Hawaii is the 50th and most recent state to have joined the United States of America, having received statehood on August 21,1959. Hawaii is the only U. S. state located in Oceania and it is the northernmost island group in Polynesia, occupying most of an archipelago in the central Pacific Ocean. Hawaii is the only U. S. state not located in the Americas, the state encompasses nearly the entire volcanic Hawaiian archipelago, which comprises hundreds of islands spread over 1,500 miles. At the southeastern end of the archipelago, the eight main islands are—in order from northwest to southeast, Niʻihau, Kauaʻi, Oʻahu, Molokaʻi, Lānaʻi, Kahoʻolawe and the Island of Hawaiʻi. The last is the largest island in the group, it is called the Big Island or Hawaiʻi Island to avoid confusion with the state or archipelago. The archipelago is physiographically and ethnologically part of the Polynesian subregion of Oceania, Hawaii has over a million permanent residents, along with many visitors and U. S. military personnel.
Its capital is Honolulu on the island of Oʻahu, Hawaii is the 8th-smallest and the 11th-least populous, but the 13th-most densely populated of the fifty U. S. states. It is the state with an Asian plurality. The states coastline is about 750 miles long, the fourth longest in the U. S. after the coastlines of Alaska, the state of Hawaii derives its name from the name of its largest island, Hawaiʻi. A common Hawaiian explanation of the name of Hawaiʻi is that was named for Hawaiʻiloa and he is said to have discovered the islands when they were first settled. The Hawaiian language word Hawaiʻi is very similar to Proto-Polynesian *Sawaiki, cognates of Hawaiʻi are found in other Polynesian languages, including Māori and Samoan. According to linguists Pukui and Elbert, lsewhere in Polynesia, Hawaiʻi or a cognate is the name of the underworld or of the home, but in Hawaii. A somewhat divisive political issue arose in 1978 when the Constitution of the State of Hawaii added Hawaiian as an official state language.
The title of the constitution is The Constitution of the State of Hawaii. Article XV, Section 1 of the Constitution uses The State of Hawaii, diacritics were not used because the document, drafted in 1949, predates the use of the okina and the kahakō in modern Hawaiian orthography. The exact spelling of the name in the Hawaiian language is Hawaiʻi. In the Hawaii Admission Act that granted Hawaiian statehood, the government recognized Hawaii as the official state name. Official government publications and office titles, and the Seal of Hawaii use the spelling with no symbols for glottal stops or vowel length
Captain James Cook FRS RN was a British explorer, navigator and captain in the Royal Navy. Cook joined the British merchant navy as a teenager and joined the Royal Navy in 1755 and he saw action in the Seven Years War, and subsequently surveyed and mapped much of the entrance to the Saint Lawrence River during the siege of Quebec. This helped bring Cook to the attention of the Admiralty and Royal Society, in three voyages Cook sailed thousands of miles across largely uncharted areas of the globe. He mapped lands from New Zealand to Hawaii in the Pacific Ocean in greater detail, as he progressed on his voyages of discovery he surveyed and named features, and recorded islands and coastlines on European maps for the first time. He displayed a combination of seamanship, superior surveying and cartographic skills, physical courage, Cook was attacked and killed while attempting to kidnap the native chief of Hawaii during his third exploratory voyage in the Pacific in 1779. He left a legacy of scientific and geographical knowledge which was to influence his successors well into the 20th century, and numerous memorials worldwide have been dedicated to him.
James Cook was born on 7 November 1728 in the village of Marton in Yorkshire and baptised on 14 November in the church of St Cuthbert. He was the second of eight children of James Cook, a Scottish farm labourer from Ednam in Roxburghshire, in 1736, his family moved to Airey Holme farm at Great Ayton, where his fathers employer, Thomas Skottowe, paid for him to attend the local school. In 1741, after five years schooling, he work for his father. For leisure, he would climb a hill, Roseberry Topping, enjoying the opportunity for solitude. Cooks Cottage, his parents last home, which he is likely to have visited, is now in Melbourne, having moved from England and reassembled, brick by brick. In 1745, when he was 16, Cook moved 20 miles to the village of Staithes. Historians have speculated that this is where Cook first felt the lure of the sea while gazing out of the shop window. After 18 months, not proving suitable for work, Cook travelled to the nearby port town of Whitby to be introduced to friends of Sandersons, John.
