A suburb is a mixed-use or residential area, existing either as part of a city or urban area or as a separate residential community within commuting distance of a city. In most English-speaking countries, suburban areas are defined in contrast to central or inner-city areas, but in Australian English and South African English, suburb has become synonymous with what is called a "neighborhood" in other countries and the term extends to inner-city areas. In some areas, such as Australia, China, New Zealand, the United Kingdom, a few U. S. states, new suburbs are annexed by adjacent cities. In others, such as Saudi Arabia, Canada and much of the United States, many suburbs remain separate municipalities or are governed as part of a larger local government area such as a county. Suburbs first emerged on a large scale in the 19th and 20th centuries as a result of improved rail and road transport, which led to an increase in commuting. In general, they have lower population densities than inner city neighborhoods within a metropolitan area, most residents commute to central cities or other business districts.
Suburbs tend to proliferate around cities that have an abundance of adjacent flat land. The English word is derived from the Old French subburbe, in turn derived from the Latin suburbium, formed from sub and urbs; the first recorded usage of the term in English, was made by John Wycliffe in 1380, where the form subarbis was used, according to the Oxford English Dictionary. In Australia and New Zealand, suburbs have become formalised as geographic subdivisions of a city and are used by postal services in addressing. In rural areas in both countries, their equivalents are called localities; the terms inner suburb and outer suburb are used to differentiate between the higher-density areas in proximity to the city center, the lower-density suburbs on the outskirts of the urban area. The term'middle suburbs' is used. Inner suburbs, such as Te Aro in Wellington, Eden Terrace in Auckland, Prahran in Melbourne and Ultimo in Sydney, are characterised by higher density apartment housing and greater integration between commercial and residential areas.
In New Zealand, most suburbs are not defined which can lead to confusion as to where they may begin and end. Although there is a geospatial file defining suburbs for use by emergency services developed and maintained by Fire and Emergency New Zealand, in collaboration with other government agencies, to date this file has not been released publicly. New Zealand company Koordinates Limited requested access to the geospatial file under the Official Information Act 1982 but this request was rejected by the New Zealand Fire Service on the basis that it would prejudice the health & safety of, or cause material loss, to the public. In September 2014 a decision was made by the Ombudsman of New Zealand ruling that the New Zealand Fire Service refusal to release the geospatial file without agreeing to terms which included, among other restrictions, a prohibition on redistribution of the geospatial file, was reasonable. In the United Kingdom and in Ireland, suburb refers to a residential area outside the city centre, regardless of administrative boundaries.
Suburbs, in this sense, can range from areas that seem more like residential areas of a city proper to areas separated by open countryside from the city centre. In large cities such as London and Leeds, suburbs include separate towns and villages that have been absorbed during a city's growth and expansion, such as Ealing and Guiseley. In the United States and Canada, suburb can refer either to an outlying residential area of a city or town or to a separate municipality or unincorporated area outside a town or city; the earliest appearance of suburbs coincided with the spread of the first urban settlements. Large walled towns tended to be the focus around which smaller villages grew up in a symbiotic relationship with the market town; the word'suburbani' was first used by the Roman statesman Cicero in reference to the large villas and estates built by the wealthy patricians of Rome on the city's outskirts. Towards the end of the Eastern Han Dynasty, the capital, was occupied by the emperor and important officials.
As populations grew during the Early Modern Period in Europe, urban towns swelled with a steady influx of people from the countryside. In some places, nearby settlements were swallowed up as the main city expanded; the peripheral areas on the outskirts of the city were inhabited by the poorest. Due to the rapid migration of the rural poor to the industrialising cities of England in the late 18th century, a trend in the opposite direction began to develop; this trend accelerated through the 19th century in cities like London and Manchester that were growing and the first suburban districts sprung up around the city centres to accommodate those who wanted to escape the squalid conditions of the industrial towns. Toward the end of the century, with the development of public transit systems such as the underground railways and buses, it became possible for the majority of the city's population to reside outside the city and to commute into the
St Peter's College, Auckland
St Peter's College is a Catholic secondary school for boys, located in Auckland, New Zealand, in the central city suburb of Grafton. With a roll of over 1300, the school is one of the largest Catholic schools in New Zealand. St Peter's College was established in 1939 as a successor of Auckland's earliest school and of St Peter's School, founded in 1857; the Outhwaite family, who acquired the land around 1841, donated the site of the college. The Christian Brothers provided staff for the college for 70 years, it is the oldest Catholic boys' school in Auckland still on its original site. For nearly 50 years, the school had direct access to an adjacent railway station created for the college and known as the "St Peter's College station"; the school was integrated into the state system along with 240 other New Zealand Catholic schools in 1982. The school aims to achieve a diverse, family-oriented and good exam results. Auckland's first school of any sort was a Catholic school for boys, its first classes were held on 27 September 1841.
