Census in Australia
The census in Australia, or the Census of Population and Housing, collects key characteristic data on every person in Australia, the place they are staying in, on a particular night. The census is the largest statistical collection compiled by the Australian Bureau of Statistics and is held every five years. Participation in the census is compulsory; the Australian Bureau of Statistics is legislated to collect and disseminate census data under the Australian Bureau of Statistics Act 1975, the Census and Statistics Act 1905. The first Australian census was held in 1911, on the night of 2 April and subsequent censuses were held in 1921, 1933, 1947, 1954 and 1961. In 1961 the five-year period was introduced. Censuses are held on the second Tuesday of August; the most recent was held on 9 August 2016 at a cost of $440 million. The census counts all people who are located within Australia and its external and internal territories, with the exception of foreign diplomats and their families, on census night.
For the first time, in 2016 Norfolk Island was included in the Australian census rather than being conducted by the Norfolk Island Government. The census examines data such as age, incomes, dwelling types and occupancy, transportation modes, languages spoken, religion; the census is collected and published against geographic areas defined by the Australian Standard Geographical Classification. The ASGC provides a set of geographic classifications for the dissemination of all ABS statistics. In 2007 the ABS published; the primary aim of mesh blocks is to provide a building block for constructing alternative and more relevant geographies. Only data on total persons and total dwellings is released at the mesh block level. Mesh blocks will form the basis of a new statistical geography, the Australian Statistical Geography Standard; the traditional concept of a Collection District is that it was the area that one census collector can cover in about a ten-day period. In the 2001 census, collectors may be allocated more than one urban collection district because of their size.
In urban areas collection districts average about 220 dwellings. In rural areas the number of dwellings per collection district reduces as population densities decrease. For the 2016 census there were 358,122'mesh blocks' and 57,523 spatial Statistical Area Level 1 regions defined throughout Australia; the Census and Statistics Act 1905 and Privacy Act 1988 guarantee that no personally-identifiable information is released from the ABS to other government organisations, or the public. However the ABS makes confidential census data available to researchers, who must make various legal commitments before being given access. In the 1970s there was public debate about the census. In 1979 the Law Reform Commission reported on the Census. One of the key elements under question was the inclusion of names, it was found. On 18 December 2015, the ABS announced that it will retain name and address data collected in the 2016 census for up to four years; this was an increase from 18 months in the 2011 censuses.
From 1971 to 1996 the ABS had a policy of destruction of the original census forms and their electronic representations, as well as field records. Prior to that it appears there was no explicit policy of destruction, but most material had been destroyed because of lack of storage facilities; however the 2001 census offered, for the first time, an option to have personal data archived by the National Archives of Australia and released to the public 99 years and in 2001 54% of Australians agreed to do so. Indigenous Australians in contact with the colonists were enumerated at many of the colonial censuses; when the Federation of Australia occurred in 1901, the new Constitution contained a provision, which said: "In reckoning the numbers of the people of the Commonwealth, or of a State or other part of the Commonwealth, aboriginal natives shall not be counted." In 1967, a referendum was held which approved two amendments to the Australian constitution relating to indigenous Australians. The second of the two amendments deleted Section 127 from the Constitution.
It was believed at the time of the referendum, is still said, that Section 127 meant that aboriginal people were not counted in Commonwealth censuses before 1967. In fact section 127 related to calculating the population of the states and territories for the purpose of allocating seats in Parliament and per capita Commonwealth grants, its purpose was to prevent Queensland and Western Australia using their large aboriginal populations to gain extra seats or extra funds. Thus the Commonwealth Bureau of Census and Statistics interpreted Section 127 as meaning that they may enumerate "aboriginal natives" but that they must be excluded from published tabulations of population. Aboriginal people living in settled areas were counted to a greater or lesser extent in all censuses before 1967; the first Commonwealth Statistician, George Handley Knibbs, obtained a legal opinion that "persons of the half blood" or less are not "aboriginal natives" for the purposes of the Constitution. At the first Australian census in 1911 only those "aboriginal natives" living near white settlements were enumerated, the main population tables included only those of half or less aboriginal descent.
