North Turramurra is a suburb on the Upper North Shore of Sydney, in the state of New South Wales, Australia. North Turramurra is located 20 kilometres north-west of the Sydney central business district, in the local government area of Ku-ring-gai Council. Turramurra and South Turramurra are separate suburbs. Turramurra is an Aboriginal word, thought to mean either big hill, high place, or small watercourse. Early settlers referred to the area as Eastern Road until the name Turramurra was adopted when the railway station was built in 1890. Eastern Road was an area of orchards. Samuel King, born in 1828 in County Donegal Ireland, arrived in Sydney in 1853. With his wife Ann, he established several orchards along Bobbin Head Road and at North Turramurra and was a noted church and community supporter. Eccleston du Faur secured the name Turramurra. Du Faur was born in England in 1832 and was recognised in Sydney as a supporter of the arts and sciences, he was elected a Fellow of the Royal Geographical Society in 1875 and was an early bush conservationist.
Most Du Faur secured the land for the Ku-ring-gai Chase National Park from the government of the day. The Chase was declared in 1894. Du Faur funded and made a road through the bushland to Bobbin Head. In 1895 he built a house on 25 acres at the Chase Gates. After his death in 1915, part of this property became Lady Davidson Home, a convalescent hospital Lady Davidson Hospital. North Turramurra became a separate suburb from Turramurra when it was gazetted as on 5 August 1994. North Turramurra is home to the sphinx war memorial; this 1.5 m high replica of the Great Sphinx of Egypt was carved out of sandstone in the 1920s by William Shirley, a returned soldier, in memory of fallen comrades. The suburb is a popular starting point for many bush walkers as it has easy access to Bobbin Head, the upper reaches of Cowan Creek and St Ives Chase. North Turramurra is the site of an official Bureau of Meteorology rainfall observation station. North Turramurra lies on a narrow spur between two creeks that flow to the sea through the Ku-ring-gai Chase National Park on the northern outskirts of the city.
The suburb is the northern boundary of the Ku-ring-gai Council. The forested valleys pose a bush-fire threat each summer, but residents are blessed with common sightings of a wide variety of peculiar and beautiful native wildlife; this is a suburb where you can see wallabies hopping around backyards. At the 2016 census, North Turramurra recorded a population of 4,257. Of these: The age distribution is unusual, due to the large number of Aged Care Facilities; the median age was 57 years, compared to the national median of 38 years. Children aged under 15 years made up 14.3% of the population and people aged 65 years and over made up 42.8% of the population. 61.1% were born in Australia. The suburb is characterised by a close-knit community and has a strong community group known as NTAG, one of the most active and successful community groups in the Ku-ring-gai area. A survey performed in 2019 by ABS analysis group in the Chinese city of Chongqing maintained that North Turramurra had become the suburb of choice for aspiring property investors due to the proximity to untouched woodlands and previous high captital growth.
There is a shopping village in North Turramurra on Bobbin Head Road which has an IGA supermarket, restaurants, post office and other facilities. The village has a number of well loved restaurants on the north shore; these include Happyland Asian Cuisine, 2074, The Cook's Garden, The Garden Tap, Farina Pizzeria, along with Mexed Up. North Turramurra is home to two schools: Turramurra North Public School Ku-Ring-Gai High School North Turramurra has warm, humid summers and cool-to-cold winters. North Turramurra has not been below freezing point for years and the last recorded snow fall was in 1836. North Turramurra gets rain all year round with the most in February. On 6 February 2010 North Turramurra got 180mm of rain in one day. On 12/13 February 2010 North Turramurra got 60mm in a night and on 13 February 2010 80mm of rain was recorded in North Turramurra; the highest recorded temperature was 46 °C on 14 January 1939. -5 is an unofficial record low in 1836. The nearest train station is Turramurra railway station.