It was set up by Catholic laymen of Auckland following the first visit of Bishop Pompallier. The teacher was Edmund Powell, classes were first held in his residence in Shortland Crescent on 27 September 1841; this school appears to have existed only for a short time. In 1857, St Peter's School was established by a group of laymen led by Father O'Hara, the curate at St Patrick's Cathedral, as Auckland's first Catholic secondary school for boys. In that year Bishop Pompallier prepared a list of church schools for the Government and for "propaganda" which stated: "St Peter's Select School is established for the more advanced boys; the Greek, French and German languages are taught in it Geometry, Arithmetic, English Grammar etc... Terms per Annum 12.0.0 for each pupil." The school had a Board of Governors composed of its founders which included the Member of Parliament, Patrick Dignan. Classes commenced in rented accommodation in Drake St, Freemans Bay. John Logan Campbell donated a sum of £500 and a block of land on the corner of Pitt and Wellington Streets.
A brick school building was built there. The founding teacher was Richard O'Sullivan and, during his tenure, the school was identified with him. Amongst his students were John Sheehan, Joseph Tole, Peter Dignan and Charles and William Outhwaite. O'Sullivan resigned in 1861. In 1865 the teacher was Peter Morand. Bishop Pompallier made an annual inspection of the school. On 16 December 1864 he visited the school along with many parents; the proceedings were commenced by an address "to the Right Reverend Dr Pompallier, Bishop of Auckland", delivered by a pupil, Laurence Lorigan, on behalf of all the pupil's. Earlier in 1864, St Peter's School gave an address to Bishop Pompallier on his feast day, the feast of St John the Baptist; that address was delivered by Martin Maher on behalf of the pupils. St Peter's School was prominent in St Patrick's Day celebrations. On Friday 17 March 1865, St Peter's boys together with pupils of other Catholic schools began their celebrations with a Pontifical High Mass whose principal celebrant was Bishop Pompallier, in the Cathedral.
After addresses to the Bishop, the pupils went to the "paddocks" of Peter Grace Esq where "the sports for the youths consisted of feats of bat and ball, football etc. etc. A spirited cricket match came off between 11 students of St Francis de Sales School and a corresponding number of St Peter's School, the former being the victors in the game". In 1867 the celebration occurred on Monday 18 March. After Mass, the addresses to the bishop were read by a pupil of St Patrick's School and by "Master Anthony Martin, son of Mr Anthony Martin of Hobson St" on behalf of St Peter's; the pupils went to paddocks of Mr Dinnin on Ponsonby Road for sports, entertainments and "refreshments". In the 1870s and 1880s, Mr B Hammill was a well-known teacher, he was said to have a "first-class certificate from the Irish Board of Education" and to be "enthusiastically devoted to his profession". Mr Peter Leonard was another prominent teacher. In 1874, a report of the annual public examination of the boys attending St Peter's, presided over by Bishop Croke, stated that there was a "regular and good" attendance of about 70 pupils at the school.
In 1879 St Peter's had a roll of 43. In 1881, Mr Cronin was a teacher at St Peter's School which in an advertisement for pupils offered night classes to prepare pupils for "mercantile pursuits, civil service and teacher's examinations". In about 1884, St Peter's started to use a larger adjacent building as the number of pupils was exceeding the capacity of the brick school. In October 1884, William Mahoney, who received all his early education under Mr Hammill at St Peter's, paid a visit to the school on his return to New Zealand as a priest, he was Auckland's first New-Zealand-born priest. St Peter's School continued until the Marist Brothers established their own school on the site in 1885. Walter Herman Jacobus Steins S. J. third Catholic Bishop of Auckland thought, that as they were a French congregation, the Marist Brothers might not be welcome in Auckland and that it would be better to invite the Irish Christian Brothers as most of the Ca
A Superette is an alternative name for a compact food market "convenience shop" or "mini-mart" used in some places in Hawaii, New York City, Minnesota and Labrador, - and the North Island of New Zealand
Waima is a community in the south Hokianga area of Northland, New Zealand. State Highway 12 runs through the area; the Waima River flows through the Waima Valley into the Hokianga Harbour. Rawene is to the north west, Kaikohe is to the north east. In 1810, an encounter at Waima during the Musket Wars resulted in the death of the Ngā Puhi chief Te Tauroto. Te Whareumu was killed and Muriwai mortally wounded in a skirmish in March 1828; the chief of the sub tribe Te Mahurehure and Te Urikaiwhare was Mohi Tawhai, a signatory to the Treaty of Waitangi in 1840 and was known as the peace maker of the North. Waima was the site of a Wesleyan mission in the mid-19th century. In the 1870s timber milling commenced in the area. In 1898, people of Waima refused to pay a tax on dogs, marched on Rawene in the Dog Tax War. Waima has four Ngāpuhi marae. Moehau Marae, Ōtātara Marae and Ohinewai meeting house. Te Raukura Marea is affiliated with both Te Te Rauwera. William Satchell and poet. Waima School is a coeducational full primary school with a decile rating of 4 and a roll of 62.