Details of "half-caste" (but not "ful
Electoral district of Rockingham
Rockingham is an electoral district of the Legislative Assembly in the Australian state of Western Australia. The district is located in the outer south-western suburbs of Perth. Rockingham has been held at all times by the Labor Party; the electorate is a compact, urban district centred on the coastal community of Rockingham, a satellite suburb to the south-west of Perth. The district takes in the neighbouring suburbs of Peron, Safety Bay, as well as parts of Cooloongup, East Rockingham and Waikiki; the district includes Garden Island
City of Rockingham
The City of Rockingham is a local government area in the far southern suburbs of the Western Australian capital city of Perth. In 1896, residents of Rockingham petitioned to establish a road board, which they proposed be called "Clarence", the name of the failed settlement of Thomas Peel at Woodman Point; the area at the time fell within the responsibility of the Fremantle District Road Board. The name "Clarence" was declined by the Department of Lands and Surveys, the Rockingham Roads District was gazetted on 4 February 1897; the agricultural hall on the corner of Flinders Lane and Kent Street in Rockingham was used for the Roads Board's administration until an office was constructed for the Roads Board on the corner of Office Road and Mandurah Road in East Rockingham in 1905. In 1929 the Board resolved to relocate the administration to Rockingham Beach and the various buildings, including the Agricultural Hall and the vacated Rockingham Beach Primary School building on Kent Street, were used as the Board's offices.
A new office was constructed for the Roads Board in 1946 on the corner of Flinders Lane and Kent Street. In February 1954 the Kwinana Road District was formed from the northern portion of the Rockingham Road District. On 1 July 1961, the Road District became the Shire of Rockingham following enactment of the Local Government Act 1960. In 1971, the Shire relocated to new offices on Council Avenue on land donated by developers Rockingham Park Pty Ltd 2 km southeast of the traditional centre of Rockingham Beach, to become the new major centre of Rockingham and Kwinana; the Rockingham City Shopping Centre opened in the new centre in 1971. Despite the move to the new "city centre," the community considered Rockingham Beach to be the rightful civic heart of Rockingham, as evidenced by the Shire's decision to construct Flinders Hall on Flinders Lane, despite the new Council offices being constructed in the same year. On 12 November 1988 the Council attained City status. In 1994, the City relocated to civic centre on Civic Boulevard.
In 2008, the Council adopted a plan for the Rockingham Strategic Regional Centre which incorporated both the traditional centre at Rockingham Beach and the "City Centre" of the 1970s into a larger, encompassing centre. The plan seeks to increase the residential population within this new city centre envelope from 12,000 to 36,000 through the provision of transit-oriented development, which would in turn support the operation of light rail between the Rockingham Train Station and Rockingham Beach; the city has been divided into 4 wards. The mayor is elected from among the councillors. Rockingham Ward Safety Bay Ward Baldivis Ward Coastal Ward In 1954, Kwinana was excised from Rockingham. Rockingham is serviced by two local newspapers: The Sound Telegraph is delivered every Wednesday, the Weekend Courier on Fridays. Rockingham's local radio station is 104.1 Rock FM. The internet radio station broadcasts 24 hours a day on its website, on the Stickam social networking service. Rockingham is home to the Rockingham Rams in the Peel Football League.
The City of Rockingham has two active affiliations to which it is a signatory, being: City of Akō, located in the Hyōgo Prefecture of Japan – A "sister city" relationship based on opportunities for residents and groups to exchange diverse cultural aspects during official and community visits. "Ako Lane", located next to the Council building, is a tribute to this relationship. Kota Kinabalu, the capital city of the Malaysian state Sabah – A "friendship city" agreement in conjunction with the objectives of the South West Group to support potential bilateral trade between firms in the two regions. Official website
Division of Brand
The Division of Brand is an Australian electoral division in the state of Western Australia. The division was named after the longest-serving Premier of Western Australia. According to the 2006 census, Brand is the electorate with the lowest proportion of residents with a university qualification; the seat was created for the 1984 federal election from parts of the Divisions of Fremantle and Canning to cater for substantial population growth in the Rockingham–Mandurah coastal area south of the state capital Perth. It included country areas to the south and southeast, such as agricultural regions in the Shires of Murray and Harvey and the mining town of Collie, was more marginal for Labor—made abundantly clear by Labor's near-defeat in the seat at the 1996 federal election; the redistribution for the 1998 election saw the electorate become an urban seat, retreating north of the Peel Estuary to its present boundaries, the seat has been safe Labor since. Brand has had four members —two of whom had been sitting members for other seats.
