Agricultural Adjustment Act
The Agricultural Adjustment Act was a United States federal law of the New Deal era designed to boost agricultural prices by reducing surpluses. The Government bought livestock for slaughter and paid farmers subsidies not to plant on part of their land; the money for these subsidies was generated through an exclusive tax on companies which processed farm products. The Act created a new agency, the Agricultural Adjustment Administration, an agency of the U. S. Department of Agriculture, to oversee the distribution of the subsidies; the Agriculture Marketing Act, which established the Federal Farm Board in 1929, was seen as a strong precursor to this act. The AAA, along with other New Deal programs, represented the federal government's first substantial effort to address economic welfare in the United States; when President Franklin D. Roosevelt took office in March 1933, the United States was in the midst of the Great Depression. "Farmers faced the most severe economic situation and lowest agricultural prices since the 1890s."
"Overproduction and a shrinking international market had driven down agricultural prices." Soon after his inauguration, Roosevelt called the Hundred Days Congress into session to address the crumbling economy. From this Congress came the Agricultural Adjustment Administration, to replace the Federal Farm Board; the Roosevelt Administration was tasked with decreasing agricultural surpluses. Wheat, field corn, rice and milk and its products were designated as basic commodities in the original legislation. Subsequent amendments in 1934 and 1935 expanded the list of basic commodities to include rye, barley, grain sorghum, peanuts, sugar beets, sugar cane, potatoes; the administration targeted these commodities for the following reasons: Changes in the prices of these commodities had a strong effect on the prices of other important commodities. These commodities were running a surplus at the time; these items each required some amount of processing. "The goal of the Agricultural Adjustment Act, restoring farm purchasing power of agricultural commodities or the fair exchange value of a commodity based upon price relative to the prewar 1909–14 level, was to be accomplished through a number of methods.
These included the authorization by the Secretary of Agriculture to secure voluntary reduction of the acreage in basic crops through agreements with producers and use of direct payments for participation in acreage control programs. This was to be done by readjusting farm production at a level that would not increase the percentage of consumers' retail expenditures above the percentage returned to the farmer in the prewar base period."The juxtaposition of huge agricultural surpluses and the many deaths due to insufficient food shocked many, as well as some of the administrative decisions that happened under the Agricultural Adjustment Act. For example, in an effort to reduce agricultural surpluses, the government paid farmers to reduce crop production and to sell pregnant sows as well as young pigs. Oranges were being soaked with kerosene to prevent their consumption and corn was being burned as fuel because it was so cheap. There were many people, however, as well as livestock in different places starving to death.
Farmers slaughtered livestock because feed prices were rising, they could not afford to feed their own animals. Under the Agricultural Adjustment Act, "plowing under" of pigs was common to prevent them reaching a reproductive age, as well as donating pigs to the Red Cross. In 1935, the income generated by farms was 50 percent higher than it was in 1932, due to farm programs such as the AAA; the Agricultural Adjustment Act affected nearly all of the farmers in this time period. Tenant farming characterized the tobacco production in the post-Civil War South; as the agricultural economy plummeted in the early 1930s, all farmers were badly hurt but the tenant farmers and sharecroppers experienced the worst of it. To accomplish its goal of parity, the Act reduced crop production; the Act accomplished this by offering landowners acreage reduction contracts, by which they agreed not to grow cotton on a portion of their land. By law, they were required to pay the tenant farmers and sharecroppers on their land a portion of the money.
The farm wage workers who worked directly for the landowner suffered the greatest unemployment as a result of the Act. There are few people gullible enough to believe that the acreage devoted to cotton can be reduced one-third without an accompanying decrease in the laborers engaged in its production. Researchers concluded that the statistics after the Act took effect "... indicate a consistent and widespread tendency for cotton croppers and, to a considerable extent, tenants to decrease in numbers between 1930 and 1935. The decreases among Negroes were greater than those among whites." Another consequence was that the
Alta Vista, Kansas
Alta Vista is a city in Wabaunsee County, United States. As of the 2010 census, the city population was 444. Alta Vista was founded in 1887, it was incorporated as a city in 1905. Alta Vista is derived from the Spanish word for "high view", the city was so named from its lofty elevation. In 1887, the Chicago and Nebraska Railway built a main line from Topeka through Alta Vista to Herington; the Chicago and Nebraska Railway was foreclosed in 1891 and taken over by Chicago, Rock Island and Pacific Railway, which shut down in 1980 and reorganized as Oklahoma and Texas Railroad, merged in 1988 with Missouri Pacific Railroad, merged in 1997 with Union Pacific Railroad. Most locals still refer to this railroad as the "Rock Island"; the first post office in Alta Vista was established in March 1887. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 0.36 square miles, all of it land. The climate in this area is characterized by hot, humid summers and mild to cool winters. According to the Köppen Climate Classification system, Alta Vista has a humid subtropical climate, abbreviated "Cfa" on climate maps.
