A bartender is a person who formulates and serves alcoholic or soft drink beverages behind the bar in a licensed establishment. Bartenders usually maintain the supplies and inventory for the bar. A bartender can mix classic cocktails such as a Cosmopolitan, Old Fashioned, Mojito. Bartenders are usually responsible for confirming that customers meet the legal drinking age requirements before serving them alcoholic beverages. In certain countries, such as Canada, the United Kingdom, Sweden, bartenders are required to refuse more alcohol to drunk customers. Bartending was a profession with a low reputation, it was perceived through the lens of ethical issues and various legal constraints related to the serving of alcohol. The pioneers of bartending as a serious profession appeared in the 19th century. "Professor" Jerry Thomas established the image of the bartender as a creative professional. Harry Johnson established the first bar management consulting agency. At the turn of the 20th century less than half the bartenders in London were women, such as Ada Coleman.
"Barmaids", as they were called, were the daughters of tradesmen or mechanics or young women from the "better-born" classes, "thrown upon their own resources" and needed an income. The bartending profession was a second occupation, used as transitional work for students to gain customer experience or to save money for university fees; the reason for this is because bartenders in tipping countries such as Canada and the United States, can make significant money from their tips. This view of bartending as a career is changing around the world and bartending has become a profession by choice rather than necessity, it includes specialized education — European Bartender School operates in 23 countries. Cocktail competitions such as World Class and Bacardi Legacy have recognised talented bartenders in the past decade and these bartenders, others, spread the love of cocktails and hospitality throughout the world. Kathy Sullivan owner of Sidecar Bartending expressed the difficulties with becoming a prolific bartender, comparing you to the drink you make: “In drinks you want balance.
And you have to be balanced physically and mentally.”. In the United Kingdom, bar work is not regarded as a long-term profession, but more as a second occupation, or transitional work for students to gain customer experience or to save money for university fees; as such, it therefore has a high turnover. The high turnover of staff due to low wages and poor employee benefits results in a shortage of skilled bartenders. Whereas a career bartender would know drink recipes, serving techniques, alcohol contents, correct gas mixes and licensing law and would have cordial relations with regular customers, short-term staff may lack these skills; some pubs prefer experienced staff, although pub chains tend to accept inexperienced staff and provide training. Tipping bartenders in the United Kingdom is uncommon, not considered mandatory but is appreciated by the bartender; the appropriate way to tip a bartender in the UK is to say'have one for yourself', encouraging the bartender to buy themselves a drink with one's money, where a bartender may instead opt to add a modest amount to a bill to take in cash at the end of their shift.
The Bureau of Labor Statistics data on occupations in the United States, including that of bartender, publishes a detailed description of the bartender's typical duties and employment and earning statistics by those so employed, with 55% of a bartender's take-home pay coming in the form of tips. Bartenders may learn while on the job. Bartenders in the United States may work in a large variety of bars; these include hotel bars, restaurant bars, sports bars, gay bars, piano bars, dive bars. Growing in popularity is the portable bar, which can be moved to different venues and special events. Bar-back, a bartender's assistant Hospitality List of bartenders List of public house topics List of restaurant terminology Tavern Media related to Bartenders at Wikimedia Commons
A gratuity is a sum of money customarily given by a client or customer to a service worker in addition to the basic price. Tipping is given to certain service sector workers for a service performed, as opposed to money offered for a product or as part of a purchase price. Depending on the country or location, it may or may not be customary to tip servers in bars and restaurants, taxi drivers, hair stylists and so on; the exchange is irreversible, differentiating it from the reward mechanism of a placed order, which can be refunded. Tips and their amount are a matter of social custom and etiquette, the custom varies between countries and settings. In some locations tipping is discouraged and considered insulting, while in some other locations tipping is expected from customers; the customary amount of a tip can be a specific range of monetary amounts or a certain percentage of the bill based on the perceived quality of the service given. In some circumstances, such as with U. S. government workers and more with police officers, receiving gratuities is illegal.
A fixed percentage service charge is sometimes added to bills in restaurants and similar establishments. Tipping may not be expected. From a theoretical economic point of view, gratuities may solve the principal–agent problem and many managers believe that tips provide incentive for greater worker effort. However, studies of the real world practice show that tipping is discriminatory or arbitrary. According to the Oxford English Dictionary, the word "tip" originated as a slang term and its etymology is unclear. According to the Online Etymology Dictionary, the meaning "give a small present of money" began around 1600, the meaning "give a gratuity to" is first attested in 1706; the noun in this sense is from 1755. The term in the sense of "to give a gratuity" first appeared in the 18th century, it derived from an earlier sense of tip, meaning "to give. This sense may have derived from the 16th-century "tip" meaning "to strike or hit smartly but lightly" but this derivation is "very uncertain"; the word "tip" was first used as a verb in 1707 in George Farquhar's play The Beaux' Stratagem.
