Wade Hampton III was a Confederate States of America military officer during the American Civil War and politician from South Carolina. He came from a wealthy planter family, shortly before the war he was one of the largest slaveholders in the Southeast as well as a state legislator. During the American Civil War, he served in the Confederate cavalry, where he reached the rank of lieutenant general. At the end of Reconstruction, with the withdrawal of federal troops from the state, Hampton was leader of the Redeemers who restored white rule, his campaign for governor was marked by extensive violence by the Red Shirts, a paramilitary group that served the Democratic Party by disrupting elections and suppressing black and Republican voting in the state. He was elected Governor, serving 1876 to 1879. After that, he served two terms as U. S. Senator, from 1879 to 1891. Wade Hampton III was born in 1818 at 54 Hasell St. in Charleston, South Carolina, the eldest son of "Colonel" Wade Hampton II and Ann Hampton.
His mother was from a wealthy family in Charleston. After the War of 1812, his father had built his own fortune on land speculation in the Southeast; the senior Hampton was an officer of dragoons in the War of 1812, an aide to General Andrew Jackson at the Battle of New Orleans. The boy was the grandson of Wade Hampton, lieutenant colonel of cavalry in the American War of Independence, member of the U. S. House of Representatives, brigadier general in the War of 1812. Wade III's uncle by marriage, James Henry Hammond, was elected to the U. S. House of Representatives, Governor of South Carolina and, in the late 1850s, elected to the South Carolina Senate. Wade Hampton III grew up in a wealthy planter family, he had four younger sisters. His was an active outdoor life; the youth was known for taking hunting trips alone into the woods, hunting American black bears with only a knife. Some accounts credit him with killing as many as 80 bears. In 1836 Hampton graduated from South Carolina College, was trained for the law, although he never practiced.
His father assigned certain plantations to him to manage in South Carolina and Mississippi. The younger man became active in Democratic state politics, he was elected to the South Carolina General Assembly in 1852 and served as a state Senator from 1858 to 1861. After Hampton's father died in 1858, the son inherited his vast fortune, his plantations, his slaves. Although Hampton was conservative on issues of secession and slavery, he had opposed the division of the Union as a legislator, when war began, he was loyal to his state, he resigned from the South Carolina Senate and enlisted at the age of 42 as a private in the South Carolina Militia. The governor of South Carolina insisted. Although he had no military experience, his years of managing plantations and serving in state government were considered signs of leadership; as was the case in northern regiments, the elite were commissioned based on their social standing and were expected to finance military units. Hampton organized and financed the unit known as "Hampton's Legion," which consisted of six companies of infantry, four companies of cavalry, one battery of artillery.
He paid for all the weapons for the Legion. Hampton was a natural cavalryman—brave, a superb horseman. Of officers without previous military experience, he was one of three to achieve the rank of lieutenant general, the others being Nathan Bedford Forrest and Richard Taylor. Hampton's first combat came at the First Battle of Manassas, where he deployed his Legion at a decisive moment, reinforcing a Confederate line, retreating from Buck Hill, giving the brigade of Thomas J. Jackson time to reach the field and make a defensive stand. A bullet creased Hampton's forehead, it was the first of five wounds. During the winter of 1861-62, Hampton's Legion was assigned to the command of Gustavus W. Smith. Smith's division accompanied the rest of Joseph E. Johnston's Army of Northern Virginia down the Virginia Peninsula to aid in the Siege of Yorktown before Johnston withdrew to Richmond. On May 23, 1862, Hampton was promoted to brigadier general. At the Battle of Seven Pines on May 31, 1862, he was wounded in the foot, but while still under fire, remained on his horse while the foot was treated.
Hampton returned to duty in time to fill in as leader of an infantry brigade for Stonewall Jackson at the end of the Seven Days Battles, although the brigade was not engaged. After the Peninsula Campaign, General Robert E. Lee reorganized his cavalry forces as a division under the command of J. E. B. Stuart, who selected Hampton as his senior subordinate, to command one of two cavalry brigades. Hampton's brigade was left in Richmond to keep eyes on McClellan's withdrawal from the Peninsula, while the rest of the army participated in the Northern Virginia Campaign, thus and his men missed the Second Battle of Manassas, re-joining the army shortly thereafter. His brigade was selected to participate in Stuart's Chambersburg Raid in October 1862, in which Hampton was appointed "military governor" of the town following its surrender to the Confederate cavalry. During the winter of 1862, Hampton led a series of cavalry raids behind enemy lines and captured numerous prisoners and supplies without suffering any casualties, earning a commendation from General Lee.