Alta Vista is part of Kansas Metropolitan Statistical Area. As of the census of 2010, there were 444 people, 189 households, 128 families residing in the city; the population density was 1,233.3 inhabitants per square mile. There were 211 housing units at an average density of 586.1 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 98.2% White, 0.7% African American, 0.2% Native American, 0.2% Asian, 0.7% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 4.3% of the population. There were 189 households of which 32.3% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 51.9% were married couples living together, 10.6% had a female householder with no husband present, 5.3% had a male householder with no wife present, 32.3% were non-families. 28.6% of all households were made up of individuals and 10.5% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.35 and the average family size was 2.80. The median age in the city was 41.5 years. 25% of residents were under the age of 18.
The gender makeup of the city was 52.3% male and 47.7% female. As of the census of 2000, there were 442 people, 190 households, 126 families residing in the city; the population density was 1,242.1 people per square mile. There were 216 housing units at an average density of 607.0 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 97.29% White, 1.36% Native American, 0.68% Pacific Islander, 0.68% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 4.07% of the population. There were 190 households out of which 30.0% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 52.1% were married couples living together, 10.5% had a female householder with no husband present, 33.2% were non-families. 31.1% of all households were made up of individuals and 16.8% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.33 and the average family size was 2.90. In the city, the population was spread out with 24.0% under the age of 18, 7.7% from 18 to 24, 25.3% from 25 to 44, 27.4% from 45 to 64, 15.6% who were 65 years of age or older.
The median age was 41 years. For every 100 females, there were 113.5 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 103.6 males. The median income for a household in the city was $32,159, the median income for a family was $38,542. Males had a median income of $29,167 versus $20,833 for females; the per capita income for the city was $15,885. About 8.0% of families and 9.9% of the population were below the poverty line, including 15.5% of those under age 18 and 11.4% of those age 65 or over. Alta Vista is part of Unified School District 417. Alta Vista High School was closed through school unification; the Alta Vista High School mascot was Bulldogs. Alta Vista is served by the Union Pacific Railroad the Southern Pacific, prior, the Chicago, Rock Island and Pacific Railroad. Alta Vista is located on UP's Golden State main line to Texas; the line was built by the Chicago and Nebraska Railroad. Living in the Depot: The Two-Story Railroad Station. Contains historic images of Kansas stations at Alta Vista, Comiskey, Haddam and Wakarusa.
CityAlta Vista - Directory of Public OfficialsSchoolsUSD 417, local school districtMapsAlta Vista City Map, KDOT
The Territory of Kansas was an organized incorporated territory of the United States that existed from May 30, 1854, until January 29, 1861, when the eastern portion of the territory was admitted to the Union as the state of Kansas. The territory extended from the Missouri border west to the summit of the Rocky Mountains and from the 37th parallel north to the 40th parallel north. Part of Missouri Territory, it was unorganized from 1821 to 1854. Much of the eastern region of what is now the State of Colorado was part of Kansas Territory; the Territory of Colorado was created to govern this western region of the former Kansas Territory on February 28, 1861. From June 4, 1812 until August 10, 1821 the area that would become Kansas Territory 33 years was part of the Missouri Territory; when Missouri was granted statehood in 1821 the area became unorganized territory and contained little to no permanent white settlement with the exception of Fort Leavenworth. The Fort was established in 1827 by Henry Leavenworth with the 3rd U.