Wendy Fatin had been the member for Canning for a single term prior to the creation of Brand, went on to win in four successive elections, becoming Minister for the Arts in the early 1990s. Upon her retirement from politics, Kim Beazley, Minister for Defence in the Hawke Government until 1990 and had several portfolios before becoming Deputy Prime Minister to Paul Keating in 1995, was preselected for the seat following 16 years as member for the marginal seat of Swan which polling suggested the party was certain to lose. At the 1996 election, Beazley won by just 387 votes against Liberal candidate Penny Hearne, to quit the party and run as an independent against Court minister Doug Shave in the 1996 state election for the seat of Alfred Cove; the third member was Gary Gray, from 2007 to 2016. On 25 March 2013, Gray was appointed to the Australian Cabinet as the Minister for Resources and Energy, the Minister for Tourism, the Minister for Small Business. From 2010 until 2013, Gray served as the Special Minister of State and the Minister for the Public Service and Integrity.
The redistribution for the 2010 federal election made the seat more secure for Labor by transferring some 12,000 Mandurah voters to the neighbouring Division of Canning. A redistribution ahead of the 2016 election removed the seat's share of Mandurah altogether, increasing the Labor majority from 52 percent to 54 percent. Gray retired in 2016, Madeleine King retained the seat for Labor on a swing just under 8 percent. Since the 2016 election, the division has consisted of enrolled voters resident in the City of Kwinana and the City of Rockingham. Suburbs presently included are: Division of Brand - Australian Electoral Commission
Baldivis, Western Australia
Baldivis is a semi-rural residential suburb 46 kilometres south of the central business district of Perth, the capital of Western Australia, 11 kilometres southeast of the regional centre of Rockingham. It is located with the City of Rockingham local government area. Housing estates in the suburb include Tuart Ridge, Settlers Hills, Settlers Townside, The Rivergums, Baldivis Central, Baldivis North, Baldivis Gardens, The Chimes, Evermore Heights, The Ridge, The Chase, Highbury Park, Heritage Park, The Dales, Woodleigh Grove and Parkland Heights; the name of Baldivis was thought up by settlers in the area who were attracted to the region by the 1920s Group Settlement Scheme. The name derives from three ships which travelled to Western Australia in 1922, all within six weeks of each other, bringing settlers under the scheme, they were named DIogenes and the JerVIS Bay. It was the maiden voyage for all three ships and they were all built in the same shipyard in the same year. Land parallel to the eastern side of Baldivis Road was set aside for a tramway between Jandakot in the north and Karnup to the south, to provide access to the Group Settlement Scheme land.
Although part of the tramway was constructed, it was never constructed in Baldivis. The tramway reserve is retained for open space. Many of the road names in Baldivis originate from the group numbers. Land in the western portion of Baldivis was zoned for urban development in the 1990s, the suburb has been progressively developed for residential; the first residential estate to be developed was Settlers Hills, by Stockland. The western half of Baldivis is composed of undulating sand and limestone soil with occasional wetlands; the high point is known as Tamworth Hill, the site of a water reservoir. Much of this land has been developed for residential use. East of Baldivis Road the land is flat and comprises sand and clay soils; these areas are used for rural purposes. The western portion of Baldivis contains tuart trees. Baldivis is serviced by the Transperth 564 bus route, operated by Transdev WA, which operates from Warnbro Train Station; this route services the Baldivis Town Centre during business hours, travelling through Settlers Hills via Arpentuer Drive through Evermore Heights, The Ridge and Terminate in The Dales.
Route 567 services The Rivergums and Heritage Park. It connects the Baldivis community with a regular service to the Baldivis Town Centre. Both routes run 7 days a week running every 10 minutes in peak hours. Route 568 services the newly developed Town Side estate and Retirement village. Route 565 services through newly established Baldivis Quarter; the Kwinana Freeway runs through Baldivis, providing vehicle access to Bunbury. Safety Bay Road links Baldivis with neighbouring suburbs to the west like Warnbro; the principal shared path along the Kwinana Freeway provides bicycle access to Perth. There is plenty for Residents to enjoy within Baldivis. Fifty Road Recreation Centre and Sporting Grounds which are home to the Baldivis Brumbies, Baldivis Scouts and the Annual Baldivis Fair; the Mary Davies Library and Community Centre was opened in 2014 and is home to many associations, dance groups and community groups for meetings and events. The Volunteer Bush Fire Brigade building is situated on Eighty Road.