Buses to North Turramurra are serviced by Transdev NSW at Turramurra train station. Transdev NSW bus route 577 runs through North Turramurra. Burns Road creates a boundary with Turramurra, to the south. Lady Davidson Private Hospital one of the largest dedicated rehabilitation hospital in Australia and has a long and distinguished history of providing health services for veterans and private patients. Nazareth House is an aged care hospital run by the Sisters of Nazareth. Joan Rowland. "North Turramurra". Dictionary of Sydney. Retrieved 28 September 2015. Turramurra & Kissing Point Rover Crews, both based in Turramurra, are active groups of young people aged 18~25, who are into a wide range of outdoor and community service activities
South Turramurra is a suburb on the Upper North Shore of Sydney in the state of New South Wales, Australia 18 kilometres north-west of the Sydney central business district, in the local government area of Ku-ring-gai Council. Turramurra and North Turramurra are separate suburbs. Turramurra is an Aboriginal word, thought to mean either big hill, high place, or small watercourse. Early settlers referred to the area as Eastern Road until the name Turramurra was adopted when the railway station was built in 1897. During the early 1990s a community organisation was formed to oppose plans for the construction of the B2/B3 extension, designed to connect the M2 motorway in North Epping with the Pacific Highway. South Turramurra became a separate suburb from Turramurra on 5 August 1994. At the 2016 census, the suburb of South Turramurra recorded a population of 3,084 people. Census data shows that: South Turramurra's Age distribution reflects the popularity of the suburb with families and retirees; the median age was 42 years, compared to the national median of 38 years.
Children aged under 15 years made up 23.7% of the population and people aged 65 years and over made up 18.1% of the population. Ethnic diversity: 67.8% of people were born in Australia, compared to the national average of 65.5%. 77.6% of people only spoke English at home. Other languages spoken at home included Mandarin at 3.8%. Religion: The most common responses for religion were No Religion 32.6%, Anglican 21.0% and Catholic 17.8%. Finances: South Turramurra is a wealthy suburb; the median household weekly income was $2,564, compared to the national median of $1,438. This difference is reflected in real estate, with the median mortgage payment being $3,000 per month, compared to the national median of $1,755. Housing: The great majority of occupied private dwellings were separate houses; the average household size was 3.1 people. The nearest train station is Turramurra railway station. Buses to South Turramurra operate from Turramurra train station; the Transdev NSW bus route 571 runs between Turramurra and South Turramurra along Kissing Point Road, route 572 runs the same route extended to Macquarie University.
The Comenarra Parkway, a minor arterial road consisting of only one lane in each direction, creates a boundary with Turramurra, to the north and West Pymble to the south. South Turramurra Shopping Village is located on the corner of Kissing Point Road. Turramurra High School Located on Maxwell Street Turramurra Public School is located on the south side of Turramurra but is technically in Turramurra, not South Turramurra South Turramurra is surrounded on the other three sides by the Lane Cove National Park. Field of Dreams, Kissing Point Road near Vernon Street Sir David Martin Oval, Auluba Road Netball Courts, Canoon Road The area is home to the Kissing Point Sports Club; the club consists of: Kissing Point Baseball Club Kissing Point Cricket Club Kissing Point Football Club Kissing Point Netball Club Kissing Point Softball Club The strong community support for the anti-freeway campaigners resulted in the protection of the bushland at the foot of the suburb of South Turramurra as part of the Lane Cove River National Park.
