Wadena County is a county in the U. S. state of Minnesota. As of the 2010 United States Census, the population was 13,843, its county seat is Wadena. It is the poorest county in Minnesota, one of the poorest in the United States; the newly organized Minnesota Legislature created the county on June 11, 1858. A settlement began at the future city of Wadena in 1871, by 1873 a post office was in operation there; the settlement was designated the county seat when the state legislature organized the county on February 21, 1873. The town took the name of a trading post 15 miles to the east, which had flourished for several years but was abandoned by that time; the trading post was named for Chief Wadena, an Ojibwe Indian chief of the late 19th century in northwestern Minnesota. Wadena County comprises 15 townships, first surveyed in 1863; each township contains 36 sections of land. In 1857 Augustus Aspinwall laid out a town site in what is now Section 15, Thomastown township, at the junction of the Crow Wing and Partridge rivers, named it Wadena.
When the railroad went through the area in 1872 it ran about three miles south of this site and the town withered away. During the last part of the 19th century and the first half of the 20th, there were two railroads in the county; the Northern Pacific main line running east to west through Wadena was built in 1872, while the Great Northern branch or "K" line which ran from Sauk Centre to Bemidji, via Sebeka and Menahga, was completed in 1891. The line from Park Rapids to Long Prairie was abandoned in 1984 while the rest was abandoned in the early 1970s with the northern section from Park Rapids to Cass Lake since converted to the Heartland Trail. Wadena used to be served by Elliott Bros.. Transportation Co. Northwest Transportation Co. Red Bus Line, Gray Bus Line, Liederbach Bus Co. and Mercury Bus line. There are four historical societies in the county, including the Wadena County Historical Society, the Verndale Historical Society, the Sebeka Finnish American Historical Society and the Menahga Historical Society.
In 2010 there were four organized school districts in the county: Wadena, Verndale and Menahga. In 1906 there were 52 school districts in the county. Sebeka once had Minnesota's second-largest creamery. Over the years there have been ten creameries in the county and ten cheese factories; the Crow Wing River flows south through the east-central part of the county and forms the lower part of the county's eastern border as it turns to flow southeast. The Partridge River flows east through the southern part of the county, discharging into the Crow Wing in the county's southeast corner; the Leaf River flows east through the central part of the county, discharging into the Crow Wing in the county's eastern portion. The county terrain consists of low rolling hills, carved by drainages, devoted to agriculture wherever possible; the terrain slopes to the east and south, with its highest point near its northwest corner, at 1,460' ASL. The county has a total area of 543 square miles, of which 536 square miles is land and 7.0 square miles is water.
Wadena is one of 17 Minnesota counties with more savanna soils than forest soils. Staples Municipal Airport - north of Staples As of the 2000 United States Census, there were 13,713 people, 5,426 households, 3,608 families in the county; the population density was 25.6/sqmi. There were 6,334 housing units at an average density of 11.8/sqmi. The racial makeup of the county was 97.89% White, 0.48% Black or African American, 0.55% Native American, 0.18% Asian, 0.03% Pacific Islander, 0.27% from other races, 0.59% from two or more races. 0.93 % of the population were Latino of any race. 37.5% were of German, 14.0% Norwegian, 12.5% Finnish, 9.0% United States or American and 5.3% Swedish ancestry. There were 5,426 households out of which 30.00% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 55.30% were married couples living together, 7.60% had a female householder with no husband present, 33.50% were non-families. 29.20% of all households were made up of individuals and 15.10% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older.
The average household size was 2.45 and the average family size was 3.02. The county population contained 25.80% under the age of 18, 8.10% from 18 to 24, 23.60% from 25 to 44, 22.60% from 45 to 64, 19.90% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 40 years. For every 100 females there were 97.90 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 94.90 males. The median income for a household in the county was $30,651, the median income for a family was $38,618. Males had a median income of $28,424 versus $21,027 for females; the per capita income for the county was $15,146. About 9.70% of families and 14.10% of the population were below the poverty line, including 15.40% of those under age 18 and 12.60% of those age 65 or over. Wadena County is known as the poorest county in Minnesota. Bluegrass Huntersville Oylen Leaf River Shell City Wadena County voters have traditionally voted Republican. In only one national election since 1964 has the county selected the Democratic Party candidate.
