New Zealand census
The New Zealand Census of Population and Dwellings is a national population and housing census conducted by government department Statistics New Zealand every five years. There have been thirty-three censuses since 1851. In addition to providing detailed information about national demographics, the results of the census play an important part in the calculation of resource allocation to local service providers; the 2018 census took place on Tuesday, 6 March 2018. The next census is expected in March 2023. Since 1926, the census has always been held on a Tuesday. Since 1966, the census occurs at midnight on a Tuesday in March; these are statistically the month and weekday on which New Zealanders are least to be travelling. Until 2018, census forms were hand-delivered by census workers during the lead-in to the census, with one form per person and a special form with questions about the dwelling. In addition, teams of census workers attempt to cover all hospitals, camp grounds and transport systems where people might be found at midnight.
In 2018, the process was different. The majority of households received an access code in the post and were encouraged to complete their census online. If preferred, households could request paper census forms; the smallest geographic unit used in the census for population data is the mesh block, which there are 39,300 of, with an average of 110 people in each. The 2018 Census collected data on the following topics: * Required to be included under the Statistics Act 1975 or the Electoral Act 1993 The first full census in New Zealand was conducted in 1851, the census was triennial until 1881, at which time it became five-yearly; the 1931 census was cancelled due to the effects of the Great Depression, as was the 1941 census due to World War II. The 1946 census was brought forward to Tuesday 25 September 1945, so that the results could be used for an electoral redistribution before the 1946 election. 1951 was the first year in which Māori and European New Zealanders were treated with European New Zealanders having had a different census form in previous years and separate censuses in the nineteenth century.
Results for those censuses before 1966 have been destroyed with a few exceptions and those since will not be available before 2066. The 2006 census was held on 7 March. For the first time, respondents had the option of completing their census form via the Internet rather than by a printed form; the 2011 census was scheduled for 8 March. However, due to the Christchurch earthquake on 22 February 2011, it was cancelled. For the first time all 2011 census forms would have been digitally archived. On 27 May 2011 Statistics New Zealand announced that a census would take place in March 2013; the legislation required to change the census date was introduced to Parliament in August 2011. The 2013 census was held on Tuesday 5 March 2013 and the 2018 census was held on Tuesday 6 March 2018. A few people object to the attempt to evade it; the most famous of these is the Wizard of New Zealand, Ian Brackenbury Channell, who has avoided the census on numerous occasions. He spent the night of the 1981 census in a boat beyond New Zealand's 20 km territorial limit in order to avoid enumeration in the country.
He has publicly burnt census forms. Following the 2006 census, Statistics New Zealand prosecuted 72 people for failing to return their forms, with 41 convictions. After the 2013 census, they wrote to 450 people in July 2013 who had failed to return the forms, of whom 99 were prosecuted, resulting in 46 convictions. Most of those convicted were fined $50 to $500 per charge. Results of the 2013 census were released over an 18-month period, beginning 15 October 2013, it recorded 4,242,048 people who were resident in New Zealand on 5 March 2013. This represents an increase of 214,101 people since the 2006 census. McRobie, Alan. Electoral Atlas of New Zealand. Wellington: GP Books. ISBN 0-477-01384-8. Statistics New Zealand - census page New Zealand 2013 Census
The South Island officially named Te Waipounamu, is the larger of the two major islands of New Zealand in surface area. It is bordered to the north by Cook Strait, to the west by the Tasman Sea, to the south and east by the Pacific Ocean; the South Island covers 150,437 square kilometres. It has a temperate climate, it has a 32 percent larger landmass than the North Island, as a result is nicknamed the "mainland" of New Zealand by South Island residents, but only 23 percent of New Zealand's 4.9 million inhabitants live there. In the early stages of European settlement of the country, the South Island had the majority of the European population and wealth due to the 1860s gold rushes; the North Island population overtook the South in the early 20th century, with 56 percent of the population living in the North in 1911, the drift north of people and businesses continued throughout the century. In the 19th century, some maps named the South Island as Middle Island or New Munster, the name South Island or New Leinster was used for today's Stewart Island/Rakiura.