Many different and diverse action groups were formed in order to lobby government. The environmental community group STEP Inc, formed in South Turramurra in 1978 has grown to be a powerful force for the environment in northern Sydney. 1st Turramurra Scout Group is one of the oldest and strongest Scout Groups on the north side, with active programs for boys and girls aged from 8–11 Cub Scouts, 11–15 Scouts through to young men and women 15–17 Venturer Scouts and 18–25 Rovers. Turramurra and Kissing Point Rover Crews, both based on the south side of Turramurra, are active groups of young people aged 18~25, who are into a wide range of outdoor and community service activities. There are a number of Churches and various religious temples in South Turramurra, some having youth groups for children aged 5 - 18 years old. Joan Rowland. "South Turramurra". Dictionary of Sydney. Retrieved 29 September 2015
Shingle style architecture
The Shingle style is an American architectural style made popular by the rise of the New England school of architecture, which eschewed the ornamented patterns of the Eastlake style in Queen Anne architecture. In the Shingle style, English influence was combined with the renewed interest in Colonial American architecture which followed the 1876 celebration of the Centennial; the plain, shingled surfaces of colonial buildings were adopted, their massing emulated. Aside from being a style of design, the style conveyed a sense of the house as continuous volume; this effect—of the building as an envelope of space, rather than a great mass, was enhanced by the visual tautness of the flat shingled surfaces, the horizontal shape of many Shingle style houses, the emphasis on horizontal continuity, both in exterior details and in the flow of spaces within the houses. McKim and White and Peabody and Stearns were two of the notable firms of the era that helped to popularize the Shingle style, through their large-scale commissions for "seaside cottages" of the rich and the well-to-do in such places as Newport, Rhode Island and the village of East Hampton on the southeastern tip of Long Island.
The most famous Shingle style house built in American was "Kragsyde" the summer home commissioned by Bostonian G. Nixon Black, from Peabody and Stearns. Kragsyde was built atop the rocky coastal shore near Manchester-By-the-Sea and embodied every possible tenet of the Shingle style; the William G. Low House, designed by McKim, Mead & White and built in 1887, is another notable example. Many of the concepts of the Shingle style were adopted by Gustav Stickley, adapted to the American version of the Arts and Crafts Movement. Additionally, there are several other notable styles of Victorian architecture, including Italianate, Second Empire and Gothic revival; some concentrations of shingle style architecture are listed in the U. S. National Register of Historic Places. Significant listed historic districts include: Bay Head Historic District in Bay Head, New Jersey, with several dozen Shingle houses Houses in Sycamore Historic District, in Sycamore, Illinois Fenwick Historic District Connecticut's largest concentration, with 17 Montauk Association Historic District, on Long Island Houses in the Glen Ridge Historic District of Glen Ridge, New JerseyThe style was named, together with the Stick Style, by Yale University architectural historian Vincent Scully in his 1949 doctoral dissertation The Cottage Style.
This was followed by several magazine articles on the subject, culminating in Scully's The Shingle Style with the Stick Style in 1971 and The Shingle Style Today in 1974. Architects of the Shingle style emulated colonial houses' plain, shingled surfaces as well as their massing, whether in the single exaggerated gable of McKim Mead and White's Low House or in the complex massing of Kragsyde; this impression of the passage of time is enhanced by the use of shingles. Some architects, in order to attain a weathered look on a new building, had the cedar shakes dipped in buttermilk and installed, to leave a grayish tinge to the façade. Shingle style houses use a gambrel or hip roof; such houses thus emanate a greater emphasis on horizontality. The Shingle Style spread beyond North America. In Australia, it was introduced by the Canadian architect John Horbury Hunt in the nineteenth century; some of his Shingle Style homes still are heritage-listed. Some of his most notable examples of the style are Highlands, a home in the Sydney suburb of Wahroonga, Pibrac, in the nearby suburb of Warrawee.
The latter house has been featured in a television commercial. Gatehouse in Wahroonga, was not one of Hunt's designs, but is heritage-listed. Victorian architecture Queen Anne style architecture in the United States Scully, Vincent; the Shingle Style Today. New York: George Braziller, 1974. ISBN 0-8076-0760-6 About Shingle architecture, photo-essay at About. Com Definition with examples at Phorio Standards
Thornleigh, New South Wales
Thornleigh is a suburb on the Upper North Shore and Northern Suburbs of Sydney in the state of New South Wales, Australia. Thornleigh is located 22 kilometres north-west of the Sydney central business district in the local government area of Hornsby Shire; the source of the Lane Cove River is located in Thornleigh. Thornleigh is bounded to the north by south by the Lane Cove National Park. Thornleigh borders the suburbs of Normanhurst, Wahroonga and Pennant Hills. Thornleigh offers great district views and the topography varies with many established areas built around bushland settings and into the hills to afford the great views; the northern areas of the suburb bounded by Larool Creek and Waitara Creek are leafy and lush with vegetation and native fauna including rainbow lorikeets, kookaburras and bush turkeys. Majorie Headen Lookout is a vantage point which overlooks Waitara Creek Valley; the area bounded near the train station and the Comenarra Parkway include early examples of Federation and Californian Bungalow style properties.
