Wade–Giles is a romanization system for Mandarin Chinese. It developed from a system produced by Thomas Francis Wade, during the mid-19th century, was given completed form with Herbert A. Giles's Chinese–English Dictionary of 1892. Wade–Giles was the system of transcription in the English-speaking world for most of the 20th century. Wade–Giles is based on Beijing dialect, whereas Nanking dialect-based romanization systems were in common use until the late 19th century. Both were used in postal romanizations. In mainland China it has been replaced by the Hanyu Pinyin romanization system, with exceptions for the romanized forms of some locations and other proper nouns; the romanized name for some locations and other proper nouns in Taiwan is based on the Wade–Giles derived romanized form, for example Kaohsiung, the Matsu Islands and Chiang Ching-kuo. Wade–Giles was developed by Thomas Francis Wade, a scholar of Chinese and a British ambassador in China, the first professor of Chinese at Cambridge University.
Wade published in 1867 the first textbook on the Beijing dialect of Mandarin in English, Yü-yen Tzŭ-erh Chi, which became the basis for the romanization system known as Wade–Giles. The system, designed to transcribe Chinese terms for Chinese specialists, was further refined in 1892 by Herbert Allen Giles, a British diplomat in China and his son, Lionel Giles, a curator at the British Museum. Taiwan used Wade–Giles for decades as the de facto standard, co-existing with several official romanizations in succession, Gwoyeu Romatzyh, Mandarin Phonetic Symbols II, Tongyòng Pinyin. With the election of the Kuomintang party in Taiwan in 2008, Taiwan switched to Hànyǔ Pīnyīn. However, many people in Taiwan, both native and overseas, use or transcribe their legal names in the Wade–Giles system, as well as the other aforementioned systems. Singapore has made limited use of Wade–Giles romanization, such as in the romanization of the middle syllable of Lee Hsien Loong's name; the tables below show the Wade–Giles representation of each Chinese sound, together with the corresponding IPA phonetic symbol, equivalent representations in Bopomofo and Hànyǔ Pīnyīn.
Instead of ts, ts῾ and s, Wade–Giles writes tz, tz῾ and ss before ŭ. Wade–Giles writes -uei after k῾ and k, otherwise -ui: k῾uei, hui, shui, ch῾ui, it writes as -o after k῾, k and h, otherwise as -ê: k῾o, ko, ho, shê, ch῾ê. When forms a syllable on its own, it is written o depending on the character. Wade–Giles writes as -uo after k῾, k, h and sh, otherwise as -o: k῾uo, huo, shuo, ch῾o. For -ih and -ŭ, see below. Giles's A Chinese-English Dictionary includes the syllables chio, ch῾io, hsio, yo, which are now pronounced like chüeh, ch῾üeh, hsüeh, yüeh. Wade–Giles writes the syllable as i or yi depending on the character. A feature of the Wade–Giles system is the representation of the unaspirated-aspirated stop consonant pairs using a character resembling an apostrophe. Thomas Wade and others have used the spiritus asper, borrowed from the polytonic orthography of the Ancient Greek language. Herbert Giles and others have used a left curved single quotation mark for the same purpose. A third group used a plain apostrophe.
The backtick, visually similar characters are sometimes seen in various electronic documents using the system. Examples using the spiritus asper: p, p῾, t, t῾, k, k῾, ch, ch῾; the use of this character preserves b, d, g, j for the romanization of Chinese varieties containing voiced consonants, such as Shanghainese and Min Nan whose century-old Pe̍h-ōe-jī is similar to Wade–Giles. POJ, Legge romanization, Simplified Wade, EFEO Chinese transcription use the letter ⟨h⟩ instead of an apostrophe-like character to indicate aspiration.. The convention of an apostrophe-like character or ⟨h⟩ to denote aspiration is found in romanizations of other Asian languages, such as McCune–Reischauer for Korean and ISO 11940 for Thai. People unfamiliar with Wade–Giles ignore the spiritus asper, sometimes omitting them when copying texts, unaware that they represent vital information. Hànyǔ Pīnyīn addresses this issue by employing the Latin letters customarily used for voiced stops, unneeded in Mandarin, to represent the unaspirated stops: b, p, d, t, g, k, j, q, zh, ch.