Farquhar used the term after it had been "used in criminal circles as a word meant to imply the unnecessary and gratuitous gifting of something somewhat taboo, like a joke, or a sure bet, or illicit money exchanges."The practice of tipping began in Tudor England. "By the 17th century, it was expected that overnight guests to private homes would provide sums of money, known as vails, to the host's servants. Soon afterwards, customers began tipping in London coffeehouses and other commercial establishments"; the etymology for the synonym for tipping, "gratuity", dates back either to the 1520s, from "graciousness", from the French gratuité or directly from Medieval Latin gratuitas, "free gift" from earlier Latin gratuitus, "free given". The meaning "money given for favor or services" is first attested in the 1530s. In some languages, the term translates to "drink money" or similar: for example pourboire in French, Trinkgeld in German, drikkepenge in Danish, napiwek in Polish; this comes from a custom of inviting a servant to drink a glass in honour of the guest, paying for it, in order for the guests to show generosity among each other.
The term bibalia in Latin was recorded in 1372. A tronc is an arrangement for the pooling and distribution to employees of tips, gratuities and/or service charges in the hotel and catering trade; the person who distributes monies from the tronc is known as the troncmaster. When a tronc exists in the UK, responsibility for deducting pay-as-you-earn taxes from the distribution may lie with the troncmaster rather than the employer; the word "tronc" has its origins in the French for collecting box. In June 2008, the Employment Appeals Tribunal ruled in a UK test case that income from a tronc cannot be counted when assessing whether a wage or salary meets the national minimum wage. In Nigeria tipping is not so common at upscale hotels and restaurants because service charge is included in the bill though the employees get this as part of their wages. In recent times however, the service provider coerce the customer for tips in a subtle manner. There have been reported cases of security guards asking bank customers for tips.
In China, traditionally there is no tipping. However, hotels that serve foreign tourists allow tipping. An example would be associated drivers. In Hong Kong, tipping is not expected at hotels or restaurant establishments, where a "service charge" of 10% is added to a bill instead of expecting a gratuity. Taxi drivers in Hong Kong may charge the difference between a fare and a round sum as a "courtesy fee" to avoid making change for larger bills. Tipping culture is not practiced in Japan and may cause confusion or insult if attempted without utilizing an envelope. Like many other countries in East Asia, Japanese people see tipping as insulting, but it's because the Japanese traditionally accept tips in specialized envelopes. In India tipping is not norm in Restaurants, but if
Chicago the City of Chicago, is the most populous city in Illinois, as well as the third most populous city in the United States. With an estimated population of 2,716,450, it is the most populous city in the Midwest. Chicago is the principal city of the Chicago metropolitan area referred to as Chicagoland, the county seat of Cook County, the second most populous county in the United States; the metropolitan area, at nearly 10 million people, is the third-largest in the United States, the fourth largest in North America and the third largest metropolitan area in the world by land area. Located on the shores of freshwater Lake Michigan, Chicago was incorporated as a city in 1837 near a portage between the Great Lakes and the Mississippi River watershed and grew in the mid-nineteenth century. After the Great Chicago Fire of 1871, which destroyed several square miles and left more than 100,000 homeless, the city made a concerted effort to rebuild; the construction boom accelerated population growth throughout the following decades, by 1900 Chicago was the fifth largest city in the world.
Chicago made noted contributions to urban planning and zoning standards, including new construction styles, the development of the City Beautiful Movement, the steel-framed skyscraper. Chicago is an international hub for finance, commerce, technology, telecommunications, transportation, it is the site of the creation of the first standardized futures contracts at the Chicago Board of Trade, which today is the largest and most diverse derivatives market gobally, generating 20% of all volume in commodities and financial futures. O'Hare International Airport is the one of the busiest airports in the world, the region has the largest number of U. S. highways and greatest amount of railroad freight. In 2012, Chicago was listed as an alpha global city by the Globalization and World Cities Research Network, it ranked seventh in the entire world in the 2017 Global Cities Index; the Chicago area has one of the highest gross domestic products in the world, generating $680 billion in 2017. In addition, the city has one of the world's most diversified and balanced economies, not being dependent on any one industry, with no single industry employing more than 14% of the workforce.