In 1907 the Minister for Lands gave instructions to the Land and Survey Department that the name Middle Island was not to be used in future. "South Island will be adhered to in all cases". Although the island had been known as the South Island for many years, in 2009 the New Zealand Geographic Board found that, along with the North Island, the South Island had no official name. After a public consultation, the board named the island South Island or Te Waipounamu in October 2013. Said to mean "the Water of Greenstone", this name evolved from Te Wāhi Pounamu "the Place Of Greenstone"; the island is known as Te Waka a Māui which means "Māui's Canoe". In some Māori legends, the South Island existed first, as the boat of Maui, while the North Island was the fish that he caught. In prose, the two main islands of New Zealand are called the North Island and the South Island, with the definite article, it is normal to use the preposition in rather than on, for example "Christchurch is in the South Island", "my mother lives in the South Island".
Maps, headings and adjectival expressions use South Island without "the". Charcoal drawings can be found on limestone rock shelters in the centre of the South Island, with over 500 sites stretching from Kaikoura to North Otago; the drawings are estimated to be between 500 and 800 years old, portray animals and fantastic creatures stylised reptiles. Some of the birds pictured are long extinct, including Haast's eagles, they were drawn by early Māori, but by the time Europeans arrived, local Māori did not know the origins of the drawings. Early inhabitants of the South Island were the Waitaha, they were absorbed via marriage and conquest by the Kāti Māmoe in the 16th century. Kāti Māmoe were in turn absorbed via marriage and conquest by the Kāi Tahu who migrated south in the 17th century. While today there is no distinct Kāti Māmoe organisation, many Kāi Tahu have Kāti Māmoe links in their whakapapa and in the far south of the island. Around the same time a group of Māori migrated to Rekohu, where, in adapting to the local climate and the availability of resources, they evolved into a separate people known as the Moriori with its own distinct language — related to the parent culture and language in mainland New Zealand.
One notable feature of the Moriori culture, an emphasis on pacifism, proved disadvantageous when Māori warriors arrived in the 1830s aboard a chartered European ship. In the early 18th century, Kāi Tahu, a Māori tribe who originated on the east coast of the North Island, began migrating to the northern part of the South Island. There they and Kāti Māmoe fought Ngāi Rangitāne in the Wairau Valley. Ngāti Māmoe ceded the east coast regions north of the Clarence River to Kāi Tahu. Kāi Tahu continued conquering Kaikoura. By the 1730s, Kāi Tahu had settled including Banks Peninsula. From there they spread further south and into the West Coast. In 1827-1828 Ngāti Toa under the leadership of Te Rauparaha attacked Kāi Tahu at Kaikoura. Ngāti Toa visited Kaiapoi, ostensibly to trade; when they attacked their hosts, the well-prepared Kāi Tahu killed all the leading Ngāti Toa chiefs except Te Rauparaha. Te Rauparaha returned to his Kapiti Island stronghold. In November 1830 Te Rauparaha persuaded Captain John Stewart of the brig Elizabeth to carry him and his warriors in secret to Akaroa, where by subterfuge they captured the leading Kāi Tahu chief, Te Maiharanui, his wife and daughter.
After destroying Te Maiharanui's village they killed them. John Stewart, though arrested and sent to trial in Sydney as an accomplice to murder escaped conviction. In the summer of 1831–32 Te Rauparaha attacked the Kaiapoi pā. Kaiapoi was engaged in a three-month siege by Te Rauparaha, during which his men sapped the pā, they attacked Kāi Tahu on Banks Peninsula and took the pā at Onawe. In 1832-33 Kāi Tahu retaliated under the leadership of Tūhawaiki and others, attacking Ngāti Toa at Lake Grassmere. Kāi Tahu prevailed, killed many Ngāti Toa, although Te Rauparaha again escaped. Fighting continued with Kāi Tahu maintaining the upper hand. Ngāti Toa never again made a major incursion into Kāi Tahu territory. By 1839 Kāi Tahu and Ngāti Toa established peace and Te Rauparaha released the Kāi Tahu captives he held. Formal marriages between the leading families in the two tribes sealed the peace; the first Europeans known to reach the South Island were the crew o
In New Zealand, a state-integrated school is a former private school which has integrated into the state education system under the Private Schools Conditional Integration Act 1975, becoming a state school while retaining its special character. State-integrated schools were established by the Third Labour Government in the early 1970s as a response to the near-collapse of the country's private Catholic school system, which had run into financial difficulties; as of July 2016, there were 329 state-integrated schools in New Zealand, of which 237 identify as Roman Catholic. They educate 87,500 students, or 11.5% of New Zealand's student population, making them the second-most common type of school in New Zealand behind non-integrated state schools. New Zealand's state education system was established in 1877. Prior to schools were run by church groups and other private groups. From 1852 until provinces were abolished in 1876, all schools were entitled to receive some financial assistance from provincial governments.
