John Leland (antiquary)
John Leland or Leyland was an English poet and antiquary. Leland has been described as "the father of English local history and bibliography", his Itinerary provided a unique source of observations and raw materials for many subsequent antiquaries, introduced the county as the basic unit for studying the local history of England, an idea, influential since. Most evidence for Leland's life and career comes from his own writings his poetry, he was born in London on 13 September, most in about 1503, had an older brother named John. Having lost both his parents at an early age, he and his brother were raised by Thomas Myles. Leland was educated at St Paul's School, under its first headmaster, William Lily, it was here that he met some of his future benefactors, notably William Paget. Leland was subsequently sent to Christ's College, graduating in 1522. While studying there, he was for a short time imprisoned, having accused a certain knight of collaborating with Richard de la Pole, the Yorkist claimant to the throne.
He proceeded to Lambeth, serving Thomas Howard, 2nd Duke of Norfolk, as tutor to his son Thomas. When the duke died in 1524, the king sent Leland to Oxford, where as Anthony Wood claimed from tradition, he became a fellow of All Souls College, he would deplore the state of education at Oxford, which he felt was too conservative in its approach to classical studies. Between 1526 and 1528, Leland proceeded to Paris, studying along with many fellow expatriates, both English and German, his original plan to study in Italy, never succeeded. Leland honed his skills at composing Latin poetry and sought the acquaintance of humanist scholars whom he much admired, such as Guillaume Budé and Jacques Lefèvre d'Étaples. A scholar of particular importance for Leland was François Dubois, professor at the Collège de Tournai, who had a profound effect on his poetic as well as antiquarian interests. While in France, Leland kept in touch with his friends and sponsors in England including Thomas Wolsey and Lord Chancellor, who made him rector at Laverstoke, Hampshire.
By 1529, Leland had returned to England. When Wolsey fell from the king's favour in that year, Leland appears to have sought the patronage of Thomas Cromwell, a relationship which would help explain his rising fortunes over the next few years, he was appointed one of the chaplains to King Henry VIII, who gave him the rectory of Peuplingues, in the marshes of Calais. In 1533, Leland received papal dispensation for four benefices, on condition that he became subdeacon within two years and priest within seven, he received two adjacent benefices. Leland and Nicholas Udall composed verses to be read or recited at the pageant of Anne Boleyn's arrival in London in 1533, staged for the occasion of her coronation, their common patron was Thomas, Duke of Norfolk and Cornwall. The poets worked together again during 1533 and 1534, when Leland contributed verses for Udall's Floures for Latine Spekynge. In 1533, the king appears to have entrusted Leland with a document, "a moste gratius commission", which authorized him to examine and use the libraries of all religious houses in England.
Leland spent the next few years travelling from house to house, for the most part shortly before they were dissolved, compiling numerous lists of significant or unusual books in their libraries. About 1535, he met the ex-Carmelite churchman and fellow antiquary John Bale, who much admired his work and offered his assistance. In 1536, not long after the First Suppression Act commanding the dissolution of lesser monasteries was passed, Leland lamented the spoliation of monastic libraries and addressed Thomas Cromwell in a letter seeking aid for the rescue of books, he complained that The Germans perceive our desidiousness, do send daily young scholars hither that spoileth, cutteth them out of libraries, returning home and putting them abroad as monuments of their own country. In the 1530s and 1540s, the royal library was reorganised to accommodate hundreds of books that were kept in monastic collections. Leland himself describes how Henry's palaces at Greenwich, Hampton Court and Westminster were adapted for the purpose.
Leland's part in this is uncertain. In humanist fashion, Leland styled himself antiquarius, a title, at one time interpreted as referring to a formal appointment as "king's antiquary": however, it is now understood to have been Leland's own preferred way of describing himself. There is no evidence that he oversaw the relocation of the books to their new home or received a librarian's wages. What he did do was to compile his lists of important volumes, to take measures to encourage their preservation. After the dissolution, Leland did not abandon his hunt for books. For instance, he obtained official permission to avail himself of the library belonging to the defunct monastery of Bury St Edmunds; the descriptions of Britain which he encountered in the manuscripts and his personal experiences of travel sparked off fresh interests. By about 1538, Leland had turned his attention to English and Welsh topography and antiquities, embarking on a series of journeys which lasted six years. Over the summer of 1538, he made an extended excursion through Wales.