Thornleigh was part of the land that the Kuringai people settled. The first non indigenous people to explore the area of Thornleigh were a party led by Governor Arthur Phillip in 1788. Settlers moved into the area in the 1830s and among them were James Milson, Patrick Duffy, John Thorn and Samuel Horne. Thornleigh is named after Constable John Thorn, along with Constable Horne, captured bushrangers Dalton and John MacNamara, leader of the North Rocks gang, on 22 June 1830, were granted land as a reward in 1838. Horne's land became Hornsby, Thorn's land became Thornleigh. Orcharding was one of the major mainstays of Thornleigh during the late nineteenth century. Land sales posters used this as an attraction for prospective settlers describing the area as "beautifully situated surrounded by magnificent orchards, the fruit from which affords a splendid proof of the ferlility of the soil and mildness of the climate". Among the orchard growers was Patrick Michael Duffy. After Patrick Duffy's passing, his land was passed down to his son Patrick Duffy Jnr.
Part of this land was purschased by the wealthy Friend family who built the Windyhaugh property on Duffy Avenue, used as the first Presbyterian Fellowship Union camp in the Commonwealth. As part of the construction of the railway from Strathfield to Hornsby, a 1.2km branch was constructed in 1884 by the contractors to a quarry in a gully west of Thornleigh. The tracks included a zig zag section. Thornleigh railway station opened on 17 September 1886 where the local produce was exported to the city markets. Fruit grown at Thornleigh was being exported as far as Vancouver and San Francisco. Thornleigh Post Office opened on 12 March 1888; the Thornleigh School of Arts opened in 1890 and was demolished in 1980 along with many other locations of historical significance in the suburb throughout the commercial development of the area in the 1970s and 1980s. These include the Astra Theatre, the Royal Hotel, Thornleigh Public School with its World War I memorial and the original Edwardian structures at Thornleigh Railway Station.
The Thornleigh Community Centre was constructed by the local and state government in order to compensate the community for the demolition of the Thornleigh School of Arts. In 1901, the National Brickworks started operations at Thornleigh. In 1913, the largest malt works in the southern hemisphere was established by WG Chilvers. Chilvers Road was named after William George Chilvers. Other streets with notable names include Norman Avenue, named after the Australian engineer Norman Selfe. During the Great Depression of the 1930s, unemployment was a problem in the area, so a local woman named Lorna Brandt raised money for the construction of a walking track near the Lane Cove River as a way of providing relief work; the track begins at Thornleigh Oval, at the bottom of Handley Avenue, goes through the bush towards the Lane Cove River. It goes parallel to the river for a short distance before looping back to arrive at Comenarra Parkway. An extension goes down through a spot called Conscript Pass. At this spot, there are rock carvings done by the men.
One of the carvings is a caricature of Bertram Stevens, Premier of New South Wales from 1932 to 1939. The track is known as Lorna Pass in memory of Lorna Brand, is now part of the Great North Walk, a long-distance walking trail between Sydney and Newcastle. Plans to establish a university at Thornleigh in response to the large number of enrollments at the University of Sydney and the University of New South Wales were discussed in the early 1960s due to Thornleigh being "Central to the Northern Line and the North Shore", the university was established in the suburb of Macquarie Park and is now known as Macquarie University. Thornleigh railway station is on the North Shore, Northern & Western Line of the Sydney Trains network. Pennant Hills Road is part of the National Highway, is one of Sydney's major thoroughfares; the Esplanade from Pennant Hills is a main road accessing Thornleigh to Normanhurst. The Comenarra Parkway is an arterial road that stretches from Thornleigh through to West Pymble via Wahroonga and South Turramurra.
