI changed its call sign to WXPJ on May 16, 2016. WXPN carries locally originated programs, supplemented by a few nationally syndicated shows; the station's weekday programs are all produced by its own staff, including World Cafe, a show developed and hosted by WXPN host David Dye and now distributed by NPR. The station produces most of its night and weekend specialty programs, including Kids Corner with Kathy O'Connell, The Geator's Rock & Roll, Rhythm & Blues Express with legendary Philadelphia DJ Jerry Blavat, The Blues Show with Jonny Meister, The Folk Show with Gene Shay and Sleepy Hollow, an early morning program of quiet music; the station's syndicated offerings include The Grateful Dead Hour with David Gans, The Many Moods of Ben Vaughn, Echoes with John Diliberto and Mountain Stage with Larry Groce.
WXPN broadcasts the Penn Quakers men's basketball games. One full-power station is licensed to simulcast the programming of WXPN full-time. One full-power station has a Public Service Operating Agreement to simulcast the programming of WXPN. WXPN programming is broadcast on the following translators: From 1993 to 2007, the WXPH call sign was used on 88.1 in Harrisburg, now WZXM. WXPN traded that facility to Four Rivers Community Broadcasting in return for 88.7 Middletown and W259AU. Portions of WXPN's schedule are simulcast on WKHS 90.5 FM, Maryland. XPN2/XPoNential Radio is an Adult Album Alternative radio station broadcast on the HD2 channels of WXPN in Philadelphia and WXPH in Middletown, Pennsylvania; the station is syndicated to several other public radio stations, which air it on their HD2 or
The Delaware Valley is the valley through which the Delaware River flows. By extension, this toponym is used to refer to Greater Philadelphia or Philadelphia metropolitan area, which straddles the Lower Delaware River just north of its estuary; the Delaware Valley Metropolitan Area is located at the southern part of the Northeast megalopolis and as such, the Delaware Valley can be described as either a metropolitan statistical area, or as a broader combined statistical area. The Delaware Valley Metropolitan Area is composed of several counties in southeastern Pennsylvania and southwestern New Jersey, one county in northern Delaware, one county in northeastern Maryland; the MSA has a population of over 6 million. Philadelphia, being the region's major commercial and industrial center, wields a rather large sphere of influence that affects the counties that surround it; some of the Delaware Valley's most well-known contributions to human civilization involve the region's higher education and medical institutions.
The Delaware Valley has been influential upon American industry. The region are leaders in higher education, medicine and many others. With a gross domestic product of $388 billion, Philadelphia ranks ninth among world cities and fourth in the nation; the area has hosted many people and sites significant to American culture and history in the arts, where Philadelphia alone has more outdoor sculptures and murals than any other American city, including many influential people involved in politics such as Benjamin Franklin and Joe Biden, the American Revolution. Philadelphia is famously known as "The Birthplace of America" as the Declaration of Independence and Constitution were both drafted and signed there. On December 7, 1787, Delaware became the first state to ratify the Constitution, has since promoted itself as "The First State"; the Delaware Valley was home to many other instrumental moments in the American Revolution, including the First and Second Continental Congress, the preservation of the Liberty Bell, the Battles of Germantown and Red Bank, the Siege of Fort Mifflin, the winter of 1777–78 at Valley Forge, the Philadelphia Convention, many others.
Philadelphia was one of the nation's capitals in the Revolutionary War, served as temporary U. S. capital while Washington, D. C. was under construction. Today, the area is home to some of the most prestigious universities in the world, such as the University of Pennsylvania, Drexel University, Villanova University, Saint Joseph's University, University of Delaware, Temple University; the Wharton School of the University of Pennsylvania is ranked as the best business school in the world. In geology and geography, a strict sense of the term would incorporate the Delaware River's main drainage basin, so encompass major tributaries such as the Schuylkill River and Lehigh River and their valleys or sub-basins; these extensions apply culturally with decreasing degree decreased by proximal distance because the ease of land travel enables a great deal of daily interaction. In the course of their work, U. S. government agencies have reached various definitions of the Delaware Valley and the Greater Philadelphia Area.