During World War II in the Philippines, the occupying Japanese government issued a fiat currency in several denominations. The Second Philippine Republic under President José P. Laurel outlawed possession of guerrilla currency, declared a monopoly on the issuance of money, so that anyone found to possess guerrilla notes could be arrested or executed; some Filipinos called the fiat peso "Mickey Mouse money". Many survivors of the war tell stories of going to the market laden with suitcases or "bayóng" overflowing with the Japanese-issued bills. According to one witness, 75 "Mickey Mouse" pesos, or about 35 U. S. dollars at that time, could buy one duck egg. In 1944, a box of matches cost more than 100 Mickey Mouse pesos; these bills were used by American psychological warfare personnel as propaganda leaflets. Japanese occupation banknotes were overprinted with the words "The Co-prosperity Sphere: What is it worth?", in an attempt to discredit the Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere, dropped from Allied aircraft over the occupied territories.
A new series of notes in denominations of 1, 5 and 10 pesos were issued in 1943. Hyperinflation forced the Japanese to issue notes for 100, 500 and 1000 pesos in 1944. Emergency circulating notes Japanese government-issued dollar in Malaya, North Borneo and Brunei Philippine peso Bangko Sentral ng Pilipinas - Official website of the Bangko Sentral ng Pilipinas Philippine Currency During WWII
Revolutionary Comics was an American comic book publisher specializing in unauthorized profiles of entertainers and professional athletes, as well as a line of erotic comics. Its flagship series was Rock'N' Roll Comics. Founded by Todd Loren, Revolutionary Comics was based in San Diego. After some success with Musicade, a mail order music memorabilia company, Loren formed Revolutionary Comics in 1989; the publisher's first title was Rock'N' Roll Comics, a line of unauthorized comic book biographies of rock stars prompted in part by the success of a 1986 Bruce Springsteen parody comic called Hey Boss. Early issues of Rock'N' Roll Comics contained straight biographies in comic form and Mad magazine-style parodies; the parodies were dropped. The line featured unlicensed biographies of rock stars, told in comic book form but geared for adults with adult situations; the comic sported a cover tagline reading "Unauthorized and Proud of it." Some musicians featured in the comic were supportive. The resulting media exposure garnered Rock'N' Roll Comics huge sales of their early issues.
A injunction led the company to expand its distribution network outside traditional comic shops, getting their products into music and gift retail outlets which had never carried comics before. This independence from the comic book direct market served the company well, as sales continued to rise from issue to issue. Revolutionary's only other title at first was the bimonthly Tipper Gore's Comics and Stories, an EC-inspired horror anthology which lasted five issues. Other one-shots and short-lived titles followed, but the heart of the company was Rock'N' Roll Comics, which continued to sell large quantities. By the early nineties, Revolutionary Comics was among the top three selling independent comic companies in the U. S. Loren brought on his father, Herb Shapiro, to be vice president of the growing company, while Jay Allen Sanford, who'd worked for Loren's Musicade and was writing for Rock ‘N’ Roll Comics, became the line's head writer. New music titles were launched, most notably Rock'N' Roll Comics Magazine and Hard Rock Comics, as well as a line of "Experience" limited series, on such subjects as the Beatles, Elvis Presley, Led Zeppelin, Pink Floyd.
In 1991, Revolutionary started a line of unauthorized sports biographical comics, which included such titles as Baseball Superstars Comics, Baseball Legends Comics, Sports Superstars Comics, Sports Legends Comics. In 1991 Loren launched Carnal Comics, an adults-only imprint, to publish Lyndal Ferguson's erotic anthology series Sexpot, SS Crompton's Demi the Demoness, Allen Salyer's Pineapple Perfume. Printer troubles led to some delays, but the first three Carnal Comics titles were released all at once in 1992. All only lasted a single issue. After Loren's June 1992 murder, the company continued for two more years, under Loren's father and with Sanford serving as managing editor. During those years, Kiss participated in a three-issue biographical series called Kiss Pre-History, other new music titles were launched, such as British Invasion and Alternative Comics; the erotic imprint's next title, the limited series Carnal Comics: Sarah Jane Hamilton was successful, selling in numbers as high as Rock ‘N’ Roll Comics.
The Hamilton limited series was the last title published by Revolutionary. Herb Shapiro decided to close the company in summer 1994, in part because of debt accrued by a failed color sports comic line. In the end, Revolutionary published more than 300 individual issues. Under the banner Re-Visionary Press, Sanford continued to publish the Carnal Comics imprint. S. and overseas, including a 2014 Rock ‘N’ Roll Comics series licensed to Croatian publishers. Sanford and Herb Shapiro kept the Revolutionary archive intact, including over 9,000 pages of original interior artwork, around 250 original cover paintings and illustrations, all of the scripts, production materials, printer film used to produce the comics; the copyrights and trademarks to all of the titles Revolutionary produced are maintained, allowing for digital distribution via iTunes, Amazon.com, other online outlets, where the comics continue to be popular with fans of both the subjects and offbeat comic books. In September 2009, publisher Bluewater Productions announced it would be reprinting Revolutionary's line of music comics in ten monthly volumes, averaging 250 pages each.