S Infantry from St. Louis, Missouri; the fort was established as the westernmost outpost of the American military to protect trade along the Santa Fe Trail from Native Americans. The trade came from the East, by land using the Boone's Lick Road, or by water via the Missouri River; this area, called the Boonslick, was located due east in west-central Missouri and was settled by Upland Southerners from Virginia and Tennessee as early as 1812. Its slave-holding population would contrast with settlers from New England who would arrive in the 1850s; the land that would become Kansas Territory was considered to be infertile by 19th century American pioneers. It was called the Great American Desert, for it was dryer than land eastward. Technically, it was part of the vast grasslands that make up the North American Great Plains and supported giant herds of American bison. After the invention of the steel plow and more sophisticated irrigation methods the thick prairie soil would be broken for agriculture.
By the 1850s immigration pressure was increasing and organization into a Territory was desired. Kansas Territory was established on May 1854 by the Kansas -- Nebraska Act; this act established both Kansas Territory. The most momentous provision of the Act in effect repealed the Missouri Compromise of 1820 and allowed the settlers of Kansas Territory to determine by popular sovereignty whether Kansas would be a free state or a slave state; the Act contained thirty-seven sections. The provisions relating to Kansas Territory were embodied in the last eighteen sections; some of the more notable sections were: Section 19 Defines the boundaries of the Territory, gives it the name of Kansas, prescribes that "when admitted as a State or States, the said Territory, or any portion of the same, shall be received into the Union with or without slavery, as their constitution may prescribe at the time of their admission." It further provides for its future division into two or more Territories, the attaching of any portion thereof to any other State or Territory.
Section 28 Declares the Fugitive Slave Law of 1850 to be in full force in the Territory. Section 31 Locates the seat of government of the Territory, temporarily at Fort Leavenworth, authorizes the use for public purposes of the government buildings. Section 37 Declares all treaties and other engagements made by the United States Government, with the Indian tribes inhabiting the Territory, to remain inviolate, notwithstanding anything contained in the provisions of this act. Within a few days after the passage of the Kansas–Nebraska Act, hundreds of Missourians crossed into the adjacent territory, selected a section of land, united with fellow-adventurers in a meeting or meetings, intending to establish a pro-slavery preemption upon all this region; as early as June 10, 1854, the Missourians held a meeting at Salt Creek Valley, a trading post 3 miles west from Fort Leavenworth, at which a "Squatter's Claim Association" was organized. They said they were in favor of making Kansas a slave state if it should require half the citizens of Missouri, musket in hand, to emigrate there.
According to these emigrants, abolitionists would do well not to stop in Kansas Territory, but keep on up the Missouri River until they reach Nebraska Territory, anticipated to be a free state. Before the first arrival of Free-State emigrants from the northern and eastern States, nearly every desirable location along the Missouri River had been claimed by men from western Missouri, by virtue of the preemption laws. During the long debate that preceded the passage of the Kansas-Nebraska Act, it had become the settled opinion at the North that the only remaining means whereby the territory might yet be rescued from the grasp of the slave power, was in its immediate occupancy and settlement by anti-slavery emigrants from the free states in sufficient numbers to establish free institutions within its borders; the desire to facilitate the colonization of the Territory took practical shape while the bill was still under debate in the United States Congress. The largest organization created for this purpose was the New England Emigrant Aid Company, organized by Eli Thayer.
Emigration from the free states, flowed into the territory beginning in 1854. These emigrants were known as Free-Staters; because Missourians had claimed much of the land closest to the border, the Free-Staters were forced to establish settlements further into Kansas Territory. Among these were Lawrence and Manhattan. To pr
Waubonsie was a leader of the Potawatomi Native American people. His name has been spelled in a variety of ways, including Wabaunsee, Wah-bahn-se, Waabaanizii in the contemporary Ojibwe language, Wabanzi in the contemporary Potawatomi language; the documentary record of Waubonsie's life is sparse. His birth name and place of birth are unknown; the year of his birth has been estimated from 1756 to 1765. His brother Mucadapuckee was a chief. According to tradition, Waubonsie acquired his name after sneaking into a place where some enemy Osages were located and scalping one or more of them, escaping at daybreak. During Tecumseh's War and the War of 1812, Waubonsie supported Tecumseh and the British against American expansion. In September 1811, Waubonsie led an attack on one of William Henry Harrison's supply boats as it ascended the Wabash River in Indiana. Waubonsie jumped on the boat, killed the lone American on board, leapt off before the Americans on the far shore could respond. Waubonsie and Winamac led Potawatomi warriors against Harrison's troops at the Battle of Tippecanoe on November 7, 1811.