Under the Education Act 1877, education became compulsory for all children between 7 and 13 years of age and gave all children between 5 and 15 years of age the entitlement to a free and secular education in a state-run school. The secular-education requirement arose from a deadlock between secularist and Protestant MPs over how much and what type of religious influence should be included in state schools. MPs opted for the safest route by making state education secular; as a result, both Catholic and Protestant churches set up their own private school systems. After the Second World War, private religious schools had to cope with increasing rolls due to changes in the compulsory school starting and leaving ages and the post-war baby boom. In addition, private schools had to keep pace with the drive for higher-quality facilities and smaller class sizes in the state sector, while dealing with a teacher shortage and the increasing cost of land and salaries; the Catholic school system, in particular, had to hire more lay teachers to cope with student numbers – the proportion of lay teachers in the Catholic system increased from 5 percent in 1956 to 38 percent in 1972 – and more lay teachers meant higher salary costs.
Catholic parishes were struggling to meet the increasing costs while keeping tuition fees down, many of them accrued large amounts of debt or cut costs, causing schools to be run down. By the end of the 1960s, the Catholic school system was facing a financial crisis and was on the brink of collapse. In November 1972, the Labour Party was elected to government, Prime Minister Norman Kirk sought a solution to the Catholic school funding crisis; the government determined the state school system would not be able to cope with an influx of students if the Catholic system were to collapse, so sought a way for the state to assist them to keep them open. The idea of integrating private schools into the state system has been credited to MP Jonathan Hunt, after consultation, the Private Schools Conditional Integration Act was drawn up; the Act was passed by Parliament and signed into law on 10 October 1975, came into force on 16 August 1976. The first private school to integrate was Wesley College, Pukekohe, in 1977.
The first two Catholic schools to integrate were Cardinal McKeefry School and St Bernard's School, both in Wellington, in August 1979. Despite the increasing urgency, it took until 1984 to integrate every Catholic school. State-integrated schools are established through an integration agreement between the Crown and the proprietors of the private school to be integrated; each integration agreement sets out the school's particular special character, a religious or philosophical belief. Of the 331 state-integrated schools, 238 are Catholic schools, with the local Catholic diocese or religious institute acting as proprietor; the special characters of the remaining 93 schools include Anglican, non-denominational Christian and Waldorf. Proprietors retain ownership of the school land and buildings, representatives of the proprietors sit as trustees on the school's board of trustees; the main role of the proprietors is to ensure that the special character of the school is maintained and preserved, have the authority to address problems if the special character is being compromised.
With several major exceptions relating to their special characters and their proprietors, state-integrated schools are required to operate like their non-integrated counterparts. This includes complying with all National Education Goals and National Administration Guidelines set by the government, having to employ registered teaching staff, complying with the nationally-set school year. State-integrated schools must follow the nationally-set curriculum, but they may teach their special character within it. State-integrated schools that have a religious special character are exempt from the religious instruction restrictions of state schools, may hold religious education classes and religious services while the school is open for instruction. At some state-integrated secondary schools, religious studies is offered as a subject contributing to the National Certificate of Educational Achievement, New Zealand's main secondary school qualification. State-integrated schools are permitted to give preference in enrolment to students who, either themselves or through their parents, identify with the school's special character.