Bus services from the Transdev NSW Upper North Shore service include: 587 - Hornsby to Westleigh via Waitara and Normanhurst 588 - Hornsby to Normanhurst West via Normanhurst service 589 - Hornsby to Sydney Adventist Hospital via Waitara, Woodlands Estate and Thornleigh. Thornleigh contains commercial areas. Thornleigh Marketplace containing a
Electorates of the Australian states and territories
A State Electoral District is an electorate within the Lower House or Legislative Assembly of Australian states and territories. Most state electoral districts send a single member to a state or territory's parliament using the preferential method of voting; the area of a state electoral district is dependent upon the Electoral Acts in the various states and vary in area between them. At present, there are 409 state electoral districts in Australia. State electoral districts do not apply to the Upper House, or Legislative Council, in those states that have one. In New South Wales and South Australia, MLCs represent the entire state, in Tasmania they represent single-member districts, in Victoria and Western Australia they represent a region formed by grouping electoral districts together. There are five electorates for the Legislative Assembly, each with five members each, making up 25 members in total. There are 93 electoral districts in New South Wales. There are 25 single-member electoral divisions in the Northern Territory, 17 former divisions.
There are 93 electoral districts in Queensland, for the Legislative Assembly of Queensland. Information about the QLD electoral districts for the 2006 elections can be obtained from the Electoral Commission of Queensland website. There are 47 single-member electoral districts in South Australia, for the South Australian House of Assembly. There are 15 electoral divisions in Tasmania for the upper house Legislative Council. In the lower house the five federal divisions are used, but electing 5 members each There are 88 electoral districts in Victoria, for the Victorian Legislative Assembly. There are 59 single-member electoral districts in Western Australia for the Western Australian Legislative Assembly. 42 are in the Perth metropolitan area and 17 are in the rest of the state. Divisions of the Australian House of Representatives Local government in Australia Parliaments of the Australian states and territories
Pennant Hills, New South Wales
Pennant Hills is a suburb in the Hills District and Northern Suburbs of Sydney, New South Wales, Australia. Pennant Hills is located 20 kilometres north-west of the Sydney central business district in the local government area of Hornsby Shire; the area was first explored by Governor Arthur Phillip shortly after 15 April 1788. It was noted that the party saw'fine views of the mountains inland'. Governor Phillip ` did not doubt; the first white settlement occurred in the area with the establishment of convict timber camps in the time of Governor Lachlan Macquarie. Permanent white settlement of Pennant Hills began only in the 1840s and took off with the arrival of the Northern railway line in the 1880s. In August 1912 the federal government opened a Wireless Telegraphy Station, the first of its kind on a national level; the suburb has grown since the 1950s, when the motor car became commonplace. There are two theories about the origin of the suburb's name. One is that the name comes from a hill where a pennant was flown as a signal during the early days of New South Wales.
However, though such signals were used, there is no evidence that such a pennant was flown at what is now Pennant Hills, but in the early 19th century the name applied to the whole ridge down as far as Mobbs Hill, which has a Telegraph Road to commemorate the signalling station. References to the suburb of Pennant Hills were written 20 years before the establishment of pennant stations. Elizabeth MacArthur records receiving a flag signal at Parramatta that her husband John had returned from England in 1806; the other theory says that Pennant Hills was named after an 18th-century botanist, Thomas Pennant, though there is no contemporary evidence for this either. The fact that the area was first referred to as "Pendant Hills" in the Sydney Gazette when first published in 1803 makes this theory unlikely, as there was no Thomas Pendant either; the name Pennant Hills applied to the area now known as West Pennant Hills, located in the Hills District. However, when the northern railway line was built it passed through what is now Pennant Hills, so a suburb grew around the station and took on the name.