He subsequently made a number of journeys in England: the exact sequence and their dates are again uncertain, but there seem to have been five major English itineraries, taken over the summers of
Cornwall Council is the unitary authority for the county of Cornwall in the United Kingdom, not including the Isles of Scilly, which has its own council. The council, its predecessor Cornwall County Council, has a tradition of large groups of independent councillors, having been controlled by independents in the 1970s and 1980s. Since the 2013 elections, it is run by an Independent-Liberal Democrat coalition. Cornwall Council provides a wide range of services to more than half a million Cornish residents. In 2014 it had an annual budget of more than £1 billion and was the biggest employer in Cornwall with a staff of 12,429 salaried workers, it is responsible for services including: schools, social services, rubbish collection, roads and more. Before April 2009, Cornwall was administered as a non-metropolitan county by the Cornwall County Council with six districts, Carrick, North Cornwall and Restormel; the Council of the Isles of Scilly still remains a separate unitary authority. On 5 December 2007, the Government confirmed that Cornwall was one of five councils that would move to unitary status.
This was enacted by statutory instrument as part of the 2009 structural changes to local government in England, The changes took effect on 1 April 2009. On that date the six districts and Cornwall County Council were abolished and were replaced by Cornwall Council; the council has 123 councillors, the independent Local Government Boundary Commission for England is proposing that Cornwall Council should have 87 councillors in future. On the creation of the new unitary authority it was decided that the name of the new council would be Cornwall Council; the Council logo features a Cornish chough and the 15 Cornish golden bezants on a black field as used in the arms of the Duchy of Cornwall. The campaign for Cornish devolution began in 2000 with the founding of the Cornish Constitutional Convention, a cross-party, cross-sector association that campaigns for devolution to Cornwall. In 2009, Liberal Democrat MP Dan Rogerson introduced a bill in parliament seeking to take power from Whitehall and regional quangos and pass it to the new Cornwall Council, with the intention of transforming the new council into an assembly along the lines of National Assembly for Wales.
In November 2010, British Prime Minister David Cameron suggested in comments to the local press that his government would "devolve a lot of power to Cornwall - that will go to the Cornish unitary authority." In 2011, the Deputy Prime Minister Nick Clegg said he would meet a cross party group, including the six Cornish MPs, to look at whether more powers could be devolved to Cornwall. The subsequent Localism Act 2011 was expected to achieve this but it proved incapable. However, the Cities and Local Government Devolution Act 2016 is intended to devolve some powers to Cornwall Council, helping to bring social and care services together, giving control over bus services and local investment. Among the services provided by the council is a public library service which consists of a main library in Truro and smaller libraries in towns and some villages throughout Cornwall. There are the following special libraries: Cornwall Learning Library, Cornish Studies Library, the Education Library Service, the Performing Arts Library, as well as a mobile library service based at Threemilestone.
Cornwall Council is promoting ten cultural projects as part of a five-year culture strategy. One project is the development of a National Theatre of Cornwall, a collaboration of the Hall for Cornwall, Kneehigh Theatre, Eden Project and Wildworks. Cornwall Council has based its idea on the successful National Theatres of Wales. Another of the projects is the proposed creation of a National Library of Cornwall to resolve inadequacies with the current storage of archives, it is hoped that this will bring some important documents concerning Cornish history back to Cornwall as well as providing better public access to those records held. Cornwall Council is involved in the project to build a Stadium for Cornwall. Cornwall Council backs the campaign for the Cornish to be recognised as a National Minority in the UK; the council's chief executive Kevin Lavery wrote a letter to the Government in 2010, writing, "Cornwall Council believes that the UK Government should recognise the Cornish as a national minority under the terms of the Framework Convention."