The Walkers, who were Quakers, were prominent local ship-owners in the coal trade and their house is now the Captain Cook Memorial Museum. Cook was taken on as a merchant navy apprentice in their fleet of vessels. His first assignment was aboard the collier Freelove, and he spent several years on this and various other coasters, sailing between the Tyne and London. As part of his apprenticeship, Cook applied himself to the study of algebra, trigonometry and his three-year apprenticeship completed, Cook began working on trading ships in the Baltic Sea
Kauai County, Hawaii
Kauaʻi County is a county located in the U. S. state of Hawaiʻi. It consists of the islands of Kauaʻi, Niʻihau, Lehua, as of the 2010 Census the population was 67,091. The Kapaa Micropolitan Statistical Area includes all of Kauai County, according to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 1,266 square miles, of which 620 square miles is land and 646 square miles is water. The Pacific Ocean surrounds the county, executive authority is vested in the Mayor of Kauaʻi, elected by the voters on a non-partisan basis to a four-year term. Legislative authority is vested in the seven-member County Council, all members of the County Council are elected on a non-partisan, at-large basis to two-year terms. Kauai County, like the rest of Hawaii, is represented entirely by Democrats in both the United States Senate and the United States House of Representatives, Kauai County has traditionally been a solid Democratic stronghold. The county has not voted Republican since the 1984 election, when it voted in favour of Ronald Reagan.
As of the census of 2000, there were 58,463 people,20,183 households, the population density was 94 people per square mile. There were 25,331 housing units at a density of 41 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 29. 5% White,0. 3% Black or African American,0. 4% Native American,36. 0% Asian,9. 1% Pacific Islander,0. 9% from other races, and 23. 8% from two or more races. 8. 2% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race,21. 4% of all households were made up of individuals and 7. 7% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.87 and the family size was 3.34. In the county, the population was out with 26. 4% under the age of 18,7. 1% from 18 to 24,27. 2% from 25 to 44,25. 5% from 45 to 64. The median age was 38 years, for every 100 females there were 100.10 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 97.50 males, one of the ten branches of the University of Hawaii system, it offers a range of 2-year degrees and is accredited by the Western Association of Schools and Colleges.
Public schools in the county are operated by the Hawaii Department of Education, There are 14 elementary schools,4 middle schools and 3 high schools in the county. Lihue Airport serves the island of Kauai, Bus service is provided by The Kauai Bus. Route 50 Route 51 Route 56 Route 58 Route 520 Route 540 Route 550 Route 570 Route 580 Route 581 Route 583 There are no incorporated communities in Kauai County
Kekaha is a census-designated place in Kauaʻi County, Hawaiʻi, United States. The population was 3,537 at the 2010 census, for most of the 20th Century, the Kekaha Sugar Mill was the centerpiece of agriculture on Kauaʻis west side. The sugar mill had an influence in Kekahas development, including banking, transportation and utilities such as water. The mill employed several generations of local families and it closed in 2000 when the entire sugar industry in Hawaiʻi collapsed. The mill was purchased in 2005 by mainland investors who sold off its heavy machinery to other mills as far away as Africa, police recovered the money in a swamp near the home of a local fisherman, whose suspicious behavior soon resulted in his arrest and conviction. The fisherman was a big fan of Western movies, and was thought to have inspired by some of the films he had seen. Kekaha is located at 21°58′18″N 159°42′59″W, according to the United States Census Bureau, the CDP has a total area of 1.2 square miles, of which,1.0 square mile of it is land and 0.2 square miles of it is water.