Each proprietor defines what is required for preferen
Canterbury, New Zealand
Canterbury is a region of New Zealand, located in the central-eastern South Island. The region covers an area of 44,508 square kilometres, is home to a population of 624,000; the region in its current form was established in 1989 during nationwide local government reforms. The Kaikoura District joined the region in 1992 following the abolition of the Nelson-Marlborough Regional Council. Christchurch, the South Island's largest city and the country's third-largest urban area, is the seat of the region and home to 65 percent of the region's population. Other major towns and cities include Timaru, Ashburton and Rolleston. In 1848, Edward Gibbon Wakefield, a Briton, John Robert Godley, an Anglo-Irish aristocrat, founded the Canterbury Association to establish an Anglican colony in the South Island; the colony was based upon theories developed by Wakefield while in prison for eloping with a woman not-of-age. Due to ties to the University of Oxford, the Canterbury Association succeeded in raising sufficient funds and recruiting middle-class and upper-class settlers.
In April 1850, a preliminary group led by Godley landed at Port Cooper—modern-day Lyttelton Harbour—and established a port and shops in preparation for the main body of settlers. In December 1850, the first wave of 750 settlers arrived at Lyttelton in a fleet of four ships. Following 1850, the province's economy developed with the introduction of sheep farming; the Canterbury region's tussock plains in particular were suitable for extensive sheep farming. Since they were valued by settlers for their meat and wool, there were over half a million sheep in the region by the early 1850s. By the 1860s, this figure had risen to three million. During this period, the architect Benjamin Mountfort designed many civic and ecclesiastical buildings in the Gothic Revival style; the Canterbury Province was formed in 1853 following the passing of the New Zealand Constitution Act 1852. It was formed from part of New Munster Province and covered the middle part of the South Island, stretching from the east coast to the west coast.
The province was abolished, along with other provinces of New Zealand, when the Abolition of the Provinces Act came into force on 1 Nov 1876. The modern Canterbury Region has different boundaries in the north, where it includes some districts from the old Nelson Province; the area administered by the Canterbury Regional Council consists of all the river catchments on the east coast of the South Island from that of the Clarence River, north of Kaikoura, to that of the Waitaki River, in South Canterbury. It is New Zealand's largest region by area, with an area of 45,346 km2. Canterbury was traditionally bounded in the north by the Conway River, to the west by the Southern Alps, to the south by the Waitaki River; the area is divided into North Canterbury, Mid Canterbury, South Canterbury and Christchurch City. Canterbury is home to 624,000 people according to Statistics New Zealand's June 2018, 13 percent of New Zealand's population, it the second most populous region in New Zealand. The median age of Canterbury's population is two years above the New Zealand median.
Around 15.5 percent of the population is aged 65 or over while 18.7 percent is aged under 15. There are 97.5 males for every hundred females in Canterbury. At the 2013 Census of Population and Dwellings, 86.9 percent of Cantabrians identified as of European ethnicity, 8.1 percent as Māori, 6.9 percent as Asian, 2.5 percent as Pacific Peoples, 0.8 percent as Middle Eastern/Latin American/African, 2.0 percent as another ethnicity. Just under 20 percent of Canterbury's population was born overseas, compared to 25 percent for New Zealand as a whole; the British Isles remains the largest region of origin, accounting for 36.5 percent of the overseas-born population in Canterbury. Around a quarter of Canterbury's overseas-born population at the 2013 Census had been living in New Zealand for less than five years, 11 percent had been living in New Zealand for less than two years. Around 49.7 percent of Cantabrians affiliate with Christianity and 3.3 percent affiliate with non-Christian religions, while 44.5 percent are irreligious.
Anglicanism is the largest Christian denomination in Canterbury with 14.8 percent affiliating, while Catholicism is the second-largest with 12.7 percent affiliating. The Canterbury region's economy is diversified into agriculture, fishing, forestry and energy resources such as coal and hydroelectricity, its agriculture sector is diversified into dairy farming, sheep farming and horticulture viticulture. The strength of the region's agricultural economy is displayed every November at the Canterbury A&P Show; the show coincides with Cup Week. During the interwar period, agricultural productivity was boosted by the introduction of mechanization and the improvement of seed stocks. Canterbury is New Zealand's main producer of cereal crops such as wheat and oats; as of 2002, the region produced 60.7% of the nation's supply of wheat, 51.1% of its barley stocks and 43.7% of its supply of oats. The region's viticulture industry was established by French settlers in Akaroa. Since wine-growing is concentrated into two regions: Waipara and Burnham.
