Henryk Zygalski was a Polish mathematician and cryptologist who worked at breaking German Enigma ciphers before and during World War II. Zygalski was born on 15 July 1908 in Posen, German Empire, he was, from September 1932, a civilian cryptologist with the Polish General Staff's Biuro Szyfrów, housed in the Saxon Palace in Warsaw. He worked there with fellow Poznań University alumni and Cipher Bureau cryptology-course graduates Marian Rejewski and Jerzy Różycki. Together they developed methods and equipment for breaking Enigma messages. In late 1938, in response to growing complexities in German encryption procedures, Zygalski designed the "perforated sheets," known as "Zygalski sheets," a manual device for finding Enigma settings; this scheme, like the earlier "card catalog," was independent of the number of connections being used in the Enigma's plugboard, or commutator. After the war he remained in exile in the United Kingdom and worked, until his retirement, as a lecturer in mathematical statistics at the University of Surrey.
During this period he was prevented by the Official Secrets Act from speaking of his achievements in cryptology. He died on 30 August 1978 in Liss, was cremated and his ashes taken to London. Shortly before his death, he was honored by the Polish University in Exile with an honorary doctorate for his role in breaking Enigma. Cryptanalysis of the Enigma List of cryptographers Zygalski sheets Marian Rejewski List of Polish mathematicians Władysław Kozaczuk, Enigma: How the German Machine Cipher Was Broken, How It Was Read by the Allies in World War II, edited and translated by Christopher Kasparek, Frederick, MD, University Publications of America, 1984, ISBN 0-89093-547-5
Congress Poland or Russian Poland, formally known as the Kingdom of Poland, was a polity created in 1815 by the Congress of Vienna as a sovereign Polish state. Until the November Uprising in 1831, the kingdom was in a personal union with the Tsars of Russia. Thereafter, the state was forcibly integrated into the Russian Empire over the course of the 19th century. In 1915, during World War I, it was replaced by the Central Powers with the nominal Regency Kingdom of Poland, which continued to exist until Poland regained independence in 1918. Following the partitions of Poland at the end of the 18th century, Poland ceased to exist as an independent state for 123 years; the territory, with its native population, was split between the Austrian Empire, the Kingdom of Prussia, the Russian Empire. An equivalent to Congress Poland within the Austrian Empire was the Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria commonly referred to as "Austrian Poland"; the area incorporated into Prussia and subsequently the German Empire had little autonomy and was a province within Prussia - the Province of Posen.
The Kingdom of Poland enjoyed considerable political autonomy as guaranteed by the liberal constitution. However, its rulers, the Russian Emperors disregarded any restrictions on their power, it was, little more than a puppet state of the Russian Empire. The autonomy was curtailed following uprisings in 1830–31 and 1863, as the country became governed by namiestniks, divided into guberniya, thus from the start, Polish autonomy remained little more than fiction. The capital was located in Warsaw, which towards the beginning of the 20th century became the Russian Empire's third-largest city after St. Petersburg and Moscow; the moderately multicultural population of Congress Poland was estimated at 9,402,253 inhabitants in 1897. It was composed of Poles, Polish Jews, ethnic Germans and an insignificant Russian minority; the predominant religion was Roman Catholicism and the official language used within the state was Polish until the January Uprising when Russian became co-official. Yiddish and German were spoken by its native speakers.
The territory of Congress Poland corresponds to modern-day Kalisz Region and the Lublin, Łódź, Masovian and Holy Cross Voivodeships of Poland as well as southwestern Lithuania and part of Grodno District of Belarus. Although the official name of the state was the Kingdom of Poland, in order to distinguish it from other Kingdoms of Poland, it is sometimes referred to as "Congress Poland"; the Kingdom of Poland was created out of the Duchy of Warsaw, a French client state, at the Congress of Vienna in 1815 when the great powers reorganized Europe following the Napoleonic wars. The Kingdom was created on part of the Polish territory, partitioned by Russia and Prussia replacing, after Napoleon's defeat, the Duchy of Warsaw, set up by Napoleon in 1807. After Napoleon's 1812 defeat, the fate of the Duchy of Warsaw was dependent on Russia. Prussia insisted on the Duchy being eliminated, but after Russian troops reached Paris in 1812, Tsar Alexander I intended to annex to the Duchy the Lithuanian-Belarusian lands, now controlled by the Tsardom, which used to be a part of the First Polish Republic and to unite thus created Polish country with Russia.