The Delaware Valley Regional Planning Commission serves Philadelphia, four suburban Pennsylvania counties, four New Jersey counties. The Office of Management and Budget defines metropolitan statistical area, which are regions with high population densities at their cores and close economic ties throughout their respective areas. Philadelphia is located in the Philadelphia-Camden-Wilmington Metropolitan Statistical Area, which includes all of the counties served by the DVRPC except for Mercer County, includes New Castle County, Cecil County and Salem County, New Jersey; the OMB groups one or more MSAs into larger combined statistical areas, which reflect commuting patterns. MSAs and CSAs are not formal administrative divisions, but serve as useful tools for understanding the extent of metropolitan areas such as the Delaware Valley; the Philadelphia-Reading-Camden Combined Statistical Area includes all of the counties from the Philadelphia-Camden-Wilmington Metropolitan Statistical Area, as well as Berks County, Kent County, Atlantic County, New Jersey, Mercer County, New Jersey, Cape May County, New Jersey, Cumberland County, New Jersey.
Some counties, such as Hunterdon County, New Jersey, are not geographically defined in the area, but consider themselves part of it anyway. According to 2016 estimates from the United States Census Bureau, the Philadelphia-Camden-Wilmington Metropolitan Statistical Area ranks as the seventh-largest MSA in the United States with 6,070,500 people. According to the Bureau of Economic Analysis, the Philadelphia-Camden-Wilmington MSA had a gross domestic product of $431 billion, the ninth-largest among U. S. metropolitan areas. 2016 Census Bureau estimates rank the Philadelphia-Reading-Camden Combined Statistical Area as the ninth-largest CSA in the United States, with 7,179,357 people. The Philadelphia-Camden-Wilmington Metropolitan Statistical Area's population of 6 million people is comparable to that of countries such as Lebanon and Nicaragua; the MSA's nominal gross domestic product of $431 billion is comparab
Federal Communications Commission
The Federal Communications Commission is an independent agency of the United States government created by statute to regulate interstate communications by radio, wire and cable. The FCC serves the public in the areas of broadband access, fair competition, radio frequency use, media responsibility, public safety, homeland security; the FCC was formed by the Communications Act of 1934 to replace the radio regulation functions of the Federal Radio Commission. The FCC took over wire communication regulation from the Interstate Commerce Commission; the FCC's mandated jurisdiction covers the 50 states, the District of Columbia, the Territories of the United States. The FCC provides varied degrees of cooperation and leadership for similar communications bodies in other countries of North America; the FCC is funded by regulatory fees. It has an estimated fiscal-2016 budget of US $388 million, it has 1,688 federal employees, made up of 50% males and 50% females as of December, 2017. The FCC's mission, specified in Section One of the Communications Act of 1934 and amended by the Telecommunications Act of 1996 is to "make available so far as possible, to all the people of the United States, without discrimination on the basis of race, religion, national origin, or sex, efficient and world-wide wire and radio communication services with adequate facilities at reasonable charges."
The Act furthermore provides that the FCC was created "for the purpose of the national defense" and "for the purpose of promoting safety of life and property through the use of wire and radio communications."Consistent with the objectives of the Act as well as the 1999 Government Performance and Results Act, the FCC has identified four goals in its 2018-22 Strategic Plan. They are: Closing the Digital Divide, Promoting Innovation, Protecting Consumers & Public Safety, Reforming the FCC's Processes; the FCC is directed by five commissioners appointed by the President of the United States and confirmed by the United States Senate for five-year terms, except when filling an unexpired term. The U. S. President designates one of the commissioners to serve as chairman. Only three commissioners may be members of the same political party. None of them may have a financial interest in any FCC-related business. † Commissioners may continue serving until the appointment of their replacements. However, they may not serve beyond the end of the next session of Congress following term expiration.