Harry Owens was an American composer and songwriter best known for his song "Sweet Leilani." Harry Robert Owens was born April 1902, in O'Neill, Nebraska. He learned to play the cornet in a small band on an Indian reservation in Montana. Owens was working the vaudeville circuit by age 14, he studied for a career in law, but started a band in 1926, when he was booked into the Lafayette Cafe in Los Angeles and auditioned a young Bing Crosby. The big turning point in his career came in 1934 with his arrival in Hawaii and his appointment as music director of The Royal Hawaiian Hotel in Waikiki, he tried to learn all he could about the local culture by working with native Hawaiians. He learned many traditional and more modern Hawaiian songs and tunes which he wrote down and orchestrated using Western notation for the first time. Many had never been written down before, much less orchestrated, he reorganized the Royal Hawaiians by splitting the band into Hawaiian and haole instrumental sections. His band featured the steel guitar, which had a trademark sound, producing tuneful and rhythmic dance music with a strong Hawaiian flavour.
Hilo Hattie was a featured performer with The Royal Hawaiian Hotel Orchestra. Beginning in 1935, Owens and his orchestra were featured on the popular Saturday night radio show, Hawaii Calls. Bing Crosby and Owens began their friendship when both played the Lafayette Cafe in Los Angeles in 1926. In 1934, Owens wrote "Sweet Leilani" to celebrate the birth of his daughter, made it the signature song of his Royal Hawaiian Hotel Orchestra. While vacationing in Honolulu with his wife Dixie Lee, Crosby heard the song and wanted to include it in his upcoming movie Waikiki Wedding. Harry was hesitant. Producer Arthur Hornblow, Jr. was a hard sell. Hornblow dug in his heels. Crosby retreated to the golf course and refused to return until Hornblow agreed to include the song in the film. "Sweet Leilani" won Best Song category at the 1938 10th Academy Awards, became Crosby's first gold record. Harry Owens and his Royal Hawaiians played "Sweet Leilani" in the 1938 Fred MacMurray film Cocoanut Grove; the soundtrack featured the Owens-penned songs'"Cocoanut Grove" and "Dreamy Hawaiian Moon."
They appeared in the 1942 Betty Grable film Song of the Islands. In 1949, Owens started to appear on television, he made regular appearances both in person and on television. He established the hapa haole style of Hawaii music, developed by Sonny Cunha and Johnny Noble, he enjoyed significant commercial success with this style of music-making. Owens is credited with about 300 hapa haole songs, many of which remain popular with musicians playing in this style. Owens was a great advocate of things Hawaiian, he founded a tourism music publishing business. He died in Oregon; the Hawai'i Academy of Recording Arts awarded Owens the 1987 Na Hoku Hanohano Lifetime Achievement Award for his substantial contributions to the entertainment industry in Hawaii. Hawaii, 1945, Capitol A-4, BD-4, H-166, H-238 Songs of Hawaii, 1945, Capitol A-6, BD-6, H-268 Hawaiian Melodies, 1948, Columbia CL-6030 Voice Of The Trade Winds, 1952, Capitol H-333 Polynesian Holiday, 1957, Capitol T 804 Great Songs of Hawaii, 1965, Hamilton HLP-141, HLP-12141 Owens, Harry.
Sweet Leilani: The Story Behind the Song: An Autobiography. Hula House, 1970. Harry Owens on IMDb Allmusic Aloha Harry Owens with music samples Harry Owens and His Royal Hawaiians discography - Rate Your Music Discogs Harry Owens & His Royal Hawaiian Orchestra Discography
Intrinsic viscosity is a measure of a solute's contribution to the viscosity η of a solution. It should not be confused with inherent viscosity, the ratio of the natural logarithm of the relative viscosity to the mass concentration of the polymer. Intrinsic viscosity is defined as = lim ϕ → 0 η − η 0 η 0 ϕ where η 0 is the viscosity in the absence of the solute, η is viscosity of the solution and ϕ is the volume fraction of the solute in the solution; as defined here, the intrinsic viscosity is a dimensionless number. When the solute particles are rigid spheres at infinite dilution, the intrinsic viscosity equals 5 2, as shown first by Albert Einstein. In practical settings, ϕ is solute mass concentration, the units of intrinsic viscosity are deciliters per gram, otherwise known as inverse concentration. Generalizing from spheres to spheroids with an axial semiaxis a and equatorial semiaxes b, the intrinsic viscosity can be written = + L + M + N where the constants are defined M = d e f 1 a b 4 1 J α ′ K = d e f M 2 J = d e f K J α ′ ′ J β ′ ′ L = d e f 2 a b 2 1 J β ′ N = d e f 6 a b 2 a 2 J α + b 2 J β The J coefficients are the Jeffery functions J α = ∫ 0 ∞ d x 3 J β = ∫ 0 ∞ d x 2 J α ′ = ∫ 0 ∞ d x 3 ( x +