Both Austria and England did not approve of that idea, Austria issuing a memorandum on returning to the 1795 resolutions, this idea supported by England under George IV and Prime Minister Robert Jenkinson and the English delegate to the Congress, Robert Stewart, Viscount Castlereagh, so in effect the Tsar, after the so-called Hundred Days, established the Kingdom of Poland and the 1815 Congress of Vienna approved. After the Congress, Russia gained a larger share of Poland and, after crushing an insurrection in 1831, the Congress Kingdom's autonomy was abolished and Poles faced confiscation of property, forced military service, the closure of their own universities; the Congress was important enough in the creation of the state to cause the new country to be named for it. The Kingdom lost its status as a sovereign state in 1831 and the administrative divisions were reorganized, it was sufficiently distinct that its name remained in official Russian use, although in the years of Russian rule it was replaced with the Privislinsky Krai.
Following the defeat of the November Uprising its separate institutions and administrative arrangements were abolished as part of increased Russification to be more integrated with the Russian Empire. However after this formalized annexation, the territory retained some degree of distinctiveness and continued to be referred to informally as Congress Poland until the Russian rule there ended as a result of the advance by the armies of the Central Powers in 1915 during World War I; the Kingdom had an area of 128,500 km2 and a population of 3.3 million. The new state would be one of the smallest Polish states smaller than the preceding Duchy of Warsaw and much smaller than the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth which had a population of 10 million and an area of 1 million km2, its population reached 6.1 million by 1870 and 10 million by 1900. Most of the ethnic Poles in the Russian Empire lived in the Congress Kingdom, although some areas outside it contained a Polish majority; the Kingdom of Poland re-emerged as a result of the efforts of Adam Jerzy Czartoryski, a Pole who aimed to resurrect the Polish state in alliance with Russia.
The Kingdom of Poland was one of the few contemporary constitutional monarchies in Europe, with the Emperor of Russia serving as the Polish King. His title as chief of Poland in Russian, was Tsar, similar to usage in
Lt. Col. Jan Kowalewski was a Polish cryptologist, intelligence officer, journalist, military commander, creator and first head of the Polish Cipher Bureau, he recruited a large staff of cryptologists who broke Soviet military codes and ciphers during the Polish-Soviet War, enabling Poland to weather the war and achieve victory in the 1920 Battle of Warsaw. Jan Kowalewski was born 1892 in Congress Poland, under rule of the Russian Empire. After graduating from a local trade school, between 1909 and 1913 he studied at the University of Liège in Belgium, where he graduated from the faculty of chemistry, he returned to Poland in 1913, only to be mobilized for the Russian Army the following year, at the outbreak of World War I. He fought in various formations on the Belarusian and Romanian fronts as an officer of the Engineering and Signal Corps, in December 1918 he was allowed to join the Polish unit formed under command of Gen. Lucjan Żeligowski out of Poles living in Russia; as chief of intelligence of the Polish 4th Rifle Division he crossed the Romanian border with the Division and reached Poland in May 1919.
A polyglot and amateur cryptologist, Kowalewski was attached to the staff of Gen. Józef Haller, fighting in Volhynia and Eastern Lesser Poland during the Polish-Ukrainian War for the city of Lwów. One day during his service there, Kowalewski was given some enciphered Bolshevik messages, intercepted, within two days, he had deciphered them, they revealed the Bolsheviks' appreciation of General Anton Denikin's White Russian forces. He managed to break the codes and ciphers of the army of the West Ukrainian People's Republic. Although his discovery was due to accident and boredom, it caused a major sensation among the staff; as a result, in July 1919 he was transferred to Warsaw, where he became chief of the Polish General Staff's radio-intelligence department. By early September he had gathered a group of mathematicians from Warsaw University and Lwów University, who were able to break Russian ciphers. Though Kowalewski's contribution to Polish victory in the Polish-Soviet War remained a secret for over 70 years, he was awarded Poland's highest military decoration, the Silver Cross of the Virtuti Militari.
After the war ended, he was attached to the staff of the Third Silesian Uprising as the commander of intelligence services. In 1923 he was sent to Tokyo, where he organized a course in radio intelligence for Japanese officers. For his efforts in this area he was awarded the Order of the Rising Sun - the highest military award in Japan. In 1928 he graduated from the École Supérieure de Guerre in Paris and was promoted to the rank of major. Although not directly involved in radio intelligence any more, he remained a Polish intelligence officer. From 1929 he served as a military attaché at the Polish embassy in Moscow, but in 1933 he was declared persona non grata and moved to a similar post in the embassy in Bucharest, where he remained until 1937. Upon his return to Poland he headed one of the branches of the Obóz Zjednoczenia Narodowego political organization and became the director of TISSA company, a Polish intelligence-sponsored company importing rare materials for the Polish arms industry.