There is a bike pump park at the Rivergums estate. The Tramway reserve is a protected walkway spanning the length of Baldivis The Baldivis Children's forest is located on Mandurah Road There are ten schools in Baldivis, with more opening in the near future: Baldivis Primary School, a government school which first opened in 1924 as a "bush school", moved to its present location in Fifty Road in 1978; the site of the original Baldivis School is marked by a plaque on a large granite rock on Doghill Road, about 2 km from the intersection with St Albans Road. Tranby College, a private school operated by the Uniting Church for K-12 students which opened in 1997. Settlers Primary School, a government school, situated opposite Tranby College. John Calvin Primary School, situated on Mandurah Road. Makybe Rise Primary School opened in 2012 on Makybe Drive in Tuart Ridge estate. Baldivis Secondary College, a public high school that opened in February, 2013 Mother Teresa Catholic College opened in 2014 at the corner of Sixty-Eight Road and Eighty Road.
In 2018, the secondary school campus opened. Tuart Rise Primary School opened in 2015 on Smirk Road in the Avalon estate. Rivergums Primary School, opened in 2016 in the Rivergums housing estate, next to Baldivis Secondary College. Baldivis Gardens Primary School, opened in 2017 in the northern section of Baldivis off of Kerosene Lane; the main shopping facilities in Baldivis are located in the area known as the Baldivis Town Centre, on Settlers Avenue, includes the Baldivis Shopping Centre owned by Stockland. Extensions completed in 2015 expanded the existing Shopping Centre to include a Food Court/Restaurant precinct, increased car park numbers, a Kmart and a Woolworths. In 2017, another shopping precinct, Baldivis Square, opened on Makybe Drive next to Makybe Rise Primary School. Baldivis Square includes a mix of retail and professional offices, anchored by an IGA; the electorate office of Reece Whitby, the local MLA for the Baldivis legislative district is located in Baldivis Square. The Baldivis Soccer Club are located at Baldivis South Sports Pavilion.
The club has grown and
Perth is the capital and largest city of the Australian state of Western Australia. It is named after the city of Perth, Scotland and is the fourth-most populous city in Australia, with a population of 2.04 million living in Greater Perth. Perth is part of the South West Land Division of Western Australia, with the majority of the metropolitan area located on the Swan Coastal Plain, a narrow strip between the Indian Ocean and the Darling Scarp; the first areas settled were on the Swan River at Guildford, with the city's central business district and port both founded downriver. Perth was founded by Captain James Stirling in 1829 as the administrative centre of the Swan River Colony, it gained city status in 1856 and was promoted to the status of a Lord Mayorality in 1929. The city inherited its name due to the influence of Sir George Murray Member of Parliament for Perthshire and Secretary of State for War and the Colonies; the city's population increased as a result of the Western Australian gold rushes in the late 19th century.
During Australia's involvement in World War II, Fremantle served as a base for submarines operating in the Pacific Theatre, a US Navy Catalina flying boat fleet was based at Matilda Bay. An influx of immigrants after the war, predominantly from Britain, Greece and Yugoslavia, led to rapid population growth; this was followed by a surge in economic activity flowing from several mining booms in the late 20th and early 21st centuries that saw Perth become the regional headquarters for several large mining operations located around the state. As part of Perth's role as the capital of Western Australia, the state's Parliament and Supreme Court are located within the city, as is Government House, the residence of the Governor of Western Australia. Perth came seventh in the Economist Intelligence Unit's August 2016 list of the world's most liveable cities and was classified by the Globalization and World Cities Research Network in 2010 as a Beta world city; the city hosted the 1962 Commonwealth Games.