The first collections were The Beatles Experience and Hard Rock Heroes, released in early 2010. Many of Revolutionary's original creators participated in updating and modernizing the contents of the musical comic bios; the reprints and updates were supervised by long-time Rock'N' Roll Comics writer/editor Jay Allen Sanford. Bluewater released seven titles from 2010–2012: The Beatles Experience, 240 pp. ISBN 978-1427642271 Hard Rock Heroes, 240 pp. ISBN 978-1616239244 — with AC/DC, Guns N' Roses, Ozzy Osbourne/Black Sabbath, Van Halen, Spirit, Queensrÿche, Motörhead, ZZ Top The Runaways: Joan Jett – Lita Ford, 32 pp; the Pink Floyd Experience, 150 pp. ISBN 978-1616239305 The Led Zeppelin Experience, 150 pp. ISBN 978-1616239398 The Elvis Presley Experience, 210 pp. ISBN 978-1450700214 Stan Lee: the Biography!, 32 pp. ISBN 978-0985591120Two other projected volumes, Rock'N' Roll Car
Bob Boland nicknamed "Bolo" is an Australian former professional rugby league footballer and coach who played for the Balmain Tigers and Penrith Panthers. Boland made his debut for Balmain Tigers in 1957. Boland played with the club for 10 seasons and was a member of the Balmain sides who played in the 1964 and 1966 grand final defeats against St George. In 1968, Boland moved out west to join newly admitted club the Penrith Panthers. Boland played with Penrith until the end of 1970 before retiring. After joining Penrith, Boland took on the role as captain-coach but after retirement became the full-time non playing coach. Boland held the position until the end of 1972. Boland's time as coach was not as successful. In 1976, Boland coached the Nambucca Roosters. In 2016, Boland spoke about his playing career saying “I used to go to the movies or out around town and see the old Balmain players – and you look up to them... when they said hello it gave you a bit of a lift, “When I started to play, I became the person people looked up to".
Miranda Chih-Ning Cheng is a Taiwanese-born and Dutch-educated mathematician and theoretical physicist who works as an assistant professor at the University of Amsterdam. She is known for formulating the umbral moonshine conjectures and for her work on the connections between K3 surfaces and string theory. Cheng grew up in Taiwan, where she dropped out of school and left her parents' home to work at a record store and play in a punk rock band at the age of 16. Despite not completing high school, she was able to enter university through a program for gifted science students that she had gone through. After graduating from the Department of Physics at National Taiwan University in 2001, she moved to the Netherlands to continue her studies, earned a master's degree in theoretical physics in 2003 from Utrecht University, under the supervision of Nobel laureate Gerard't Hooft, she completed her Ph. D. in 2008 from the University of Amsterdam under the joint supervision of Erik Verlinde and Kostas Skenderis.
After postdoctoral study at Harvard University and working as a researcher at CNRS, she returned to Amsterdam in 2014, with a joint position in the Institute of Physics and Korteweg–de Vries Institute for Mathematics. Cheng, along with John Duncan of Case Western Reserve University and Jeffrey Harvey of the University of Chicago, formulated the Umbral Moonshine Conjecture in 2012, providing evidence of 23 new moonshines, they postulated that for each of these moonshines, there is a string theory, in which the string states are counted by the mock modular forms and the finite group captures the model's symmetry. In reference to the string theory underlying umbral moonshine, Cheng said that “it suggests that there’s a special symmetry acting on the physical theory of K3 surfaces.” Home page Miranda Cheng publications indexed by Google Scholar "Miranda Cheng - Umbral Moonshine and String Theory". YouTube. "Strings 2017 - Miranda Cheng - Progress on moonshine". YouTube
The Sanin Main Line is a railway line in western Japan, which connects Kyoto and Shimonoseki, operated by West Japan Railway Company. It is the major railway line of the San'in region paralleling the Japan Sea, crossing Kyoto, Hyōgo, Tottori and Yamaguchi prefectures; the main portion from Kyoto to Hatabu is the longest single continuous railway line in Japan at 673.8 km, although no scheduled train operates over the entire line. The section between Kyoto and Sonobe, connecting Kyoto and its northern suburbs, is a part of JR West's Urban Network and is nicknamed the Sagano Line. Distances: 676.0 km Operators West Japan Railway Company Kyoto - Hatabu: 673.8 km Nagatoshi - Senzaki: 2.2 km Japan Freight Railway Company Hōki-Daisen - Higashi-Matsue: 27.1 km Yonago - Higashi-Matsue temporary closed Okami - Masuda: 16.9 km Track: Double: Kyoto – Sonobe, Ayabe – Fukuchiyama, Hōki-Daisen – Yasugi, Higashi-Matsue – Matsue, Tamatsukuri-Onsen – Kimachi Single: the rest Electric supply: Kyoto - Kinosaki-Onsen, Hōki-Daisen - Nishi-Izumo: 1,500 V DC Railway signalling: Kyoto - Nishi-Izumo: Automatic Nishi-Izumo - Hatabu, including "Senzaki branch line": Special Automatic.