Adding that, "Cornwall Council believes that the Government's current restricted interpretation is discriminatory against the Cornish and contradicts the support it gives to Cornish culture and identity through its own departments." Cornwall Council's support was reaffirmed as council policy in 2011 with the publication of the Cornish National Minority Report 2, signed and endorsed by the leaders of every political grouping on the council. The council took an active role in the promotion of the options for registering Cornish ethnicity and national identity on the 2011 UK Census; the Cornish people were recognised as a National Minority by the British Government on 24 April 2014 and incorporated into the European Framework Convention for the Protection of National Minorities giving the Cornish the same status as the United Kingdom's other Celtic peoples, the Scots, the Welsh and the Irish. Since 2008 Cornwall Council and the former county council, together with Cornwall Enterprise, Cornwall Sustainable Energy Partnership, have been involved with a Protocol of Cooperation between Cornwall and the Conseil général du Finistère in Brittany.
The protocol aims to allow the two regions to work more on topics of common interest and engage in a knowledge exchange with the possibility of jointly applying for European fun
Bodmin and Wenford Railway
The Bodmin & Wenford Railway is a heritage railway, based at Bodmin in Cornwall, England. It has an interchange with the national rail network at Bodmin Parkway railway station, the southern terminus of the line; the Great Western Railway opened its branch line from Bodmin Road to Bodmin General 27 May 1887, on 3 September 1888 a junction line was opened to connect with the Bodmin and Wadebridge Railway which had opened its line from Bodmin North to Wadebridge in 1834. The line closed on 3 October 1983 following the demise of freight traffic from Wenford. In 1984 the Bodmin Railway Preservation Society was formed, they held their first open day at Bodmin General two years later. 1987 saw. A Light Railway Order was granted in 1989, the following year passenger services recommenced between Bodmin General and Bodmin Road, although by now that station had been renamed "Bodmin Parkway". A new intermediate station known as Colesloggett Halt was brought into use. In 1996 the former junction line was reopened, with another new station provided as Boscarne Junction.
The stations served are all near Bodmin. They are: Bodmin Parkway Colesloggett Halt Boscarne Junction Bodmin General The route from Bodmin General to Bodmin Parkway is 3 1⁄2 miles and Bodmin General to Boscarne Junction is 3 miles. On leaving Bodmin Parkway, the route first crosses the River Fowey by a five-arch viaduct, climbs up towards Bodmin Moor; the one intermediate halt is at Colesloggett Halt, built by the BWR in 1993 to serve a farm park, provides access to a network of footpaths through the Cardinham Woods, belonging to the Forestry Commission. The trip takes 25 minutes each way. Upon reaching Bodmin General station, the headquarters of the railway, trains reverse to take the line to Boscarne Junction; this lies on the former London and South Western Railway route to Wadebridge and Padstow, which now forms the Camel Trail alongside the River Camel. The railway aspires to extend alongside this foot/cyclepath towards Wadebridge in the future; the railway is controlled by lower quadrant semaphore signals.
Access to the Network Rail mainline at Bodmin is controlled by a lever frame, under the supervision of NR's Lostwithiel signal box. For a Full list of Locomotives and Wagons 4247 – a GWR 4200 Class 2-8-0T heavy freight locomotive built in 1916 that used to haul trains of china clay from St Blazey to Fowey, its boiler certificate expires in 2021 but is operational in British Railways unlined black livery. 4612 – built in 1942. One of the familiar GWR 5700 Class 0-6-0PT pannier tank locomotives that operated out of St Blazey engine shed for use on the china clay branch lines, its boiler certificate expires in 2023 but is operational in Great Western Railway green livery. 5552 – a GWR 4575 Class 2-6-2T familiar from operating passenger trains on most of the Cornish branch lines. Built in 1928. Undergoing overhaul at Bodmin General and painted in British Railways lined green livery. 6435 – a GWR 6400 Class 0-6-0PT, another pannier tank, this class was fitted with equipment for working auto trains between Plymouth and Saltash.