Waubonsie opposed the attack on Fort Dearborn in 1812, protected the family of John Kinzie during the massacre that followed. After the war, he signed treaties with the United States, thereafter worked to avoid confrontation with the Americans. With other Potawatomi leaders, in 1827 he refused to join the Winnebago War against the Americans; when the Black Hawk War erupted in 1832, Waubonsie and other Potawatomi leaders worked to keep their people out of the conflict, but found it difficult to do so. Many white settlers, recalling the Fort Dearborn massacre, distrusted the Potawatomis and assumed that they would join Sauk leader Black Hawk's uprising. Potawatomi leaders worried that the tribe as a whole would be punished if any Potawatomis supported Black Hawk. Waubonsie and Potawatomi chief Shabbona told Black Hawk. Hoping to demonstrate their good intentions to the Americans, the Potawatomis offered military assistance, fielding a force under Billy Caldwell and Waubonsie, they were less than enthusiastic allies, but managed to demonstrate support for the Americans while avoiding battle.
After the war, Waubonsie visited Washington D. C. on two occasions, met once with President Andrew Jackson. He signed treaties that sold Potawatomi land in Indiana and Illinois to the United States, moved westward to Iowa; the U. S. government built Waubonsie a house near Tabor, where he died in 1848 or 1849. Additional sources indicate Chief Waubonsie died as a result of injuries he sustained in a stage coach accident in Ohio, December 1845, upon a return trip from Washington, D. C. another states he died in Booneville, Missouri, as a result of his injuries in early 1846. Waubonsie State Park, Iowa Wabaunsee County, Kansas Wabaunsee Township, Kansas Wabaunsee Creek, Kansas Lake Wabaunsee, Kansas Waubonsie Valley High School, Illinois Waubonsee Community College, Sugar Grove, Illinois Wabansia Ave, Illinois Waubonsee Trail, IllinoisUSS Waubansee, a United States Navy harbor tug placed in service in 1944 and stricken in 1983, was named for him. Kansas State Historical Society Quarterly Treaty with the Potawatomi text "Chief Waubonsie".
Potawatomi Indian Chief. Find a Grave. Oct 23, 2003. Retrieved Aug 18, 2011
Works Progress Administration
The Works Progress Administration was an American New Deal agency, employing millions of people to carry out public works projects, including the construction of public buildings and roads. It was established on May 6, 1935, by Executive Order 7034. In a much smaller project, Federal Project Number One, the WPA employed musicians, writers and directors in large arts, drama and literacy projects; the four projects dedicated to these were: the Federal Writers’ Project, the Historical Records Survey, the Federal Theatre Project, the Federal Music Project, the Federal Art Project. In the Historical Records Survey, for instance, many former slaves in the South were interviewed. Theater and music groups toured throughout America, gave more than 225,000 performances. Archaeological investigations under the WPA were influential in the rediscovery of pre-Columbian Native American cultures, the development of professional archaeology in the US; every community in the United States had a new park, bridge, or school, constructed by the agency.
The WPA's initial appropriation in 1935 was for $4.9 billion. Headed by Harry Hopkins, the WPA provided jobs and income to the unemployed during the Great Depression in the United States, while developing infrastructure to support the current and future society. Above all, the WPA hired workers and craftsmen who were employed in building streets. Thus, under the leadership of the WPA, more than 1 million km of streets and over 10,000 bridges were built, in addition to many airports and much housing; the largest single project of the WPA was the Tennessee Valley Authority, which provided the impoverished Tennessee Valley with dams and waterworks to create an infrastructure for electrical power. Camp David, the presidential estate in Maryland used for international meetings, San Francisco's Golden Gate Bridge were both constructed by the WPA. At its peak in 1938, it provided paid jobs for three million unemployed men and women, as well as youth in a separate division, the National Youth Administration.