He was promoted to lieutenant colonel. After the outbreak of the Polish Defensive War of 1939 he was evacuated to Romania, where he headed a committee of relief for Polish war refugees. In January 1940 he moved to France, where he joined the Polish Army in exile and became a proponent of an Allied offensive in the Balkans. However, the German spring offensive and the fall of France made the plan moot and Kowalewski had to flee German-occupied France. Through Vichy France and Spain he reached Portugal, where he formed yet another committee of relief for war refugees. Based at Figueira da Foz, he soon moved to Lisbon a center of espionage and battleground for spies of all countries involved in World War II. There he made contact with his friend Jean Pangal, a Romanian centrist politician and former Romanian envoy to Lisbon. Though dismissed by the end of 1941 by Romanian leader Ion Antonescu for his pro-Allied stance, Pangal remained in Lisbon and became a collaborator of Polish intelligence in Allied attempts to win over the Third Reich's allies - Hungary, Romania and Italy.
The collaboration with Pangal proved vital to the Polish and Allied war effort, Kowalewski managed to convince Gen. Władysław Sikorski and Minister Stanisław Kot to create a center of Polish intelligence in Lisbon on January 15, 1941. Named the Center for Contact with the Continent, the Lisbon-based bureau was headed by Kowalewski and soon became the hub of an extensive net of Polish resistance and intelligence organizations throughout occupied Europe. Acting independently of similar groups in Poland, which were run directly from London or Warsaw, the center coordinated the efforts of dozens of groups in France, the Netherlands, Italy, North Africa and Germany, it organized communication between the Polish Government in Exile and occupied Europe, as well as providing logistical and financial support for Polish resistance groups throughout Western Europe. Kowalewski's intelligence network was helpful to the British government, as most of his reports were passed either to SOE or to the Ministry of Economic Warfare.
A notable coup for his Lisbon center was the passing of the exact date for Operation Barbarossa to the British, who were thus informed of the fact at least
The cyclometer was a cryptologic device designed, "probably in 1934 or 1935," by Marian Rejewski of the Polish Cipher Bureau's German section to facilitate decryption of German Enigma ciphertext. Frode Weierud provides the procedure, secret settings, results that were used in a 1930 German technical manual. Daily key: Wheel Order: II I III Ringstellung: 24 13 22 Reflector: A Plugboard: A-M, F-I, N-V, P-S, T-U, W-Z Grundstellung: FOL Operator chosen message key: ABL Enciphered starting with FOL: PKPJXI Cleartext message to send and resulting cleartext: Feindliche Infanteriekolonne beobachtet. Anfang Südausgang Bärwalde. Ende 3 km ostwärts Neustadt. FEIND LIQEI NFANT ERIEK OLONN EBEOB AQTET XANFA NGSUE DAUSG ANGBA ERWAL DEXEN DEDRE IKMOS TWAER TSNEU STADT Resulting message: 1035 – 90 – 341 – PKPJX IGCDS EAHUG WTQGR KVLFG XUCAL XVYMI GMMNM FDXTG NVHVR MMEVO UYFZS LRHDR RXFJW CFHUH MUNZE FRDIS IKBGP MYVXU Z The first line of the message is not encrypted; the "1035" is the time, "90" is number of characters encrypted under the message key, "341" is a system indicator that tells the recipient how the message was encrypted.
The first six letters in the body are the doubled key encrypted using the daily key settings and starting the encryption at the ground setting/Grundstellung "FOL". The recipient would decipher the first six letters to recover the message key. Notice that the Enigma does not have numerals, punctuation, or umlauts. Numbers were spelled out. Most spaces were ignored. Umlauts used their alternative spelling with a trailing "e"; some abbreviations were used: a "Q" was used for "CH". Marian Rejewski was a mathematics student at Poznań University. During that time, the Polish Cipher Bureau recruited Rejewski and some other mathematics students including Jerzy Różycki and Henryk Zygalski to take a Bureau-sponsored course on cryptology; the Bureau hired some of the students to work part-time at a local branch of Bureau. Rejewski left Poznań to study mathematics at University of Göttingen, but after a year he returned to Poznań. In September 1932, Rejewski, Różycki, Zygalski went to Warsaw and started working for the Polish Cipher Bureau full-time.
During December 1932, Marian Rejewski was tasked by the Cipher Bureau to work on the German Enigma. The Bureau had failed. Within a few weeks, Rejewski had discovered; the German Enigma message procedures at the time used common but secret daily machine settings, but the procedures had each code clerk choose a three-letter message key. For example, a clerk might choose "ABL" as the message key; the message key was used to set the initial position of the rotors when encrypting the body of the message. Choosing a different message key was a security measure: it avoided having all the day's messages sent using the same polyalphabetic key which would have made the messages vulnerable to a polyalphabetic attack. However, the sender needed to communicate the message key to the recipient in order for the recipient to decrypt the message; the message key was first encrypted using the day's Grundstellung. Communications were sometimes garbled, if the message key were garbled the recipient would not be able to decrypt the message.