The area around Thompsons Corner was renamed West Pennant Hills. Pennant Hills is hilly and the highest altitude is at Observatory Park on Pennant Hills Road, which once was the site of the old astronomical observatory. During the 1960s and 1970s, Pennant Hills was the site of Chelmsford Private Hospital, where the unorthodox psychiatric Deep Sleep Therapy conducted by Dr Harry Bailey resulted in the deaths of dozens of patients. Pennant Hills is one of the major commercial centres of Hornsby Shire. Several dozen shops are located at the north-west of the railway line, along with the local Pennant Hills Library. Several restaurants and cafes are located around Yarrara Road. Pennant Hills Marketplace, a local shopping centre, is located along Hillcrest Road. Residential houses are found in all areas in Pennant Hills, with recent modern apartments and office towers found along Pennant Hills Road. A significant commercial/industrial area can be found along Pennant Hills Road. Pennant Hills is home to several entertainment venues including the Pennant Hills Hotel.
Pennant Hills railway station is on the North Shore, Northern & Western Line of the Sydney Trains network. Pennant Hills Road is one of Sydney's major thoroughfares. Bus services by Transdev NSW and Hillsbus have their terminus in Pennant Hills and run to West Pennant Hills, Castle Hill and Cherrybrook. Pennant Hills was established as a Catholic parish in 1928 and a number of Catholic churches have been built since then; the parish's current church, St. Agathas, was built in 1979. St Mark's Anglican Church, Pennant Hills Baptist Church and a Pennant Hills Uniting Church serve Pennant Hills. Thornleigh Seventh-day Adventist Church is located in Pennant Hills. Pennant Hills is home to the first Danish Church in Australia. Crown Prince Frederik and Crown Princess Mary of Denmark made an official visit there on 6 March 2005. Pennant Hills has two public schools: Pennant Hills Public School established in 1925 and Pennant Hills High School established in 1966, two Catholic schools, Mount St Benedict College a girls secondary school and St. Agatha's Catholic Primary School.
Pennant Hills is surrounded on two sides by large swathes of bushland. To the east, the suburb is bordered by the upper reaches of the Lane Cove River and its associated national park, whilst in the north-west, Pennant Hills borders Berowra Valley National Park. Both of these reserves contain extensive walking tracks within the boundaries of the suburb, with some linking to the Great North Walk. Pennant Hills contains many public parks, the largest being the Pennant Hills Park sportsground; this complex hosts many sporting facilities consisting of the Ern Holmes Oval for Australian Football and cricket and netball courts, a rugby union field, a football pitch, two hockey fields and an archery range. The Ern Holmes Oval was the home ground of the Pennant Hills Demons Australian Football Club until 2011; the Lilian Fraser Garden is located in Pennant Hills. Maintained for many years by the noted government biologist Dr Lilian Fraser, after her death in 1987 her collection of rare and exotic plants was passed on to Hornsby Shire Council.
Open free of charge to the public for viewing, the garden can be hired for special events for a fee. Pennant Hills, due to its wide array of sporting facilities, plays home to a large number of sporting organisations; these organisations include the Pennant Hills Football Club, established in 1957, the Pennant Hills Demons AFC, which has seen nine players go on to compete
North Shore (Sydney)
The North Shore is the residential area of northern metropolitan Sydney, in New South Wales, Australia. The term refers to the suburbs located on the north shore of Sydney Harbour up to Hornsby and between Middle Harbour and the Lane Cove National Park. Before British settlement, the Lower North Shore was home to the Cammeraygal. After the establishment of Sydney in 1788, settlement of the North Shore of the harbour was quite limited. One of the first settlers was James Milson who lived in the vicinity of Jeffrey Street in Kirribilli, directly opposite Sydney Cove; the north shore was more rugged than the southern shore and western areas of the harbour and had limited agricultural potential. The early activities in the area included tree felling and some orchard farming in the limited areas of good soil; the North Shore railway line was built in the 1890s. Access to the Sydney CBD, located on the southern shore of the harbour remained difficult until the completion of the Sydney Harbour Bridge in 1932.