As of the census of 2000, there were 3,175 people,1,073 households, the population density was 3,178.2 people per square mile. There were 1,162 housing units at a density of 1,163.2 per square mile. The racial makeup of the CDP was 15. 9% White,0. 2% African American,0. 5% Native American,43. 6% Asian,12. 4% Pacific Islander,1. 0% from other races, and 26. 4% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 8. 7% of the population,21. 4% of all households were made up of individuals and 9. 4% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.96 and the family size was 3.44. In the CDP the population was out with 25. 1% under the age of 18,7. 5% from 18 to 24,24. 4% from 25 to 44,27. 4% from 45 to 64. The median age was 40 years, for every 100 females there were 98.1 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 96.2 males, the median income for a household in the CDP was $41,103, and the median income for a family was $48,629. Males had an income of $32,969 versus $26,739 for females.
The per capita income for the CDP was $17,117, about 10. 9% of families and 11. 2% of the population were below the poverty line, including 11. 8% of those under age 18 and 11. 1% of those age 65 or over. Located near Kekaha is the U. S. Navy Pacific Missile Range Facility, within PMRFs property is located WWVH, the U. S. s Pacific-region short-wave station operated by NIST broadcasting time signals from an atomic clock
The Marquesas Islands are a group of volcanic islands in French Polynesia, an overseas collectivity of France in the southern Pacific Ocean. The Marquesas are located at 9°00 S, 139°30 W, the highest point is the peak of Mount Oave on Ua Pu island at 1,230 m above sea level. Based on 2010 studies, new research suggests that the islands were colonized rapidly in two waves by indigenous colonists from West Polynesia, beginning c. 1025–1120 AD, leading to development of a remarkably uniform culture, human biology and language. The Marquesas Islands form one of the five divisions of French Polynesia. The capital of the Marquesas Islands administrative subdivision is the settlement of Taiohae on the island of Nuku Hiva, the population of the Marquesas Islands was 9,264 inhabitants at the August 2012 census. D. ∼1025–1120, four centuries than previously assumed, after 70–265 years and this rapid colonization is believed to account for the remarkable uniformity of East Polynesia culture and language.
The new information will require major reworking of scholarship about the development of linguistics and linguistic evidence suggests that they likely migrated from the Western regions of Polynesia. The rich environment of the islands supported a large population and they lived by fishing, eating both fish and shellfish. They used breadfruit and raised other foods, the islands were given their name by Spanish explorer Álvaro de Mendaña, who reached them seventy years on 21 July 1595. He named them after his patron, García Hurtado de Mendoza, 5th Marquis of Cañete, Mendaña visited first Fatu Hiva and Tahuata before continuing on to the Solomon Islands. His expedition charted the four southernmost Marquesas as Magdalena, San Pedro, in the late 16th century, European explorers estimated the population to have been more than 100,000. Europeans and Americans were impressed with how easy life appeared to be in the islands, in 1791 the American maritime fur trader Joseph Ingraham first visited the northern Marquesas while commanding the brig Hope.
He named them as the Washington Islands, in 1813, Commodore David Porter claimed Nuku Hiva for the United States, but the United States Congress never ratified that claim. In 1842, France conducted a military operation on behalf of native chief Iotete. The government laid claim to the group and established a settlement on Nuku Hiva. That settlement was abandoned in 1857, but France reestablished control over the group in 1870 and it incorporated the Marquesas into French Polynesia. Of all major groups in the Pacific, the Marquesas suffered the greatest population decline in Polynesia from endemic diseases carried by Western explorers. The indigenous people suffered high rates of mortality, as they had no immunity to the new diseases, such infectious diseases as smallpox and others reduced the eighteenth-century population of over 78,000 inhabitants to about 20,000 by the middle of the nineteenth century
United States Census Bureau
The United States Census Bureau is a principal agency of the U. S. Federal Statistical System, responsible for producing data about the American people and economy. The Census Bureaus primary mission is conducting the U. S. Census every ten years, in addition to the decennial census, the Census Bureau continually conducts dozens of other censuses and surveys, including the American Community Survey, the U. S. Economic Census, and the Current Population Survey, furthermore and foreign trade indicators released by the federal government typically contain data produced by the Census Bureau. The Bureaus various censuses and surveys help allocate over $400 billion in federal funds every year and help states, local communities, the Census Bureau is part of the U. S. Department of Commerce and its director is appointed by the President of the United States. The Census Bureau now conducts a population count every 10 years in years ending with a 0. Between censuses, the Census Bureau makes population estimates and projections, the Census Bureau is mandated with fulfilling these obligations, the collecting of statistics about the nation, its people, and economy.