Between 1935 and 1943, when the agency was disbanded, the WPA employed 8.5 million people. Most people who needed a job were eligible for employment in some capacity. Hourly wages were set to the prevailing wages in each area. Full employment, reached in 1942 and emerged as a long-term national goal around 1944, was not the goal of the WPA. "Millions of people needed subsistence incomes. Work relief was preferred over public assistance because it maintained self-respect, reinforced the work ethic, kept skills sharp."The WPA was a national program that operated its own projects in cooperation with state and local governments, which provided 10–30% of the costs. The local sponsor provided land and trucks and supplies, with the WPA responsible for wages. WPA sometimes took over state and local relief programs that had originated in the Reconstruction Finance Corporation or Federal Emergency Relief Administration programs, it was liquidated on June 30, 1943, as a result of low unemployment due to the worker shortage of World War II.
The WPA had provided millions of Americans with jobs for eight years. A joint resolution introduced January 21, 1935, the Emergency Relief Appropriation Act of 1935 was passed by the United States Congress and signed into law by President Franklin D. Roosevelt on April 8, 1935. On May 6, 1935, FDR issued executive order 7034; the WPA superseded the work of the Federal Emergency Relief Administration, dissolved. Direct relief assistance was permanently replaced by a national work relief program—a major public works program directed by the WPA; the WPA was shaped by Harry Hopkins, supervisor of the Federal Emergency Relief Administration and close adviser to Roosevelt. Both Roosevelt and Hopkins believed that the route to economic recovery and the lessened importance of the dole would be in employment programs such as the WPA. Hallie Flanagan, national director of the Federal Theatre Project, wrote that "for the first time in the relief experiments of this country the preservation of the skill of the worker, hence the preservation of his self-respect, became important."The WPA was organized into the following divisions: The Division of Engineering and Construction, which planned and supervised construction projects including airports, dams and sanitation systems.
The Division of Professional and Service Projects, responsible for white-collar projects including education programs, recreation programs, the arts projects. It was named the Division of Community Service Programs and the Service Division; the Division of Finance. The Division of Information; the Division of Investigation, which succeeded a comparable division at FERA and investigated fraud, misappropriation of funds and disloyalty. The Division of Statistics known as the Division of Social Research; the Project Control Division, which processed project applications. Other divisions including the Employment, Safety and Training and Reemployment; these ordinary men and women proved to be extraordinary beyond all expectation. They
William Alexander Richardson
William Alexander Richardson was a prominent Illinois Democratic politician before and during the American Civil War. Born near Lexington, Richardson attended Transylvania University, proceeded to teach school and study law, he started his practice in Shelbyville, Illinois. He was an attorney for the state from 1834 to 1835, was elected representative to the state house, serving from 1836 to 1838, he moved over to the state senate from 1838 to 1842, back to the house again from 1844 to 1846 serving as speaker of the lower house during his last term. He was a presidential elector in 1844 for the Democrats. Richardson enlisted as a captain in the U. S. Army during the Mexican–American War, was promoted to the rank of major. After the war, he moved to Quincy and was elected to the 30th Congress to fill Stephen A. Douglas's seat, he was reelected to the 31st, 32nd, 33rd, 34th Congresses for the same seat. During his time in the House of Representatives, he was the Chairman of the Committee on Territories.
He resigned in August 1856 to run for Governor of Illinois. He narrowly lost to fellow representative, first nominee of the newly established Republican Party William H. Bissell. Richardson took most of south Illinois while Bissell won most of north Illinois, a couple of counties in the southern part of the state. Bissell won by 4,697 votes. After being defeated, Richardson was appointed by President James Buchanan as the Governor of the Nebraska Territory for most of 1858. Richardson resigned near the end of the year, he was a delegate to 1860 Democratic National Convention from Illinois. He came back to Washington D. C. as a member of the 37th Congress in 1861. In 1863, he was elected to fill Stephen Douglas's old seat in the United States Senate, defeating incumbent Republican Orville Browning, he was not spent the rest of his life engaged in newspaper work. He died on December 27, 1875 in Quincy, where he is buried. Richardson County, Nebraska is named after him. "Richardson, William Alexander".