This led to commencement the development of suburbs on the North Shore. Cumberland County mapping from 1792 to 1894 indicate that the four local governments that stand today were derived from one: the Parish of Willoughby. From the Parish of Willoughby came the City of Willoughby and the municipalities of Mosman, Lane Cove and North Sydney. North Sydney was known as St. Leonards. Most of the North Shore suburbs are part of the Hawkesbury Plateau, a large sandstone plateau overlaid by a system of ridges and gullies; the Plateau runs up until the Hawkesbury River. Thus much of the North Shore is hilly with many steep valleys running down into the harbour and the rivers on either side; these ridges and valleys were populated with dry sclerophyll forest, much of which still remains. There are many small parks and areas of the sclerophyll forest adjacent to and within residential areas, earning the area the nickname "the leafy North Shore"; the Lane Cove National Park and the Garigal National Park include many areas of remnant bushland adjacent to the Lane Cove River and Middle Harbour.
There is excellent bushwalking and bouldering around Lindfield and North Turramurra. Gordon houses one of Sydney's largest bat colonies in a bat reserve leading to Middle Harbour; the "Upper North Shore" refers to the suburbs between Roseville and Hornsby, north-west of the Sydney CBD. It is made up of the handful of suburbs located within the Hornsby Shire councils; the area underwent significant changes with increased urban density along the railway and vegetation clearing since the introduction of the state governments 10/50 tree clearing legislation. Ku-ring-gai was rated as having the number one quality of life in Australia in the BankWest Quality of Life Index 2008. In 2015, the NSW government proposed merging the two north shore councils to form a new council with the proposed name of the "North Shore Council". In July 2017, the Berejiklian government decided to abandon the forced merger of the Hornsby and Ku-ring-gai local government areas, along with several other proposed forced mergers on the North Shore.
The Lower North Shore refers to the Sydney Harbour Peninsula, located on the north side of the Sydney Harbour Bridge. The three bodies of water that surround the Lower North Shore are Lane Cove River on its western border, Sydney harbour on its south side, Middle Harbour on its east; the Lower North Shore borders the Upper North Shore when the Lane Cover River and Middle Harbour are at their closest. Lower North Shore encompasses suburbs belonging to the local government areas of Mosman Council, City of Willoughby, Municipality of Lane Cove, North Sydney Council; the suburbs of the Municipality of Hunter's Hill are sometimes considered to part of the Lower North Shore. In 2016, the NSW government proposed merging the three of the four lower north shore councils to form a new council with the proposed name of the "City of the Lower North Shore", proposed that the Municipality of Lane Cove would be kept separate but surrounded by the City of the Lower North Shore under a different council. In July 2017, the Berejiklian government decided to abandon the forced merger of the North Sydney and Mosman local government areas, along with several other proposed forced mergers including the Ku-ring-gai Council and Hornsby Shire on the Upper North Shore.
The Lower North Shore adjacent suburbs to the water are Neutral Bay, Waverton, Mosman, Lavender Bay, Milsons Point and North Sydney The region is home to hundreds of parks and reserves, including Sydney Harbour National Park and the Lane Cove National Park. Local sportsgrounds include North Sydney Oval, the region's largest in capacity, followed by Chatswood Oval and Christie Park. Major waterways in the region include Port Jackson, the Lane Cove River, the Parramatta River, Middle Harbour and the many creek systems that branch out from these main aquatic lifelines; the main transport routes on the North Shore are Military Road, the Pacific Highway, the Warringah Expressway as well as parts of the Pennant Hills Road, Ryde Road and Mona Vale Road. Smaller but major arterial roads on the Upper North Shore include the Eastern Arterial Road at St Ives, East Killara and East Lindfield, the Comenarra Parkway at Thornleigh, Turramurra, South Turramurra and West Pymble, as well as Lady Game Drive at West Pymble, Gordon and Lindfield, providing access to major commercial hubs such as Chatswood.
The North Shore, Northern & Western Line prov