The Census Bureaus legal authority is codified in Title 13 of the United States Code, the Census Bureau conducts surveys on behalf of various federal government and local government agencies on topics such as employment, health, consumer expenditures, and housing. Within the bureau, these are known as surveys and are conducted perpetually between and during decennial population counts. The Census Bureau conducts surveys of manufacturing, service. Between 1790 and 1840, the census was taken by marshals of the judicial districts, the Census Act of 1840 established a central office which became known as the Census Office. Several acts followed that revised and authorized new censuses, typically at the 10-year intervals, in 1902, the temporary Census Office was moved under the Department of Interior, and in 1903 it was renamed the Census Bureau under the new Department of Commerce and Labor. The department was intended to consolidate overlapping statistical agencies, but Census Bureau officials were hindered by their role in the department.
An act in 1920 changed the date and authorized manufacturing censuses every 2 years, in 1929, a bill was passed mandating the House of Representatives be reapportioned based on the results of the 1930 Census. In 1954, various acts were codified into Title 13 of the US Code, by law, the Census Bureau must count everyone and submit state population totals to the U. S. President by December 31 of any year ending in a zero. States within the Union receive the results in the spring of the following year, the United States Census Bureau defines four statistical regions, with nine divisions. The Census Bureau regions are widely used. for data collection, the Census Bureau definition is pervasive. Title 13 of the U. S. Code establishes penalties for the disclosure of this information, all Census employees must sign an affidavit of non-disclosure prior to employment. The Bureau cannot share responses, addresses or personal information with anyone including United States or foreign government, only after 72 years does the information collected become available to other agencies or the general public
The Pacific Ocean is the largest and deepest of the Earths oceanic divisions. It extends from the Arctic Ocean in the north to the Southern Ocean in the south and is bounded by Asia and Australia in the west, the Mariana Trench in the western North Pacific is the deepest point in the world, reaching a depth of 10,911 metres. Both the center of the Water Hemisphere and the Western Hemisphere are in the Pacific Ocean, the oceans current name was coined by Portuguese explorer Ferdinand Magellan during the Spanish circumnavigation of the world in 1521, as he encountered favourable winds on reaching the ocean. He called it Mar Pacífico, which in both Portuguese and Spanish means peaceful sea, important human migrations occurred in the Pacific in prehistoric times. Long-distance trade developed all along the coast from Mozambique to Japan and therefore knowledge, extended to the Indonesian islands but apparently not Australia. By at least 878 when there was a significant Islamic settlement in Canton much of trade was controlled by Arabs or Muslims.
In 219 BC Xu Fu sailed out into the Pacific searching for the elixir of immortality, from 1404 to 1433 Zheng He led expeditions into the Indian Ocean. The east side of the ocean was discovered by Spanish explorer Vasco Núñez de Balboa in 1513 after his expedition crossed the Isthmus of Panama and he named it Mar del Sur because the ocean was to the south of the coast of the isthmus where he first observed the Pacific. Later, Portuguese explorer Ferdinand Magellan sailed the Pacific East to West on a Castilian expedition of world circumnavigation starting in 1519, Magellan called the ocean Pacífico because, after sailing through the stormy seas off Cape Horn, the expedition found calm waters. The ocean was often called the Sea of Magellan in his honor until the eighteenth century, sailing around and east of the Moluccas, between 1525 and 1527, Portuguese expeditions discovered the Caroline Islands, the Aru Islands, and Papua New Guinea. In 1542–43 the Portuguese reached Japan, in 1564, five Spanish ships consisting of 379 explorers crossed the ocean from Mexico led by Miguel López de Legazpi and sailed to the Philippines and Mariana Islands.