The Political Graveyard. Retrieved January 10, 2006. "Richardson, William Alexander". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Retrieved January 10, 2006; this article incorporates facts obtained from: Lawrence Kestenbaum, The Political Graveyard This article incorporates public domain material from the Biographical Directory of the United States Congress website http://bioguide.congress.gov. William Alexander Richardson at Find a Grave
A dust storm is a meteorological phenomenon common in arid and semi-arid regions. Dust storms arise when a gust front or other strong wind blows loose sand and dirt from a dry surface. Fine particles are transported by saltation and suspension, a process that moves soil from one place and deposits it in another. Drylands around North Africa and the Arabian peninsula are the main terrestrial sources of airborne dust, it has been argued that poor management of the Earth's drylands, such as neglecting the fallow system, are increasing dust storms size and frequency from desert margins and changing both the local and global climate, impacting local economies. The term sandstorm is used most in the context of desert dust storms in the Sahara Desert, or places where sand is a more prevalent soil type than dirt or rock, when, in addition to fine particles obscuring visibility, a considerable amount of larger sand particles are blown closer to the surface; the term dust storm is more to be used when finer particles are blown long distances when the dust storm affects urban areas.
As the force of wind passing over loosely held particles increases, particles of sand first start to vibrate to saltate. As they strike the ground, they loosen and break off smaller particles of dust which begin to travel in suspension. At wind speeds above that which causes the smallest to suspend, there will be a population of dust grains moving by a range of mechanisms: suspension and creep. A study from 2008 finds that the initial saltation of sand particles induces a static electric field by friction. Saltating sand acquires a negative charge relative to the ground which in turn loosens more sand particles which begin saltating; this process has been found to double the number of particles predicted by previous theories. Particles become loosely held due to a prolonged drought or arid conditions, high wind speeds. Gust fronts may be produced by the outflow of rain-cooled air from an intense thunderstorm. Or, the wind gusts may be produced by a dry cold front, that is, a cold front, moving into a dry air mass and is producing no precipitation—the type of dust storm, common during the Dust Bowl years in the U.
S. Following the passage of a dry cold front, convective instability resulting from cooler air riding over heated ground can maintain the dust storm initiated at the front. In desert areas and sand storms are most caused by either thunderstorm outflows, or by strong pressure gradients which cause an increase in wind velocity over a wide area; the vertical extent of the dust or sand, raised is determined by the stability of the atmosphere above the ground as well as by the weight of the particulates. In some cases and sand may be confined to a shallow layer by a low-lying temperature inversion. In other instances, dust may be lifted as high as 20,000 feet high. Drought and wind contribute to the emergence of dust storms, as do poor farming and grazing practices by exposing the dust and sand to the wind. One poor farming practice which contributes to dust storms is dryland farming. Poor dryland farming techniques are intensive tillage or not having established crops or cover crops when storms strike at vulnerable times prior to revegetation.
In a semi-arid climate, these practices increase susceptibility to dust storms. However, soil conservation practices may be implemented to control wind erosion. A sandstorm can carry large volumes of sand unexpectedly. Dust storms can carry large amounts of dust, with the leading edge being composed of a wall of thick dust as much as 1.6 km high. Dust and sand storms which come off the Sahara Desert are locally known as a simoon; the haboob is a sandstorm prevalent in the region of Sudan around Khartoum, with occurrences being most common in the summer. The Sahara desert is a key source of dust storms the Bodélé Depression and an area covering the confluence of Mauritania and Algeria. Saharan dust storms have increased 10-fold during the half-century since the 1950s, causing topsoil loss in Niger, northern Nigeria, Burkina Faso. In Mauritania there were just two dust storms a year in the early 1960s, but there are about 80 a year today, according to Andrew Goudie, a professor of geography at Oxford University.
Levels of Saharan dust coming off the east coast of Africa in June 2007 were five times those observed in June 2006, were the highest observed since at least 1999, which may have cooled Atlantic waters enough to reduce hurricane activity in late 2007. Dust storms have been shown to increase the spread of disease across the globe. Virus spores in the ground are blown into the atmosphere by the storms with the minute particles and interact with urban air pollution. Short-term effects of exposure to desert dust include immediate increased symptoms and worsening of the lung function in individuals with asthma, increased mortality and morbidity from long-transported dust from both Saharan and Asian dust storms suggesting that long-transported dust storm particles adversely affects the circulatory system. Dust pneumonia is the result of large amounts of dust being inhaled. Prolonged and unprotected exposure of the respiratory system in a dust storm can cause silicosis, which, if left untreated, will lead to asphyxiation.
There is the danger of keratoconjunctivitis sicca which, in severe cases without immediate and proper treatment, can lead to blindness. Dust storms cause soil loss from the dry lands, worse, they preferentially remove organic matter and