The Germans took the precaution of sending the message key twice. Here, the Germans committed a crucial error. Instead of sending the encrypted message key twice to get "PKP PKP", the Germans doubled the message key, encrypted the doubled key to get, sent the encrypted doubled key; that mistake allowed Rejewski to identify six sequential permutations of the Enigma and exploit the knowledge they encrypted the same message key. With the help of a commercial Enigma machine, some German materials obtained by French spy Hans Thilo-Schmidt, German cipher clerks who would choose weak keys, Rejewki was able to reverse engineer the wiring of the Enigma's rotors and reflector; the Polish Cipher Bureau built several Polish Enigma doubles that could be used to decipher German messages. The German procedure that sent an encrypted doubled key was the mistake. Rejewski viewed the Enigma as permuting the plaintext letters into ciphertext. For each character position in a message, the machine used a different permutation.
Let A B C D E F be the respective permutations for the first through sixth letters. Rejewski knew the first and fourth letters were the same, the second and fifth letters were the same, third and sixth letters were the same. Rejewski could examine the day's message traffic. For example, for the daily key in a 1930 technical manual Rejewski could find the following characteristics: A D = B E = C F = The notation is Cauchy's cycle no
Jerzy Browkin was a Polish mathematician, studying algebraic number theory. He was a professor at the Institute of Mathematics of the Polish Academy of Sciences. In 1994, together with Juliusz Brzeziński, he formulated the n-conjecture—a version of the abc conjecture involving n > 2 integers
Lt. Col. Karol Gwido Langer was, from at least mid-1931, chief of the Polish General Staff's Cipher Bureau, which from December 1932 decrypted Germany's military Enigma-machine ciphers. Poland's prewar achievements paved the way for Britain's World War II Ultra secret. Langer was born in Zsolna, Upper Hungary but spent his childhood in Cieszyn in Silesia, where his family came from. By according to Polish military historian Władysław Kozaczuk, the Bureau had been formed by merger of the Radio Intelligence Office and the Polish-Cryptography Office. Langer remained at the head of the Cipher Bureau and its successor field agency until the latter was disbanded in November 1942 upon the German occupation of southern France's Vichy "Free Zone." Major Langer had on 15 January 1929, after a tour of duty as chief of staff of the First Infantry Division, become chief of the General Staff's Radio Intelligence Office, subsequently of the Cipher Bureau. As the Cipher Bureau's chief, Langer was responsible for Polish cryptography.
Langer's Cipher Bureau has become famous for having in December 1932 broken the German Enigma cipher and read it through the German invasion of France in May–June 1940, after that. In March 1943, as Lt. Col. Langer, his deputy, Major Maksymilian Ciężki, head of the prewar B. S.-4, Lt. Antoni Palluth and civilians Edward Fokczyński and Kazimierz Gaca were attempting to cross from German-occupied France into Spain, they were betrayed by their French guide and captured by the Germans. Interrogated about work on Enigma, Langer "decided mix truth with lies, present my lies in such a way that they had the veneer of truth." He told the Germans that before the war the Bureau had sporadically solved Enigma ciphers, but that during the war they had no longer been able to. Langer advised the panel of his interrogators that, since Major Ciężki knew more about the subject than he, they should summon Ciężki. "They agreed, Ciężki managed to convince them that the changes made before the war made decryption during the war impossible."
The two Polish officers thus succeeded in protecting the secret of Allied Enigma decryption, thereby enabling Ultra to continue doing its vital work for Allied victory. After Langer and Ciężki had been liberated by the Allies and had reached Britain, Langer was crushed to find himself blamed for his men's capture in France by the Germans, he died at the Polish Army signals camp at Kinross, Scotland, on 30 March 1948 and was buried in Wellshill Cemetery in Perth, Scotland to be next to the 381 Polish pilots buried in that cemetery. His grave was marked by a standard Commonwealth War Graves Commission headstone. On 1 December 2010 his remains were exhumed, following a request by his daughter Hanna Kublicka-Piottuch. On 10 December Langer's remains received a funeral with full military honors and were interred at the communal cemetery in Cieszyn, Poland, his new gravestone is of black granite and describes his role in the breaking of the German Enigma ciphers. Grand Cross of the Order of Polonia Restituta Cross of Valour – twice Gold Cross of Merit Cross of Independence Medal Międzysojuszniczy = Medaille Interalliée List of Poles Władysław Kozaczuk, Enigma: How the German Machine Cipher Was Broken, How It Was Read by the Allies in World War Two and translated by Christopher Kasparek, Frederick, MD, University Publications of America, 1984, ISBN 0-89093-547-5.