Because of the popular omission of apostrophe-like characters, the four sounds represented in Hànyǔ Pīnyīn by j, q, zh, ch all become ch, including in many proper names. However, if the apostrophe-like characters are kept, the system reveals a symmetry that leaves no overlap: The non-retroflex ch and ch῾ are always before either ü or i, but never ih; the retroflex ch and ch are always before a, ê, e, o, or u. Like Yale and Mandarin Phonetic Symbols II, Wade–Giles renders the two types of syllabic consonant differently: -ŭ is used after the sibilants written in this position as tz, tz῾ and ss. -ih is used after the retroflex ch, ch῾, sh, j. These finals are both written as -ih in Tongyòng Pinyin, as -i in Hànyǔ Pīnyīn, as -y in Gwoyeu Romatzyh and Simplified Wade, they are omitted in Zhùyīn. Final o in Wade–Giles has
Apiole is a phenylpropene known as apiol, parsley apiol, or parsley camphor. Its chemical name is 1-allyl-2,5-dimethoxy-3,4-methylenedioxybenzene, it is found in all parts of parsley. Heinrich Christoph Link, an apothecary in Leipzig, discovered the substance in 1715 as greenish crystals reduced by steam from oil of parsley. In 1855 Joret and Homolle discovered that apiol was an effective treatment of amenorrea or lack of menstruation. In medicine it has been used, as essential oil or in purified form, for the treatment of menstrual disorders and as an abortifacient, it is an irritant and, in high doses, it can cause liver and kidney damage. Cases of death due to attempted abortion using apiole have been reported. Hippocrates wrote about parsley as an herb to cause an abortion. Plants containing apiole were used by women in the Middle Ages to terminate pregnancies. Now that safer methods of abortion are available, apiol is forgotten. According to a book called PIHKAL, Apiole had been used to synthesize a psychedelic amphetamine called DMMDA.
Apiole is the correct spelling of the trivial name for 1-allyl-2,5-dimethoxy-3,4-methylenedioxybenzene. Apiol known as'liquid apiol' or'green oil of parsley' is the extracted oleoresin of parsley, rather than the distilled oil, its use was widespread in the USA as ergoapiol or apergol, until a toxic adulterated product containing apiol and tri-ortho-cresyl phosphate was introduced on the American market. 1'-sulfoxy metabolite formation for apiole is about 1/3 as active as safrole. No carcinogenicity was detected with parsley dill apiol in mice; the name apiole is used for a related compound found in dill and in fennel roots, the positional isomer (dillapiole, 1-allyl-2,3-dimethoxy-4,5-methylenedioxybenzene. Exalatacin is another positional isomer of apiole, found in the Australian plants Crowea exalata and Crowea angustifolia var. angustifolia. Dillapiole Apiol chemical information from chemindustry.com Apiole in the ChemIDplus database
Eduardo Diazmuñoz is a prolific Mexican-Spanish-American conductor and arranger, performer and educator. He studied piano, cello and conducting at the National Conservatory of Music. In 1978, 1979 he became associate conductor of the newly founded Mexico City Philarmonic. Bernstein invited him to Tanglewood in 1979, he assisted in preparation for concertos of Eduardo Mata. In 1980-1982 assisted Leon Barzin in Paris. Diazmuñoz made his debut at Palacio de Bellas Artes in Mexico City at 22. Diazmuñoz considers Barzin and Francisco Savín were his principal mentors in conducting, in Paris and Mexico City respectively. Diazmuñoz has conducted orchestras worldwide, he has received numerous prizes. While still a student he was awarded the Youth Value 1975 Award given by the President of Mexico, he was awarded the Mexican Union of Music Chronicles Award an unprecedented four times. In 2003 he was presented with the 2003 International Musician of the Year, awarded by the International Biographical Centre based in Cambridge, England.
He was nominated in 2000, for a Latin Grammy award in the Best Classical Album Category, for the first volume of his collection Twentieth Century Mexican Symphonic Music, a four CD collection, making him the first Mexican conductor to be nominated. In 2001, he received his second nomination in the same category for his album "Tango Mata Danzón Mata Tango". In 2008 as Conductor, Diazmuñoz was awarded a Grammy for the Best Instrumental Album, Bogotá Philharmonic Orchestra; as a composer and arranger, his works have been premiered and recorded in various cities of Europe and America. He has written many compositions for television and films. In 2010 he composed, conducted and performed the score for the Mexican feature film Espíritu de Triunfo; as an educator Diazmuñoz has held full-time positions at the National Autonomous University and the National Conservatory in Mexico City, the Société Philharmonique in Paris, as well as at the New World School of the Arts in Miami, Florida. From 2004 to 2014, he was Artistic and Music Director of the Opera Division at the University of Illinois in Urbana-Champaign where he built a well known Opera program.
Diazmuñoz's discography includes 37 recordings for two dozen labels. He is the first Mexican conductor to have received two Golden Discs and One Platinum Disc for his two recordings with the Mexican rock band “El Tri” He is the first Mexican conductor to receive two Golden Discs and a Platinum Disc for the Albums el Tri Sinfónico, he is the first Mexican conductor to receive two Golden Discs and a Platinum Disc for the Albums el Tri Sinfónico. Https://web.archive.org/web/20080926100756/http://www.hispaniaclasica.com/Artists_eng/Diazmunoz_eng.htm http://www.naxos.com/conductorinfo/Eduardo_Diazmunoz/32325.htm https://www.grammy.com/nominees/latin/search?artist=&title=&year=All&genre=51