There have been vintages from plantings from Kurow further to the south. White wine has predominated in Canterbury from Riesling, Sauvignon blanc, Gewürztraminer
Oxford, New Zealand
Oxford is a small town of around 2,100 people serving the farming community of North Canterbury, New Zealand. It is part of the Waimakariri District and is a linear town 2 kilometres long, it was served by the Oxford Branch railway, had two stations, East Oxford and West Oxford. The line was dismantled; some railway signs and the remnants of railway platforms can still be seen along Oxford Road on the way to Rangiora. It was a logging town: trees were felled from forests in the area, hauled by beast to Christchurch. A mural depicting life from that era is painted on the side wall of the butchers shop. Oxford has won awards for the most beautiful toilet. Oxford is located at the inland edge of the Canterbury Plains 50 km northwest of Christchurch; the township is about 30 km from Rangiora to the East, the townships of Sheffield and Darfield to the west. The climate of Oxford is temperate. Snowfalls are rare, it is unclear whether the town is named after Oxford in England or after its university, but it is more probable that it was named after Samuel Wilberforce, the Bishop of Oxford from 1845 to 1870.
It was named by the chief surveyor of the Canterbury Association, Joseph Thomas, in 1849. The town of Tirau in the North Island was also named Oxford, in a name pairing with Cambridge 30 km to the west. Owing to confusion between the two towns, the North Island town was renamed Oxford North before adopting its current name in 1895; the town has Oxford Area School. It is a state composite school with a role of 512 students; the principal is Mike Hart. The community saved hard during 2005 and 2006 to raise funds for projects such as the Oxford Community Pool, a community-based swimming pool in Burnett Street, a first-response ambulance; the town prides itself on its ability to self-fund community projects through organizations such as the Lions. Oxford has several Churches and organisations: Oxford Union Church Oxford Baptist Church Sacred Heart Catholic Church Seventh Day Adventist Church Anglican Church Tawera Masonic Lodge Oxford Working Men’s Club West Oxford Hotel Oxford was linked to Christchurch in 1878 by the narrow-gauge Oxford Branch from Oxford West to Rangiora to meet the broad gauge from Christchurch.
With the gauge conversion of 1878, it became easier to transfer passengers and freight from the branch line to Christchurch, though passengers still had to change at Rangiora from the Waipara train to the branch train. The branch stretched from Rangiora through Bennetts Junction and Sheffield; this necessitated a high road-rail bridge across the Waimakariri Gorge. From Oxford to Sheffield closed in 1931 along with the Eyreton Branch, leaving the Oxford branch as a rural branch line, it lost its passenger service in the 1940s. Due to declining revenue, the branch closed on 31 May 1959 and the track was sold to Scotts Engineering of Christchurch, which used the rails from several branch lines to build farm sheds; the line was latterly worked by the AB class 4-6-2 and C class 2-6-2 tender locomotives. No diesel locomotives or railcars are known to have used the branch, although thought was given in the 1940s to running a small railcar; the OB&I was formed during World War. To raise money, it showed films in the old Oxford Town Hall.
It provides charitable support to the citizens of Oxford. Movies are screened in the Town Hall every other Saturday during the winter; the heyday of the OB&I movies was the middle of the 20th century, when three or four films would be shown every week and queues extended around the building. This was before private car ownership became popular, as the nearest cinema was in Christchurch, some 50 km distant; the Oxford Town hall, where movies were shown, was closed, along with several other Council operated buildings, in late 2011, as the building was determined to be earthquake prone. The Oxford Town hall was reopened on 19 February 2015. During 2009, Main Street underwent a major renovation with the road resurfaced, pedestrian refuges in strategic locations and new footpaths with garden beds; the old welcome signs were replaced with new "Experience Oxford" signs at west entries. This project was a joint undertaking by the Waimakariri District Council and the Oxford Promotions and Action Committee, but they ran out of money and did not finish both sides of the street.