Chicago's 58 million domestic and international visitors in 2018, made it the second most visited city in the nation, behind New York City's approximate 65 million visitors. The city ranked first place in the 2018 Time Out City Life Index, a global quality of life survey of 15,000 people in 32 cities. Landmarks in the city include Millennium Park, Navy Pier, the Magnificent Mile, the Art Institute of Chicago, Museum Campus, the Willis Tower, Grant Park, the Museum of Science and Industry, Lincoln Park Zoo. Chicago's culture includes the visual arts, film, comedy and music jazz, soul, hip-hop and electronic dance music including house music. Of the area's many colleges and universities, the University of Chicago, Northwestern University, the University of Illinois at Chicago are classified as "highest research" doctoral universities. Chicago has professional sports teams in each of the major professional leagues, including two Major League Baseball teams; the name "Chicago" is derived from a French rendering of the indigenous Miami-Illinois word shikaakwa for a wild relative of the onion, known to botanists as Allium tricoccum and known more as ramps.
The first known reference to the site of the current city of Chicago as "Checagou" was by Robert de LaSalle around 1679 in a memoir. Henri Joutel, in his journal of 1688, noted that the eponymous wild "garlic" grew abundantly in the area. According to his diary of late September 1687:...when we arrived at the said place called "Chicagou" which, according to what we were able to learn of it, has taken this name because of the quantity of garlic which grows in the forests in this region. The city has had several nicknames throughout its history such as the Windy City, Chi-Town, Second City, the City of the Big Shoulders, which refers to the city's numerous skyscrapers and high-rises. In the mid-18th century, the area was inhabited by a Native American tribe known as the Potawatomi, who had taken the place of the Miami and Sauk and Fox peoples; the first known non-indigenous permanent settler in Chicago was Jean Baptiste Point du Sable. Du Sable arrived in the 1780s, he is known as the "Founder of Chicago".
In 1795, following the Northwest Indian War, an area, to be part of Chicago was turned over to the United States for a military post by native tribes in accordance with the Treaty of Greenville. In 1803, the United States Army built Fort Dearborn, destroyed in 1812 in the Battle of Fort Dearborn and rebuilt; the Ottawa and Potawatomi tribes had ceded additional land to the United States in the 1816 Treaty of St. Louis; the Potawatomi were forcibly removed from their land after the Treaty of Chicago in 1833. On August 12, 1833, the Town of Chicago was organized with a population of about 200. Within seven years it grew to more than 4,000 people. On June 15, 1835, the first public land sales began with Edmund Dick Taylor as U. S. Receiver of Public Monies; the City of Chicago was incorporated on Saturday, March 4, 1837, for several decades was the world's fastest-growing city. As the site of the Chicago Portage, the city became an important transportation hub between the eastern and western United States.
Chicago's first railway and Chicago Union Railroad, the Illi
International Standard Serial Number
An International Standard Serial Number is an eight-digit serial number used to uniquely identify a serial publication, such as a magazine. The ISSN is helpful in distinguishing between serials with the same title. ISSN are used in ordering, interlibrary loans, other practices in connection with serial literature; the ISSN system was first drafted as an International Organization for Standardization international standard in 1971 and published as ISO 3297 in 1975. ISO subcommittee TC 46/SC 9 is responsible for maintaining the standard; when a serial with the same content is published in more than one media type, a different ISSN is assigned to each media type. For example, many serials are published both in electronic media; the ISSN system refers to these types as electronic ISSN, respectively. Conversely, as defined in ISO 3297:2007, every serial in the ISSN system is assigned a linking ISSN the same as the ISSN assigned to the serial in its first published medium, which links together all ISSNs assigned to the serial in every medium.
The format of the ISSN is an eight digit code, divided by a hyphen into two four-digit numbers. As an integer number, it can be represented by the first seven digits; the last code digit, which may be 0-9 or an X, is a check digit. Formally, the general form of the ISSN code can be expressed as follows: NNNN-NNNC where N is in the set, a digit character, C is in; the ISSN of the journal Hearing Research, for example, is 0378-5955, where the final 5 is the check digit, C=5. To calculate the check digit, the following algorithm may be used: Calculate the sum of the first seven digits of the ISSN multiplied by its position in the number, counting from the right—that is, 8, 7, 6, 5, 4, 3, 2, respectively: 0 ⋅ 8 + 3 ⋅ 7 + 7 ⋅ 6 + 8 ⋅ 5 + 5 ⋅ 4 + 9 ⋅ 3 + 5 ⋅ 2 = 0 + 21 + 42 + 40 + 20 + 27 + 10 = 160 The modulus 11 of this sum is calculated. For calculations, an upper case X in the check digit position indicates a check digit of 10. To confirm the check digit, calculate the sum of all eight digits of the ISSN multiplied by its position in the number, counting from the right.