The Manila galleons operated for two and a half centuries linking Manila and Acapulco, in one of the longest trade routes in history, Spanish expeditions discovered Tuvalu, the Marquesas, the Cook Islands, the Solomon Islands, and the Admiralty Islands in the South Pacific. In the 16th and 17th century Spain considered the Pacific Ocean a Mare clausum—a sea closed to other naval powers, as the only known entrance from the Atlantic the Strait of Magellan was at times patrolled by fleets sent to prevent entrance of non-Spanish ships. On the western end of the Pacific Ocean the Dutch threatened the Spanish Philippines, Spain sent expeditions to the Pacific Northwest reaching Vancouver Island in southern Canada, and Alaska. The French explored and settled Polynesia, and the British made three voyages with James Cook to the South Pacific and Australia and the North American Pacific Northwest, one of the earliest voyages of scientific exploration was organized by Spain in the Malaspina Expedition of 1789–1794.
It sailed vast areas of the Pacific, from Cape Horn to Alaska and the Philippines, New Zealand and the South Pacific. Growing imperialism during the 19th century resulted in the occupation of much of Oceania by other European powers, and later, Japan, in Oceania, France got a leading position as imperial power after making Tahiti and New Caledonia protectorates in 1842 and 1853 respectively. After navy visits to Easter Island in 1875 and 1887, Chilean navy officer Policarpo Toro managed to negotiate an incorporation of the island into Chile with native Rapanui in 1888, by occupying Easter Island, Chile joined the imperial nations
ZIP Codes are a system of postal codes used by the United States Postal Service since 1963. The term ZIP, an acronym for Zone Improvement Plan, was chosen to suggest that the travels more efficiently, and therefore more quickly. The basic format consists of five numerical digits, an extended ZIP+4 code, introduced in 1983, includes the five digits of the ZIP Code, a hyphen, and four additional digits that determine a more specific location within a given ZIP Code. The term ZIP Code was originally registered as a servicemark by the U. S. Postal Service, USPS style for ZIP is all caps and the c in code is capitalized, although style sheets for some publications use sentence case or lowercase. The early history and context of postal codes began with postal district/zone numbers, the United States Post Office Department implemented postal zones for numerous large cities in 1943. For example, Mr. John Smith 3256 Epiphenomenal Avenue Minneapolis 16, by the early 1960s a more organized system was needed, and on July 1,1963, non-mandatory five-digit ZIP Codes were introduced nationwide.
Three months later, on October 1,1963, the U. S, an earlier list in June had proposed capitalized abbreviations ranging from two to five letters. The abbreviations have remained unchanged, with one exception, according to the historian of the U. S. Robert Moon, an employee of the post office, is considered the father of the ZIP Code, he submitted his proposal in 1944 while working as a postal inspector. The post office gives credit to Moon only for the first three digits of the ZIP Code, which describe the sectional center facility or sec center, an SCF is a central mail processing facility with those three digits. The SCF sorts mail to all post offices with those first three digits in their ZIP Codes, the mail is sorted according to the final two digits of the ZIP Code and sent to the corresponding post offices in the early morning. Sectional centers do not deliver mail and are not open to the public, Mail picked up at post offices is sent to their own SCF in the afternoon, where the mail is sorted overnight.