6435 emerged from Swindon railway works for the first time in April 1937 and spent many years in Wales. It was condemned on 12 October 1964 and entered preservation with the Dart Valley Railway on 17 October 1965, its boiler certificate expires in 2022 but is operational and in British Railways lined green livery. 30587 – an LSWR 0298 Class "Beattie Well Tank" 2-4-0WT, built in 1874 one of three of these ancient locomotives that were used for many years on the mineral branch from Boscarne Junction to Wenfordbridge. Its boiler certificate expires in 2023. 30120 – built in 1899 one of the LSWR Class T9 "Greyhound" 4-4-0s that pulled express trains from Exeter to Wadebridge and Padstow. It is on long-term loan from the National Collection and was overhauled during 2010 to allow it to re-enter service, its boiler certificate expires in 2020 but is operational in British Railways lined black livery. D3452 – a British Rail Class 10 0-6-0 diesel-electric shunting locomotive. After withdrawal by British Rail in July 1968, it was sold to English China Clays plc for further service.
It spent much of its subsequent time at Fowey shunting china clay trains. It was put to work at Bodmin, it is operational and in British Railways black livery. 08444 – a British Rail Class 08 0-6-0DE shunting locomotive. This was the first diesel to arrive on the Bodmin and Wenford Railway, delivered in March 1987 from Cardiff Canton TMD, it was number D3559 but became 08444, the number it carries at Bodmin. Operational BR Green 33110 – a British Rail Class 33 Type 3 Bo-Bo; this Southern Region locomotive arrived at Bodmin in December 1993. It is operational and in British Rail grey livery. 37142 – a British Rail Class 37 type 3 Co-Co BR blue. Built in 1963. During preparation on Saturday morning of the 2009 autumn diesel gala, 37142 was found to have contaminated oil. Early examination showed a sudden water leakage from at least two liners, it is operational and in British Railways blue livery. 47306 – BR Co–Co Class 47 named "The Sapper". It is operational and in Railfreight Distribution grey livery.
50042 – BR Co–Co Class 50 named after the warship "Triumph" BR blue. Built in 1968, it was taken out of service from Laira TMD at Plymo
Bodmin and Wadebridge Railway
The Bodmin and Wadebridge Railway was a railway line opened in 1834 in Cornwall, United Kingdom. It linked the town of Bodmin with the harbour at Wadebridge and quarries at Wenfordbridge, its intended traffic was minerals to the port at Wadebridge and sea sand, used to improve agricultural land, inwards. Passengers were carried on part of the line, it was the first steam-powered railway line in the county and predated the main line to London by 25 years. It was always short of money, both for initial construction and for actual operation. In 1847 it was purchased by the London and South Western Railway, when that company hoped to gain early access to Cornwall for its network, but in fact those intentions were much delayed, the little line was long isolated. China clay extraction was developed at Wenfordbridge and sustained mineral traffic on the line for many years, but passenger use declined and the line closed to passengers in 1967, the china clay traffic continuing until 1978. Much of the route now forms part of the Camel Trail, a cycle and footpath from Wenfordbridge to Padstow Local interests obtained parliamentary authority to construct the Bodmin & Wadebridge Railway from metal ore mines near Wenford to the port at Wadebridge for onward transport by coastal shipping.
Sea sand used for improving agricultural land, was to be brought up from Wadebridge. The line was to have a branch to Bodmin and a one-mile branch to Ruthern Bridge; the line was formally opened on 30 September 1834 although trial operation, conveying revenue passengers and minerals had taken place in July. The permanent way consisted of 15 foot parallel rails 42 lbs per yard on stone blocks 20 inches square; the track gauge was the standard gauge. At first there was only one locomotive, called "Camel", a single passenger coach, few wagons, but a second engine, called "Elephant" was obtained from June 1836; the passenger service only operated between Bodmin and Wadebridge, never on the branches. The train service seems to have been irregular because of mechanical problems with the locomotives, for many years the passenger service consisted of a train from Wadebridge on Mondays and Fridays, returning on the other weekdays. Minerals and goods were the dominant traffic, there were numerous wharves—the company used the term borrowed from canal operation, the person in charge of each wharf was a wharfinger.
