SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Waiblingen

Waiblingen is a town in the southwest of Germany, located in the center of the densely populated Stuttgart region, directly neighboring Stuttgart. It is the capital of the Rems-Murr district; as of September 30, 2004 Waiblingen accommodated 52,948 inhabitants. As of December 31, 2004, the area of the town was 42.76 km2. Waiblingen was first mentioned in Carolingian documents in 885 at the time of Charles the Fat, it received its town charter in 1250. Waiblingen was the property of the Salian kings, from whom the Hohenstaufen dukes and kings inherited it, it is assumed that the Italian name of the Hohenstaufen party, Ghibelline, is derived from "Waiblingen". The town was completely destroyed in 1634 during the Thirty Years' War, its citizens either killed or deported, it was rebuilt after the war. Its fortifications are now well restored; the following towns were incorporated into Waiblingen: December 1, 1971: Beinstein January 1, 1975: Bittenfeld, Hegnach and Neustadt Waiblingen houses the principal office of the world's biggest chainsaw manufacturer, Stihl. has two factories there, for polymer and packaging technology.

It is the location for the letter processing center for the Stuttgart region of the Deutsche Post. Waiblingen is twinned with: Mayenne, France Devizes, United Kingdom Jesi, Italy Baja, Hungary Alessandro Abruscia, an Italian-German footballer Katrin Altpeter Jakob AndreaeBernd Bachofer Anouschka Bernhard Werner Bertheau Alfred Biolek Riccardo Brutschin Heinz BühringerGiuseppe Catizone, an Italian and German footballerKarl Daiber Nelly Däs Luise DuttenhoferEberhard II, Duke of Württemberg Alfred Entenmann Otto Esswein Michael FinkMarkus Groh, a German pianist Werner Haupt Claus E. HeinrichBodo Karcher Gottlob Kopp Nadine Krause Leif Lampater Ludwig II, Count of Württemberg-UrachGiorgos Machlelis, a Greek-German footballer Bernd Mayländer Christian Mergenthaler Athanasia Moraitou Matthias Morys Christoph NiemannBoris Palmer Achim Pfuderer Norbert F. PötzlMathias RichlingGünther Schäfer Patrick Schmollinger Wolfgang StraubWinfried Walz Manfred WundramSimon Skarlatidis Felice Vecchione Joachim Winkelhock Manfred Winkelhock Thomas Winkelhock 1883: Dr. med.

Gustav Pfeilsticker 1907: Ferdinand Küderli 1930: Theodor Kaiser 1932: Friedrich Schofer 1934: Albert Roller 1953: Emil Münz 1967: Alfred Diebold 1968: Adolf Bauer 1997: Dr. Ulrich Gauß 1997: Hans Peter Stihl, a German industrialist 1997: Albrecht Villinger Official website Galerie Stihl Waiblingen in 360°-Panoramapictures Media related to Waiblingen at Wikimedia Commons Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Waiblingen". Encyclopædia Britannica. Cambridge University Press

Roosevelt School (Casper, Wyoming)

The Roosevelt School in Casper, Wyoming named North Casper School, was designed by leading Wyoming architectural firm Garbutt, Weidner & Sweeney in 1921 and was built in 1922. Need for the school followed from a post-World War I boom in Casper's economy and population, connected to a boom in the petroleum industry there; the school served as a neighborhood center in an otherwise-neglected area of the town. The North Casper area was across railroad tracks from the rest of Casper, was fast-growing. In the words of Vivian Dwyer, principal of the school, it was "a district of small homes, meager means, large families." Schooling was not available to all. In 1921 an expansion of the existing school was planned, but instead a new building was designed and built. Only one wing of six classrooms was finished in a timely fashion, due to a union-related work stoppage; the school was named for Theodore Roosevelt. It was listed on the U. S. National Register of Historic Places in 1997. Roosevelt School, at Wyoming State Historic Preservation Office

Jungle warfare

Jungle warfare is a term used to cover the special techniques needed for military units to survive and fight in jungle terrain. It has been the topic of extensive study by military strategists, was an important part of the planning for both sides in many conflicts, including World War II and the Vietnam War; the jungle has a variety of effects on military operations. Dense vegetation can limit lines of sight and arcs of fire, but can provide ample opportunity for camouflage and plenty of material with which to build fortifications. Jungle terrain without good roads, can be inaccessible to vehicles and so makes logistical supply and transport difficult, which in turn places a premium on air mobility; the problems of transport make engineering resources important as they are needed to improve roads, build bridges and airfields, improve water supplies. Jungle environments can be inherently unhealthy, with various tropical diseases that have to be prevented or treated by medical services; the terrain can make it difficult to deploy armoured forces, or any other kind of forces on any large scale.