The United States Post Office used a character, which it called Mr. ZIP. He was often depicted with a such as USE ZIP CODE in the selvage of panes of stamps or on labels contained in, or the covers of. In 1983, the U. S. Postal Service introduced an expanded ZIP Code system that it called ZIP+4, often called plus-four codes, add-on codes, or add ons. But initial attempts to promote use of the new format met with public resistance. For Post Office Boxes, the rule is that each box has its own ZIP+4 code. However, there is no rule, so the ZIP+4 Code must be looked up individually for each box. It is common to use add-on code 9998 for mail addressed to the postmaster,9999 for general delivery, for a unique ZIP Code, the add-on code is typically 0001
Pakala Village, Hawaii
Pākalā Village is a census-designated place in Kauaʻi County, Hawaiʻi, United States. The population was 294 at the 2010 census, pākalā Village is called Pakala Camp, named for the temporary living quarters of plantation workers. ). Pakala Camp consisted of employee and retiree housing for workers at the Gay & Robinson sugarcane plantation in the ahupuaʻa of Makaweli, the plantation was managed by the Robinson family of Kauai and Niihau, who first arrived in Hawaii in 1863. Pākalā Village is located at 21°56′36″N 159°38′52″W, according to the United States Census Bureau, the CDP has a total area of 2.6 square miles, of which,2.3 square miles of it is land and 0.3 square miles of it is water. As of the census of 2000, there were 478 people,150 households, the population density was 204.7 people per square mile. There were 172 housing units at a density of 73.6 per square mile. The racial makeup of the CDP was 14% White, <1% African American, 37% Asian, 26% Pacific Islander, <1% from other races, hispanic or Latino of any race were 6% of the population. 18% of all households were made up of individuals and 15% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older, the average household size was 3.19 and the average family size was 3.66.
In the CDP the population was out with 29% under the age of 18, 6% from 18 to 24, 21% from 25 to 44, 22% from 45 to 64. The median age was 41 years, for every 100 females there were 115.3 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 102.4 males, the median income for a household in the CDP was $24,464, and the median income for a family was $29,000. Males had an income of $21,875 versus $14,750 for females. The per capita income for the CDP was $9,846, about 33% of families and 44% of the population were below the poverty line, including 69% of those under age 18 and 26% of those age 65 or over
A county seat is an administrative center, seat of government, or capital city of a county or civil parish. The term is used in the United States, Romania, China, in the United Kingdom and Ireland, county towns have a similar function. In the United States, counties are the subdivisions of a state. Depending on the state, counties may provide services to the public, impose taxes. Some types of subdivisions, such as townships, may be incorporated or unincorporated. The city, town, or populated place that houses county government is known as the seat of its respective county, a county seat is usually, but not always, an incorporated municipality. The exceptions include the county seats of counties that have no incorporated municipalities within their borders, such as Arlington County, likewise, some county seats may not be incorporated in their own right, but are located within incorporated municipalities. For example, Cape May Court House, New Jersey, though unincorporated, is a section of Middle Township, in some of the colonial states, county seats include or formerly included Court House as part of their name.
Most counties have only one county seat, an example is Harrison County, which lists both Biloxi and Gulfport as county seats. The practice of multiple county seat towns dates from the days when travel was difficult, there have been few efforts to eliminate the two-seat arrangement, since a county seat is a source of pride for the towns involved. There are 36 counties with multiple county seats in 11 states, Coffee County, for example, the official county seat is Greensboro, but an additional courthouse has been located in nearby High Point since 1938. For example, Clearwater is the county seat of Pinellas County, Florida, in New England, the town, not the county, is the primary division of local government. Historically, counties in this region have served mainly as dividing lines for the judicial systems. Connecticut and Rhode Island have no county level of government and thus no county seats, in Vermont and Maine the county seats are legally designated shire towns. County government consists only of a Superior Court and Sheriff, both located in the shire town.
Bennington County has two towns, but the Sheriff is located in Bennington. In Massachusetts, most government functions which would otherwise be performed by county governments in other states are performed by town governments. As such, Massachusetts has dissolved many of its county governments, two counties in South Dakota have their county seat and government services centered in a neighboring county