Wharves and siding connections were at: Ruthern Bridge. In the period from 1835, business interests in the Falmouth area were concerned to regenerate that town's waning importance, railway connection to London was in their thoughts. Several proposals came forward and failed, but a scheme called the Cornwall & Devon Central Railway gained support for a standard gauge line following an inland route, forming an alliance with other lines to get access to London over the London & South Western Railway; the Cornwall & Devon Central company had yet to get parliamentary approval for construction, but it purchased the Bodmin & Wadebridge line for £35,000. In fact the C&DC lost out in its bid for approval for its line, the London & South Western company itself purchased the Bodmin & Wadebridge line for the same £35,000 from the C&DC company in 1847; the LSWR now owned a loss-making little line more than a hundred miles from its own network. The purchase did not have parliamentary authority, the purchase is described as illegal.
In fact the activities of companies incorporated by Act of Parliament were limited by the terms of the Act, the LSWR did not have the power to acquire another railway company. Notwithstanding the remoteness of the new owner, the LSWR brought financial resources to bear and the local line continued its operations with a little more certainty than while still making considerable losses; however the Bodmin & Wadebridge continued to play a role in the battle between the LSWR and its allies, the GWR and its satellites. Several nominally independent companies sought support and parliamentary powers for lines connecting with the Bodmin & Wadebridge. In 1873 the Devon & Cornwall Railway, a narrow gauge company, tried to obtain parliamentary authority to make extensions in the two counties in its name, including a railway from near Okehampton to Wenfordbridge, so as to gain access to Wadebridge. A new halt, called Shooting Range Platform, was opened about 1880, it was long enough for a single coach, located on the south-west side of the line.
Trains stopped there only with written authority from the Army. In 1882 an Act was passed for a railway called the North Cornwall
Padstow is a town, civil parish and fishing port on the north coast of Cornwall, United Kingdom. The town is situated on the west bank of the River Camel estuary 5 miles northwest of Wadebridge, 10 miles northwest of Bodmin and 10 miles northeast of Newquay; the population of Padstow civil parish was 3,162 in the 2001 census, reducing to 2,993 at the 2011 census. In addition an electoral ward with the same name extends as far as Trevose Head; the population for this ward is 4,434 Padstow was named Petroc-stow, Petroc-stowe, or'Petrock's Place', after the Welsh missionary Saint Petroc, who landed at Trebetherick around AD 500. After his death a monastery was established here, of great importance until "Petroces stow" was raided by the Vikings in 981, according to the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. Whether as a result of this attack or the monks moved inland to Bodmin, taking with them the relics of St Petroc; the cult of St Petroc was important both in Bodmin. Padstow is recorded in the Domesday Book. There was land for 5 villeins who had 2 ploughs, 6 smallholders and 24 acres of pasture.
It was valued at 10/-. In the medieval period Padstow was called Aldestowe. Or Hailemouth; the modern Cornish form Lannwedhenek derives from Lanwethinoc and in a simpler form appears in the name of the Lodenek Press, a publisher based in Padstow. The seal of the borough of Padstow was a ship with three masts, the sails furled and an anchor hanging from the bow, with the legend "Padstow." Time Team visited Padstow for the episode "From Constantinople to Cornwall," broadcast on 9 March 2008. There are two Cornish crosses in the parish: one is built into a wall in the old vicarage garden and another is at Prideaux Place. There is part of a decorated cross shaft in the churchyard; the church of St Petroc is one of four said to have been founded by the saint, the others being Little Petherick and Bodmin. It is quite large and of 13th and 14th century date. There is a fine 15th century font of Catacleuse. There are two fine monuments to members of the Prideaux family: there is a monumental brass of 1421.