Successful jungle fighting emphasises effective small unit tactics and leadership. Throughout world history, forests have played significant roles in many of the most historic battles. For example, in the Battle of the Teutoburg Forest between the Romans and the Germanic tribes in 9 CE, the Germans used the forest to ambush the Romans. In ancient China, the Chinese Empire planted forests on its strategic borderland to thwart nomadic attacks. For example, the Northern Song Dynasty constructed and maintained an extensive defensive forest in present-day Hebei. At the start of Pacific War in the Far East, the Japanese Imperial Forces were able to advance on all fronts. In the Malayan Campaign and again they infiltrated through the jungle to bypass static British positions based on road blocks so that they could cut the British supply line and attack their defences from all sides. In early 1942, the fighting in Burma at the start of the Burma Campaign took on a similar aspect and resulted in one of the longest retreats in British military history.

Most members of the British Indian Army left Burma with the belief that the Japanese were unstoppable in the jungle. The Chindits were a special force of 3,500 which in February 1942 launched a deep penetration raid, into Japanese occupied Burma, they went in on foot using mules to carry supplies. The operation was not a military success, but was a propaganda boost for the Allies, because it showed that Allied forces could move and fight in jungle terrain well away from roads. On the back of the propaganda success, Orde Wingate, the eccentric commander of the Chindits, was given the resources to increase his command to divisional size and the USAAF supplied the 1st Air Commando Group to support his operations; the availability of air transport revolutionized Wingate's operational choices. In February 1944 Operation Thursday was launched, air transport support supplied 1st Air to allow the Chindits to set up air supplied bases deep behind enemy lines from which aggressive combat patrols could be sent out to interdict Japanese supply lines and disrupt rear echelon forces.

This in turn forced the Japanese 18th Division to pull front-line troops from the battle against X Force, advancing through Northern Burma to protect the men building the Ledo Road. When the Japanese closed on a base and got within artillery range the base could be abandoned and set up in another remote location; the ability to sustain the bases that relied on air power in the coming decades would prove a template for many similar operations. After the first Chindits expedition, thanks to the training the regular forces were receiving and the example of the Chindits and new divisional tactics, the regular units of the Fourteenth Army started to get the measure of both the jungle and the enemy; when the Japanese launched their late 1943 Arakan offensive they infiltrated Allied lines to attack the 7th Indian Infantry Division from the rear, overrunning the divisional HQ. Unlike previous occasions on which this had happened, the Allied forces stood firm against the attack and supplies were dropped to them by parachute.

In the Battle of the Admin Box from 5 February to 23 February, the Japanese were unable to break through the defended perimeter of the box. The Japanese switched their attack to the central front but again the British fell back into defensive box of Imphal, the Kohima redoubt. In falling back to the defensive positions around Imphal the leading British formations found their retreat cut by Japanese forces, but unlike they took that attitude that if the Japanese were behind them they were just as cut off as the British; the situation maps of the fighting along the roads leading to Imphal resembled a slice of marble cake as both sides used the jungle to outflank each other. Another major change by the British was that use of air support both as an offensive weapon to replace artillery, as a logistical tool to transport men and equipment. For example, the 5th Indian Infantry Division was airlifted straight from the now quieter Arakan front up to the central front and were in action within days of arriving.

By the end of the campaigning season both Kohima and Imphal had been relieved and the Japanese were in full retreat. The lessons learnt in Burma of how to fight in the jungle and how to use air transport to move troops around would lay the foundations of how to conduct large scale jungle campaigns in future wars. After the fall of Malaya and Singapore in 1942, a few British officers, such as Freddie Spencer Chapman, eluded capture and escaped into the central Malaysian jungle where they helped organize and train bands of