In practice, this means that commissioners may serve up to 1 1/2 years beyond the official term expiration dates listed above if no replacement is appointed. This would end on the date that Congress adjourns its annual session no than noon on January 4; the FCC is organized into seven Bureaus, which process applications for licenses and other filings, analyze complaints, conduct investigations and implement regulations, participate in hearings. The Consumer & Governmental Affairs Bureau develops and implements the FCC's consumer policies, including disability access. CGB serves as the public face of the FCC through outreach and education, as well as through their Consumer Center, responsible for responding to consumer inquiries and complaints. CGB maintains collaborative partnerships with state and tribal governments in such areas as emergency preparedness and implementation of new technologies; the Enforcement Bureau is responsible for enforcement of provisions of the Communications Act 1934, FCC rules, FCC orders, terms and conditions of station authorizations.
Major areas of enforcement that are handled by the Enforcement Bureau are consumer protection, local competition, public safety, homeland security. The International Bureau develops international policies in telecommunications, such as coordination of frequency allocation and orbital assignments so as to minimize cases of international electromagnetic interference involving U. S. licensees. The International Bureau oversees FCC compliance with the international Radio Regulations and other international agreements; the Media Bureau develops and administers the policy and licensing programs relating to electronic media, including cable television, broadcast television, radio in the United States and its territories. The Media Bureau handles post-licensing matters regarding direct broadcast satellite service; the Wireless Telecommunications Bureau regulates domestic wireless telecommunications programs and policies, including licensing. The bureau implements competitive bidding for spectrum auctions and regulates wireless communications services including mobile phones, public safety, other commercial and private radio services.
The Wireline Competition Bureau develops policy concerning wire line telecommunications. The Wireline Competition Bureau's main objective is to promote growth and economical investments in wireline technology infrastructure, development and services; the Public Safety and Homeland Security Bureau was launched in 2006 with a focus on critical communications infrastructure. The FCC has eleven Staff Offices; the FCC's Offices provide support services to the Bureaus. The Office of Administrative Law Judges is responsible for conducting hearings ordered by the Commission; the hearing function includes acting on interlocutory requests filed in the proceedings such as petitions to intervene, petitions to enlarge issues, contested discovery requests. An Administrative Law Judge, appointed under the Administrative Procedure Act, presides at the hearing during which documents and sworn testimony are received in evidence, witnesses are cross-examined. At the co
Roxborough is a neighborhood in the Northwest section of the city of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. It is bordered to the southwest, along the Schuylkill River, by the neighborhood of Manayunk, along the northeast by the Wissahickon Creek section of Fairmount Park, to the southeast by the neighborhood of East Falls. Beyond Roxborough to the northwest is Montgomery County. Roxborough's zip code is 19128. Most of Roxborough is in Philadelphia's 21st Ward. Most of modern-day Roxborough was once part of Roxborough Township, incorporated into the City of Philadelphia following the passage of the Act of Consolidation, 1854. At this time Roxborough was the home of the area's wealthiest; these textile mills produced revenue, spent building schools, a large Victorian manor built for the area's elderly women, The Roxborough Home for Women. Since the 1950s, most of Philadelphia's major television and FM radio stations have located their transmission towers in Roxborough because of its hilly terrain and high elevation.
Public television station "MiND", once called "WYBE", was formerly located in Upper Roxborough, close to neighboring Andorra. The Upper Roxborough Historic District and William Levering School are listed on the National Register of Historic Places. Roxborough is well-connected to Center City Philadelphia with multiple bus routes and bike lanes reaching the river and downtown area of Philadelphia. SEPTA's Manayunk/Norristown Regional Rail line stops in the Wissahickon section of Roxborough, continues through Manayunk, stops again at the Ivy Ridge station in Roxborough. Philadelphia University and St. Joseph's University are nearby. Henry Avenue runs parallel to Ridge Avenue from the border of East Falls and North Philadelphia, to Andorra where it merges into Ridge Avenue. Constructed in the 1930s, it was extended in 1959 from Roxborough Avenue to Andorra, includes several concrete arch bridges. One of these bridges, the Wissahickon Memorial Bridge which crosses over the Wissahickon Creek and Lincoln Drive, includes a pair of box tunnels under the roadway designed to carry a never built extension of the Broad Street Subway into Roxborough.