Traditionally a fishing port, Padstow is now a popular tourist destination. Although some of its former fishing fleet remains, it is a yachting haven on a dramatic coastline with few navigable harbours; the influence of restaurateur Rick Stein can be seen in the port, tourists travel from long distances to eat at his restaurant and cafés. This has led to the town being dubbed "Padstein", by food writers in the British media. However, the boom in the popularity of the port has caused house price inflation both in the port and surrounding areas, as people buy homes to live in, or as second or holiday homes; this has meant significant numbers of locals cannot afford to buy property in the area, with prices well over 10 times the average salary of around £15,000. This has led to a population decline. Plans to build a skatepark in Padstow have been proposed and funds are being raised to create this at the Recreation Ground. During the mid-19th century, ships carrying timber from Canada would arrive at Padstow and offer cheap travel to passengers wishing to emigrate.
Shipbuilders in the area would benefit from the quality of their cargoes. Among the ships that sailed were the barques Clio and Voluna; the approach from the sea into the River Camel is blocked by the Doom Bar, a bank of sand extending across the estuary, a significant hazard to shipping and the cause of many shipwrecks. For ships entering the estuary, the immediate loss of wind due to the cliffs was a particular hazard resulting in ships being swept onto the Doom Bar. A manual capstan was installed on the west bank of the river and rockets were fired to carry a line to ships so that they could be winched to safety. There have been ferries across the Camel estuary for centuries and the current service, the Black Tor Ferry, carries pedestrians between Padstow and Rock daily throughout the year. From 1899 until 1967 Padstow railway station was the westernmost point of the former Southern Railway; the railway station was the terminus of an extension from Wadebridge of the former Bodmin and Wadebridge Railway and North Cornwall Railway.
These lines were part of the London and South Western Railway incorporated into the Southern Railway in 1923 and British Railways in 1948, but were proposed for closure during the Beeching Axe of the 1960s. The LSWR promoted Padstow as a holiday resort; until 1964, Padstow was served by the Atlantic Coast Express – a direct train service to/from London – but the station was closed in 1967. The old railway line is now the Camel Trail, a footpath and cycle path, popular owing to its picturesque route beside the River Camel. One of the railway mileposts is now embedded outside the Shipwright's Arms public house on the Harbour Front. Today, the nearest railway station is at Bodmin Parkway, a few miles south of Bodmin. Plymouth Bus operate buses to the station; the South West Coast Path runs on both sides of the River Camel estuary and crosses from Padstow to Rock v
Dragoons were a class of mounted infantry, who used horses for mobility, but dismounted to fight on foot. From the early 18th century onward, dragoons were also employed as conventional cavalry, trained for combat with swords from horseback. Dragoon regiments were established in most European armies during the late 17th and early 18th centuries; the name is derived from a type of firearm, called a "dragon", a handgun version of a blunderbuss, carried by dragoons of the French Army. The title has been retained in modern times by a number of ceremonial mounted regiments; the establishment of dragoons evolved from the practice of sometimes transporting infantry by horse when speed of movement was needed. In 1552 Prince Alexander of Parma mounted several companies of infantry on pack horses to achieve surprise. Another early instance was ordered by Louis of Nassau in 1572 during operations near Mons in Hainaut, when 500 infantry were transported this way, it is suggested the first dragoons were raised by the Marshal de Brissac in 1600.
According to old German literature, dragoons were invented by Count Ernst von Mansfeld, one of the greatest German military commanders, in the early 1620s. There are other instances of mounted infantry predating this; however Mansfeld, who had learned his profession in Hungary and the Netherlands used horses to make his foot troops more mobile, creating what was called an "armée volante". The name derives from an early weapon, a short wheellock called a dragon, because the first dragoons raised in France had their carbine's muzzle decorated with a dragon's head; the practice comes from a time when all gunpowder weapons had distinctive names, including the culverin, falcon, etc. It is sometimes claimed a galloping infantryman with his loose coat and the burning match resembled a dragon, it has been suggested that the name derives from the German "tragen" or the Dutch "dragen", both being the verb "to carry" in their respective languages. Howard Reid claims that the role descend from the Latin Draconarius.