Perth is divided into 30 local government areas and 250 suburbs, stretching from Two Rocks in the north to Singleton in the south, east inland to The Lakes. Outside of the main CBD, important urban centres within Perth include Joondalup. Most of those were established as separate settlements and retained a distinct identity after being subsumed into the wider metropolitan area. Mandurah, Western Australia's second-largest city, has in recent years formed a conurbation with Perth along the coast, though for most purposes it is still considered a separate city. Indigenous Australians have inhabited the Perth area for at least 38,000 years, as evidenced by archaeological remains at Upper Swan; the Noongar people lived as hunter-gatherers. The wetlands on the Swan Coastal Plain were important to them, both spiritually and as a source of food; the Noongar people know the area. Boorloo formed part of the territory of the Mooro, a Noongar clan, which at the time of British settlement had Yellagonga as their leader.
The Mooro was one of several Noongar Indigenous clans based around the Swan River known collectively as the Whadjuk. The Whadjuk themselves were one of a larger group of fourteen tribes that formed the south-west socio-linguistic block known as the Noongar sometimes called the Bibbulmun. On 19 September 2006, the Federal Court of Australia brought down a judgment recognising Noongar native title over the Perth metropolitan area in the case of Bennell v State of Western Australia FCA 1243; the judgment was overturned on appeal. The first documented sighting of the region was made by the Dutch Captain Willem de Vlamingh and his crew on 10 January 1697. Subsequent sightings between this date and 1829 were made by other Europeans, but as in the case of the sighting and observations made by Vlamingh, the area was considered to be inhospitable and unsuitable for the agriculture that would be needed to sustain a settlement. Although the Colony of New South Wales had established a convict-supported settlement at King George's Sound on the south coast of Western Australia in 1826 in response to rumours that the area would be annexed by France, Perth was the first full-scale settlement by Europeans in the western third of the continent.
The British colony would be designated Western Australia in 1832 but was known informally for many years as the Swan River Colony after the area's major watercourse. On 4 June 1829, newly arriving British colonists had their first view of the mainland, Western Australia's founding has since been recognised by a public holiday on the first Monday in June each year. Captain James Stirling, aboard Parmelia, said that Perth was "as beautiful as anything of this kind I had witnessed". On 12 August that year, Helen Dance, wife of the captain of the second ship, cut down a tree to mark the founding of the town, it is clear that Stirling had selected the name Perth for the capital well before the town was proclaimed, as his proclamation of the colony, read in Fremantle on 18 June 1829, ended "given under my hand and Seal at Perth this 18th Day of June 1829. James Stirling Lieutenant Governor"; the only contemporary information on the source of the name comes from Fremantle's diary entry for 12 August, which records that they "named the town Perth according to the wishes of Sir George Murray".
Murray was born in Perth and was in 1829 Secretary of State for the Colonies and Member for Perthshire in the British House of Commons. The town was named after the Scottish Pert
Electoral district of Kwinana
Kwinana is an electoral district of the Legislative Assembly in the Australian state of Western Australia. The district is located in the south-western suburbs of Perth. Kwinana was first created for the 2008 state election, it was a new urban seat created as a result of the one vote one value reforms. For the most part it combined the southern portion of the district of Cockburn with the northern part of the district of Peel. At its creation, Kwinana was calculated to have a Labor Party majority of 69.2% to 30.8% versus the Liberal Party, making it a safe Labor seat. However, Labor candidate Roger Cook won the seat only narrowly against independent challenger Carol Adams, prevailing 50.79% to 49.21%. Adams, the mayor of Kwinana, launched her independent candidacy after unsuccessfully contesting Labor preselection for the seat. Adams sought a rematch in 2013. However, Kwinana was a safe Labor seat in "traditional" two-party matchups between Labor and the Liberals. Proving this, Cook was reelected in 2013 with 68 percent of the two-party vote.
Kwinana includes all the local government area of the City of Kwinana as well as a part of the City of Rockingham. The district takes in the suburbs of Naval Base, Hope Valley, Wandi, Kwinana Beach, The Spectacles, Medina, Calista, Kwinana Town Centre, Bertram, Leda, Hillman, as well as parts of Cooloongup and Baldivis. "Map of Kwinana". Office of the Electoral Distribution Commissioners. November 2015. Retrieved 12 February 2017. Antony Green. "2008 Election Profile: Kwinana". ABC