TL: Rapid Tottori Liner AL: Rapid Aqua Liner CL: Rapid Commuter Liner All the trains stop at stations signed "+". Most trains stop at "‡". Most trains do not stop at "*". No trains stop at "-". Rapid Commuter Liner runs from Nishi-Izumo to Yonago, one direction alone The line was built by three different private companies, which were subsequently nationalised and connected by the Japanese Government Railway; the Kyoto Railway opened the section to Sonobe between 1897 and 1899. The Bantsuru Railway opened the Ayabe to Fukuchiyama section in 1904. Both companies were nationalised in 1907; the first section opened by the JGR was between Yonago and Mikuriya in 1902, the line was progressively extended eastward, reaching Tottori in 1907 and Iwami in 1908, the same year the current Bantan Line opened to Wadayama and Yoka. Construction of that line continued westward, the two lines were connected in 1912. In the meantime, the Sonobe to Ayabe section was opened in 1910, the Fukuchiyama to Wadayama section the following year.
In addition, construction from Yonago progressed westward, opening to Matsue in 1908 and Izumoshi in 1910, resulting in the a 385 km continuous line upon the 1912 connection mentioned above. At the western end, the Choshu Railway opened the Hatabu to Kogushi section in 1914. From Izumoshi, construction continued progressively westward, opening to Masuda in 1923, to Todakobama in 1925, the year that the Choshu Railway was nationalised and the Kogushi to Takibe section opened, with construction continuing from both directions until the two sections were connected in 1933, completing the current line; the Yonago to Hoki-Daisen section was double-tracked between 1962 and 1966, with the Ayabe to Fukuchiyama section double-tracked in between 1968 and 1969, the Tamatsukuri-Onsen to Kimachi section in 1970. The Matsue to Higashi-Matsue section was double-tracked in 1979, the Yonago to Yasugi section in 1980; the original Saga-Arashiyama to Umahori section was built on the banks of the Hozugawa in a narrow gorge.
A new double-track alignment was opened in 1989, the original alignment became the Sagano Scenic Railway. Further double-tracking occurred in stages, with the entire Kyoto to Sonobe section double-tracked by 2010; the Hoki-Daisen to Izumoshi section was electrified in 1982 in conjunction with the electrification of the Hakubi Line. The Fukuchiyama to Kinosaki section was electrified in 1986 in conjunction with the electrification of the Fukuchiyama Line; the Sonobe to Fukuchiyama section was electrified between 1985 and 1986, the Kyoto to Sonobe section in 1990. Fukuchiyama Station: The Hokutan Railway operated a 12 km line to Koumori between 1923 and 1971. Ebara Station: The Izushi Railway operated an 11 km line to Izushi between 1929 and 1970. Iwami Station: The Iwai Prefectural Government opened a 3 km 762 mm gauge line to Iwai Onsen in 1925. In June 1934, 149 of the 216 buildings at Iwai Onsen burnt down, in September that year Typhoon Muroto caused such extensive damage to the line that it was out of service until February 1936.
In 1944, the line was closed and materials recycled for the Japanese war effort. Kurayoshi Station: In 1912, a 4 km line to Kamii opened, was extended 11 km to Sekigane in 1941 and a further 5 km to Yamamori in 1958. Freight services ceased in 1974 and the line closed in 1985. Yonago Station: The Hakuhi Electric Railway operated a 12 km line, electrified at 600 V DC, to Hosshoji between 1924 and 1967. A 6 km electrified branch from Aga to Mori operated between 1930 and 1944. Arashima Station: The Hirose Railway opened an 8 km line, electrified at 600 V DC to Izumo Hirose in 1928. In 1954, the company merged with the Ichibata Electric Railway, the line closed in 1960. Izumoshi Station: On the northern side of the station, the 8 km Taisha Line opened in 1912, on the opposite bank of the Ogamogawa to the Izumo-Taisha St