There are a number of books about Oxford. Littledene: a New Zealand rural community published in 1938 is the most comprehensive. Media related to Oxford, New Zealand at Wikimedia Commons Oxford website
Cust, New Zealand
Cust is a rural village in the South Island of New Zealand. It comes under seat of the Waimakariri District Council, it is located 16 km east of Oxford and 17 km west of Rangiora. The town is named after Sir Edward Cust, a member of the Canterbury Association which organised European settlement of the area around 1850. Earlier names for the town were Middleton-on-the-Cust. Cust School is Cust's only school, it is a state co-educational full primary school with a decile rating of 10 and a roll of 161 students. The principal is Robert Schuyt. For more than 20 years, a metalled-road racing circuit at Cust was used as the venue for the New Zealand Grand Prix for motorcycling; the Easter event, last held in 1963, would swell the village population to 25,000. The average temperature in summer is 16.2 °C, in winter is 5.9 °C. Media related to Cust, New Zealand at Wikimedia Commons Cust village website Cust School Cust Volunteer Fire Brigade
Courtenay, New Zealand
Courtenay is a settlement in inland Canterbury, New Zealand. It was once important as a place where the Waimakariri River could be forded and was a coach stop on the way to the West Coast, its decline began. Early pioneers in Canterbury found it challenging to cross the Waimakariri River, struggled with its pronunciation. In 1849, the chief surveyor of the Canterbury Association, Joseph Thomas, gave it the name Courtenay River after the Canterbury Association member, Lord Courtenay, but it lapsed into disuse and the river was soon called again by its Māori name; the best opportunity for fording the river was 35 kilometres from Christchurch and the settlement that developed on the south bank at the ford took the European name of the river. When building timber ran low in Christchurch, the logs from the Harewood Forest at Oxford were brought across the river at Courtenay. Courtenay is a fertile agricultural district, it formed part of the Racecourse Hill and Desert runs, the former of, taken up by John Charles Watts-Russell.
The latter was bought by the Rev Octavius Mathias for his friend, the Rev John Owen, a member of the Canterbury Association who never came out to New Zealand. Courtenay was one of the earliest settled districts in Canterbury, among the first residents was Colonel De Renzie Brett. A hotel was built in 1861 and operated by Charles White, a store was opened at the township in the days when Cobb & Co coaches ran through it on their way to the West Coast. A second hotel, the Halfway House, was opened by Charles Watson just east of Courtenay, it was so named because it was equidistant to Christchurch and Sheffield, Cobb & Co made it its breakfast stop on the journey from Christchurch. However, the formation of the railway to Springfield through Kirwee, the consequent loss of the coach traffic, spoiled the business prospects of the township, both the hotel and store were subsequently closed; the Courtenay Road Board, of which Colonel Brett was the first chairman, had jurisdiction in the district, meetings were held at the Courtenay Hotel.
Subsequently the Board's headquarters were transferred to Kirwee. The Courtenay Agricultural and Pastoral Association, a horticultural society, were formed in the early days, shows were held at the Desert homestead, but at Kirwee. St. Matthew's church is an Anglican church, located where Woolshed Roads meet; the township had a country model school, i.e. a school where trainee teachers worked under the supervision of experienced teachers. The school closed long ago. Courtenay celebrated its 150th history in 2000, a memorial is located next to Old West Coast Road; the Waimakariri River makes a sweeping curve across the Canterbury Plains, Courtenay is located on its extreme convex point. River terraces are low-lying, old flood channels starting at Courtenay can be recognised on aerial photos; the flood risk was recognised early on, but no action was taken until Christchurch was hit by a devastating flood in February 1868 that saw Victoria Square 1 metre under water. The Waimakariri flood waters had reached the source of the Avon River in Avonhead, water rose quickly in central Christchurch.
Subsequently, flood banks were built by the Canterbury Provincial Council. The Courtenay district gave its name to a general electorate; the 1902 electoral redistribution created six new electorates, including Courtenay. It was abolished for the 1908 election; this article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Cyclopedia Company Limited. "Courtenay". The Cyclopedia of New Zealand: Canterbury Provincial District. Christchurch: The Cyclopedia of New Zealand. Retrieved 19 October 2014. Blain, Rev. Michael; the Canterbury Association: A Study of Its Members’ Connections. Christchurch: Project Canterbury. Retrieved 19 October 2014. Hight, James. A History of Canterbury. Volume I: to 1854. Christchurch: Whitcombe and Tombs Ltd. McRobie, Alan. Electoral Atlas of New Zealand. Wellington: GP Books. ISBN 0-477-01384-8