Because of the Wissahickon Creek and the park which protects much of its watershed and Manayunk are physically separated from the rest of the city. Much of lower Roxborough, consisting of "row homes" and homes dating from the 19th and early 20th centuries, has a historic, urban character. Roxborough abuts the Wissahickon Valley Park portion of the Fairmount Park system; the park's numerous trails are used by cyclists, walkers, dog owners and mountain bikers. The north-west section of Roxborough is considered a separate neighborhood called Upper Roxborough. Much of the development in this area occurred after 1950, has a suburban character: larger front lawns and shopping centers; the area of Roxborough was named for Roxburghshire, the original home of Andrew Robeson, one of the first settlers of the area. In 1676, Andrew Robeson, his wife Elizabeth, his nephew Andrew Jr. came to America from Scotland where Andrew Sr. became Surveyor General for 300,000 acres of land in Southern New Jersey where he presided as Judge in Gloucester County.
In 1690, Andrew Sr. moved to Philadelphia and purchased an estate located in the area, known today as Roxborough where the on and off ramps for City Line Avenue and Lincoln Drive are. Andrew Sr. became Chief of Justice in Pennsylvania until he died in 1694. He was responsible for making Roxborough a township in 1690; the Robeson family is known to have come from Kelso, Scotland. Roxburgh was a small region in the southeast of Scotland until it was changed to the region of "The Borders" in 1975. In 1706, a German philosopher named Johannes Kelpius who lived in the woods not far from the Robesons wrote about "foxes burrowing in rocks" in the area. A correlation between the phonetic spelling "Rocksburrow" that many resident Germans applied to the Township, Kelpius's "where foxes burrow" letter of 1706, convinced many that the township's origins related to foxes. Kelpius popularized his spelling of the township, but not long afterward, the spelling was changed to its current form; the Township could have retained The names "Manatawna" or "Leverington", as they were popular names the area was referred to as in the 1690s and early 1700s, but thanks to the popular writings of Johannes Kelpius, the name remained as Roxborough.
Other spellings have been noted in early writings as Roxbury and Roxboro. School District of Philadelphia operates public schools, its zoned schools include Shawmont Elementary, Cook Wissahickon, Roxborough High School. The Walter Biddle Saul High School of Agricultural Sciences and Lankenau Environmental Magnet High School are in upper Roxborough. William Levering School, founded in 1748, closed its doors in June 2012, its building will hold AMY Northwest, a special admissions middle school. AMY used to be located in the Mount Airy section of Philadelphia, in a rented church building; the area has been one of the main feeder regions for Roman Catholic and J. W. Hallahan High Schools. Free Library of Philadelphia operates the Roxborough Branch at 6245 Ridge Avenue at Hermitage Street; the "Roxborough - Manayunk - Wissahickon - East Falls - Andorra Historical Society" has an archive room in the Roxborough Branch. It is maintained by one of the Historical Societies' top members and one of the area's community leaders, Sylvia Myers.
Dalessandro's a notable cheesesteak eatery Binzen, Peter. Whitetown, U. S. A.. Random House, New York, N. Y. 1970. RoxboroughPA Website Roxborough Developme
Philadelphia, sometimes known colloquially as Philly, is the largest city in the U. S. state and Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, the sixth-most populous U. S. city, with a 2017 census-estimated population of 1,580,863. Since 1854, the city has been coterminous with Philadelphia County, the most populous county in Pennsylvania and the urban core of the eighth-largest U. S. metropolitan statistical area, with over 6 million residents as of 2017. Philadelphia is the economic and cultural anchor of the greater Delaware Valley, located along the lower Delaware and Schuylkill Rivers, within the Northeast megalopolis; the Delaware Valley's population of 7.2 million ranks it as the eighth-largest combined statistical area in the United States. William Penn, an English Quaker, founded the city in 1682 to serve as capital of the Pennsylvania Colony. Philadelphia played an instrumental role in the American Revolution as a meeting place for the Founding Fathers of the United States, who signed the Declaration of Independence in 1776 at the Second Continental Congress, the Constitution at the Philadelphia Convention of 1787.