Dragoon is used as a verb to mean to subjugate or persecute by the imposition of troops. The term dates from 1689, at a time when dragoons were being used by the French monarchy to persecute Protestants by forcing Protestants to lodge a dragoon in their house to watch over them, at the householder's expense. Early dragoons were not organized in squadrons or troops as were cavalry, but in companies like the infantry: their officers and non-commissioned officers bore infantry ranks. Dragoon regiments used drummers, not buglers; the flexibility of mounted infantry made dragoons a useful arm when employed for what would now be termed "internal security" against smugglers or civil unrest, on line of communication security duties. During the English Civil War dragoons were used for a variety of tasks: providing outposts, holding defiles or bridges in the front or rear of the main army, lining hedges or holding enclosures, providing dismounted musketeers to support regular cavalry.. In the closing stages of the Battle of Naseby Okey's Dragoons, who had started the action as dismounted musketeers, got on their horses and charged the first time this was done.
Supplied with inferior horses and more basic equipment, the dragoon regiments were cheaper to recruit and maintain than the expensive regiments of cavalry. When in the 17th century Gustav II Adolf introduced dragoons into the Swedish Army, he provided them with a sabre, an axe and a matchlock musket, utilizing them as "labourers on horseback". Many of the European armies henceforth imitated this all-purpose set of weaponry. A non-military use of dragoons was the 1681 Dragonnades, a policy instituted by Louis XIV to intimidate Huguenot families into either leaving France or re-converting to Catholicism by billeting ill-disciplined dragoons in Protestant households. While other categories of infantry and cavalry were used, the mobility and available numbers of the dragoon regiments made them suitable for repressive work of this nature over a wide area. In the Spanish Army, Pedro de la Puente organized a body of dragoons in Innsbruck in 1635. In 1640, a tercio of a thousand dragoons armed with the arquebus was created in Spain.
By the end of the 17th century, the Spanish Army had three tercios of dragoons in Spain, plus three in the Netherlands and three more in Milan. In 1704, the Spanish dragoons were reorganised into regiments by Philip V, as were the rest of the tercios. Towards the end of 1776, George Washington realized the need for a mounted branch of the American military. In January 1777 four regiments of light dragoons were raised. Short term enlistments were abandoned and the dragoons joined for three years, or "the war", they participated in most of the major engagements of the American War of Independence, including the Battles of White Plains, Princeton, Germantown, Saratoga and Monmouth, as well as the Yorktown campaign. Dragoons were at a disadvantage when engaged against true cavalry, sought to improve their horsemanship and social status. By the Seven Years' War the primary role of dragoons in most European armies had progressed from that of mounted infantry to that of heavy cavalry. Earlier dragoon responsibilities for scouting and picket duty had passed to hussars and similar light cavalry corps in the French, Austrian and other armies.
In the Imperial Russian Army, due to the availability of the Cossack troops, the dragoons were retained in their original role for much longer. An exception t
Wenfordbridge, or Wenford Bridge, is a hamlet some 6 miles north of Bodmin and on the western flank of Bodmin Moor, in Cornwall, England, UK. It takes its name from an old granite bridge over the River Camel, lies on the border between the parishes of St Breward and St Tudy. Wenford Bridge was the terminus of a former railway line from Wadebridge, built by the Bodmin and Wadebridge Railway in 1834; the line was built in order to facilitate the transport of sea sand for agricultural use from the estuary of the Camel to the local farms, never carried passengers. Other traffic included granite and china clay from local quarries, the line survived to carry the latter until 1983. Today the route of the line forms part of the Camel Trail, a recreational route for walkers and horse riders; the influential studio potter Michael Cardew purchased the inn at Wenford in 1939 and converted it to a pottery where he produced earthenware and stoneware pottery. After his death his son Seth Cardew carried on the tradition until 2005 when he relocated to Spain