The school was founded in 1881. During the Dog Tax War of 1898, the government army of 120 men set up camp at Waima School. Waima Valley travel guide from Wikivoyage
Glen Eden, New Zealand
Glen Eden is a suburb of Auckland, New Zealand. The suburb is in the Waitakere Ward, one of the thirteen administrative areas of Auckland governed by Auckland Council; the population was 6,609 in the 2006 census, an increase of 540 from 2001. Glen Eden village is situated on West Coast Road. Most commercial premises in Glen Eden are either on this road or in Glen Mall, a small shopping centre nearby. Waikumete Cemetery is to the north of Glen Eden. Glen Eden Railway Station is located on West Coast Road, is a station on Auckland's Western Line. Glen Eden is home to a library, the Playhouse Theatre, an RSA club; the Glenora Rugby League team plays at Glenora Park. It has the oldest registered Scouts club in the country. Most housing is wooden, with a few old farmhouses, some 1930s art deco houses, post-war bungalows and weatherboard houses. There is more recent terrace housing. Before the adoption of an Auckland Supercity in 2010, Glen Eden was under the local governance of the Waitakere City Council and the New Lynn Community Board.
The original Māori name for the area was Waikomiti. Because this name was similar to that of Waikumete Cemetery, residents requested a name change. Glen Eden was chosen from the valleys and orchards of the area. Glen Eden School is a coeducational contributing primary school with a decile rating of 3 and a roll of 359. Prospect School is a coeducational contributing primary school with a decile rating of 2 and a roll of 350. Waitakere Seventh-day Adventist School is a coeducational full primary school with a roll of 42 and a decile rating of 2. A church school, it is integrated with the state system. Local secondary schools nearby are Kelston Girls' College. Glen Eden is home to the Glenora Bears rugby league club. Glen Eden School website https://www.facebook.com/Glen. Eden. Village Glen Eden Community Protection Society website Photographs of Glen Eden held in Auckland Libraries' heritage collections
Green Bay, New Zealand
Green Bay is an Auckland suburb. It is under the local governance of the Auckland Council; the population was 3,936 in the 2006 census, an increase of 321 from 2001. The main road running through Green Bay is Godley Road and this is the Urban Route 15 that follows through Green Bay to Titirangi and Laingholm. Green Bay beach is part of the Karaka Park coastal walk. In pre-European times, the beach was the southern end of a portage between the Waitemata and Manukau harbours via the Whau River. At the west end of the beach there was a large Māori pā at Motukaraka; the area was called Karaka Bay, but was renamed to the current name to avoid confusion with other bays named Karaka. Green Bay High School is a secondary school with a decile rating of 8 and a roll of 1357, it opened in 1973. Green Bay Primary School is a full primary school with a decile rating of 7 and a roll of 687, it opened in 1960, covered years 1-6 until an intermediate department was added in 1997. Both schools are coeducational, situated next to each other on Godley Road.
Photographs of Green Bay held in Auckland Libraries' heritage collections
The Auckland Region is one of the sixteen regions of New Zealand, named for the city of Auckland, the country's largest urban area. The region encompasses the Auckland metropolitan area, smaller towns, rural areas, the islands of the Hauraki Gulf. Containing 35 percent of the nation's residents, it has by far the largest population and economy of any region of New Zealand, but the second-smallest land area. On 1 November 2010, the Auckland Region became a unitary authority controlled by the Auckland Council, replacing the previous regional council and seven local councils. In the process, an area in its southeastern corner was transferred to the neighbouring Waikato Region; the name "Auckland Region" remains present in casual usage. On the mainland, the region extends from the mouth of the Kaipara Harbour in the north across the southern stretches of the Northland Peninsula, past the Waitakere Ranges and the isthmus of Auckland and across the low-lying land surrounding the Manukau Harbour; the region ends within a few kilometres of the mouth of the Waikato River.
It is bordered in the north by the Northland Region, in the south by the Waikato Region. It includes the islands of the Hauraki Gulf; the Hunua Ranges and the adjacent coastline along the Firth of Thames were part of the region until the Auckland Council was formed in late 2010, when they were transferred to the neighbouring Waikato Region. In land area it is smaller than unitary authorities except Nelson, its highest point is the summit of at 722 metres. Auckland Province Media related to Auckland Region at Wikimedia Commons Auckland Region travel guide from Wikivoyage Geographic data related to Auckland Region at OpenStreetMap