Hugh Sebag-Montefiore, Enigma: the Battle for the Code, Weidenfeld & Nicolson, 2000, ISBN 0-297-84251-X
In cryptography, the clock was a method devised by Polish mathematician-cryptologist Jerzy Różycki, at the Polish General Staff's Cipher Bureau, to facilitate decrypting German Enigma ciphers. The method determined the rightmost rotor in the German Enigma by exploiting the different turnover positions. For the Poles, learning the rightmost rotor reduced the rotor-order search space by a factor of 3; the British improved the method, it allowed them to use their limited number of bombes more effectively. This method sometimes made it possible to determine which of the Enigma machine's rotors was at the far right, that is, in the position where the rotor always revolved at every depression of a key; the clock method was developed by Jerzy Różycki during 1933–1935. Marian Rejewski's grill method could determine the right-hand rotor, but that involved trying each possible rotor permutation at each of its 26 possible starting rotations; the grill method tests were complicated by the plugboard settings.
In contrast, the clock method involved simple tests. In the early 1930s, determining the rotor order was not a significant burden because the Germans used the same rotor order for three months at a time; the rotor order could be determined once, that order could be used for the next three months. On 1 February 1936, the Germans changed the rotor order every month. On 1 November 1936, the Germans changed the rotor order every day. Różycki's "clock" method was elaborated by the British cryptologist Alan Turing at Bletchley Park in the development of a cryptological technique called "Banburismus." The Cipher Bureau received. With about 60 messages, the Bureau could determine Marian Rejewski's characteristic structure for the message key encoding. By exploiting poor message keys, the Bureau could determine the message key encoding. At that point, the cryptanalysts may know their ciphertext, they may not know the other secrets of the daily key such as the plugboard setting, the ring settings, the rotor order, or the initial setting.
With such little information and some luck, the Poles could still determine which rotor was the rightmost. In the daily traffic, there might be about a dozen message pairs whose message key starts with the same two letters; that means the middle rotors are in the same position. There are two ways. Both alignments are tried. From that, the cryptanalyst can determine the rotor turnover happened within a particular range of letters; the rotors had different turnover positions. The British used the mnemonic "Royal Flags Wave Kings Above", which meant Rotor I turned over at R, Rotor II turned over at F, Rotor III turned over at W, Rotor IV turned over at K, all other rotors turned over at A. If the message pairs cooperated, the Poles could narrow the window where the turnover happens to include only one rotor. One message pair might say the turnover happened in the window B to U. A second message pair might produce a window of M to C. Only Rotor I satisfies both message pairs, so Rotor I is the right-hand rotor.
The Enigma cipher machine relied on the users having some shared secrets. Here are the secret daily settings from a 1930 Enigma manual: Daily settings: Rotor Order: II I III Ringstellung: 24 13 22 Reflector: A Plugboard: A-M, F-I, N-V, P-S, T-U, W-Z Grundstellung: 06 15 12 The daily settings told the code clerks how to configure the machine so message could be exchanged; the machine had three rotors that could be arranged in any order. Each rotor had a ring with numbers or letters on it, that ring could be in any of 26 positions. A plugboard interchanged additional characters. For each message, the operator would choose a three-letter message key to encrypt the body of the message; the intention was for this key to be random, using a random key for each message was a good security practice. The message key needed to be communicated to the recipient so the recipient could decrypt the message. Instead of sending the message keys in the clear, the message keys would be encrypted with the Grundstellung.
In a grave procedural mistake, the Germans encrypted the message key twice. If the message key were "ABL" the Germans would encrypt the doubled key "ABLABL" and send the result. Sending the message key twice allowed keys garbled in transmission to be recovered, but the cryptographic mistake was encrypting the doubled key rather than sending the encrypted key twice; the doubled key gave the Poles an attack. If there were sufficient message traffic using the same daily key and the code clerks used weak keys the Poles could use Rejewski's method of characteristics to determine all the day's message keys; the Poles cracked the message keys without learning the substantial secrets of the daily machine settings: the plugboard settings, the rotor order, the rotor positions, or the ring settings. The Poles had to use other techniques to get those remaining secrets; the clock method exploited the three rotors having different turnover positions. The rightmost rotor moved. At a certain position on the ring, enciphering the character would cause the next rotor to the left to move