Several other key events occurred in Philadelphia during the Revolutionary War including the First Continental Congress, the preservation of the Liberty Bell, the Battle of Germantown, the Siege of Fort Mifflin. Philadelphia was one of the nation's capitals during the revolution, served as temporary U. S. capital while Washington, D. C. was under construction. In the 19th century, Philadelphia became a railroad hub; the city grew from an influx of European immigrants, most of whom came from Ireland and Germany—the three largest reported ancestry groups in the city as of 2015. In the early 20th century, Philadelphia became a prime destination for African Americans during the Great Migration after the Civil War, as well as Puerto Ricans; the city's population doubled from one million to two million people between 1890 and 1950. The Philadelphia area's many universities and colleges make it a top study destination, as the city has evolved into an educational and economic hub. According to the Bureau of Economic Analysis, the Philadelphia area had a gross domestic product of US$445 billion in 2017, the eighth-largest metropolitan economy in the United States.
Philadelphia is the center of economic activity in Pennsylvania and is home to five Fortune 1000 companies. The Philadelphia skyline is expanding, with a market of 81,900 commercial properties in 2016, including several nationally prominent skyscrapers. Philadelphia has more outdoor murals than any other American city. Fairmount Park, when combined with the adjacent Wissahickon Valley Park in the same watershed, is one of the largest contiguous urban park areas in the United States; the city is known for its arts, culture and colonial history, attracting 42 million domestic tourists in 2016 who spent US$6.8 billion, generating an estimated $11 billion in total economic impact in the city and surrounding four counties of Pennsylvania. Philadelphia has emerged as a biotechnology hub. Philadelphia is the birthplace of the United States Marine Corps, is the home of many U. S. firsts, including the first library, medical school, national capital, stock exchange and business school. Philadelphia contains 67 National Historic Landmarks and the World Heritage Site of Independence Hall.
The city became a member of the Organization of World Heritage Cities in 2015, as the first World Heritage City in the United States. Although Philadelphia is undergoing gentrification, the city maintains mitigation strategies to minimize displacement of homeowners in gentrifying neighborhoods. Before Europeans arrived, the Philadelphia area was home to the Lenape Indians in the village of Shackamaxon; the Lenape are a Native American tribe and First Nations band government. They are called Delaware Indians, their historical territory was along the Delaware River watershed, western Long Island, the Lower Hudson Valley. Most Lenape were pushed out of their Delaware homeland during the 18th century by expanding European colonies, exacerbated by losses from intertribal conflicts. Lenape communities were weakened by newly introduced diseases smallpox, violent conflict with Europeans. Iroquois people fought the Lenape. Surviving Lenape moved west into the upper Ohio River basin; the American Revolutionary War and United States' independence pushed them further west.
In the 1860s, the United States government sent most Lenape remaining in the eastern United States to the Indian Territory under the Indian removal policy. In the 21st century, most Lenape reside in Oklahoma, with some communities living in Wisconsin, in their traditional homelands. Europeans came to the Delaware Valley in the early 17th century, with the first settlements founded by the Dutch, who in 1623 built Fort Nassau on the Delaware River opposite the Schuylkill River in what is now Brooklawn, New Jersey; the Dutch considered the entire Delaware River valley to be part of their New Netherland colony. In 1638, Swedish settlers led by renegade Dutch established the colony of New Sweden at Fort Christina and spread out in the valley. In 1644, New Sweden supported the Susquehannocks in their military defeat of the English colony of Maryland. In 1648, the Dutch built Fort Beversreede on the west bank of the Delaware, south of the Schuylkill near the present-day Eastwick neighborhood, to reassert their dominion over the area.
The Swedes responded by building Fort Nya Korsholm, or New Korsholm, named after a town in Finland with a Swedish majority. In 1655, a