The modulus 11 of the sum must be 0. There is an online ISSN checker. ISSN codes are assigned by a network of ISSN National Centres located at national libraries and coordinated by the ISSN International Centre based in Paris; the International Centre is an intergovernmental organization created in 1974 through an agreement between UNESCO and the French government. The International Centre maintains a database of all ISSNs assigned worldwide, the ISDS Register otherwise known as the ISSN Register. At the end of 2016, the ISSN Register contained records for 1,943,572 items. ISSN and ISBN codes are similar in concept. An ISBN might be assigned for particular issues of a serial, in addition to the ISSN code for the serial as a whole. An ISSN, unlike the ISBN code, is an anonymous identifier associated with a serial title, containing no information as to the publisher or its location. For this reason a new ISSN is assigned to a serial each time it undergoes a major title change. Since the ISSN applies to an entire serial a new identifier, the Serial Item and Contribution Identifier, was built on top of it to allow references to specific volumes, articles, or other identifiable components.
Separate ISSNs are needed for serials in different media. Thus, the print and electronic media versions of a serial need separate ISSNs. A CD-ROM version and a web version of a serial require different ISSNs since two different media are involved. However, the same ISSN can be used for different file formats of the same online serial; this "media-oriented identification" of serials made sense in the 1970s. In the 1990s and onward, with personal computers, better screens, the Web, it makes sense to consider only content, independent of media; this "content-oriented identification" of serials was a repressed demand during a decade, but no ISSN update or initiative occurred. A natural extension for ISSN, the unique-identification of the articles in the serials, was the main demand application. An alternative serials' contents model arrived with the indecs Content Model and its application, the digital object identifier, as ISSN-independent initiative, consolidated in the 2000s. Only in 2007, ISSN-L was defined in the
Emotional labor is the process of managing feelings and expressions to fulfill the emotional requirements of a job. More workers are expected to regulate their emotions during interactions with customers, co-workers and superiors; this includes analysis and decision making in terms of the expression of emotion, whether felt or not, as well as its opposite: the suppression of emotions that are felt but not expressed. Roles that have been identified as requiring emotional labor include but are not limited to parental and spousal relationships, those involved in public administration, guarded professions of secrecy, flight attendant, daycare worker, nursing home worker, doctor, store clerk, call center worker, librarian, social worker; as particular economies move from a manufacturing- to a service-based economy, more workers in a variety of occupational fields are expected to manage their emotions according to employer demands when compared to sixty years ago. The sociologist Arlie Hochschild provides the first definition of emotional labor, a form of emotion regulation that creates a publicly visible facial and bodily display within the workplace.
The related term emotion work refers to "these same acts done in a private context", such as within the private sphere of one's home or interactions with family and friends. Hochschild identified three emotion regulation strategies: cognitive and expressive. Within cognitive emotion work, one attempts to change images, ideas, or thoughts in hopes of changing the feelings associated with them. For example, one may associate a family picture with feeling happy and think about said picture whenever attempting to feel happy. Within bodily emotion work, one attempts to change physical symptoms in order to create a desired emotion. For example, one may attempt deep breathing. Within expressive emotion work, one attempts to change expressive gestures to change inner feelings. For example, one may attempt to smile. One becomes aware of emotion work most when one's feelings do not fit the situation. For instance, when one does not feel sad at a funeral, one becomes acutely aware of the feelings appropriate for that situation.
While emotion work happens within the private sphere, emotional labor is emotion management within the workplace according to employer expectations. According to Hochschild, the emotion management by employers creates a situation in which this emotion management can be exchanged in the marketplace. According to Hochschild, jobs involving emotional labor are defined as those that: require face-to-face or voice-to-voice contact with the public. Require the worker to produce an emotional state in another person. Allow the employer, through training and supervision, to exercise a degree of control over the emotional activities of employees. Hochschild argues that within this commodification process, service workers are estranged from their own feelings in the workplace. Societal and organizational norms. For example, empirical evidence indicates that in "busy" stores there is more legitimacy to express negative emotions, than there is in "slow" stores, in which employees are expected to behave accordingly to the display rules.
Dispositional traits and inner feeling on the job. Supervisory regulation of display rules. Moreover, supervisors' impressions of the need to suppress negative emotions on the job influence the employees' impressions of that display rule. Original description of this emotion management process, researchers have focused on surface acting and deep acting as the primary strategies that employees use to regulate their emotions. Surface acting involves a "faking" process through which outward expressions are altered, yet internal feelings are left intact. Conversely, deep acting is an effortful process through which employees change their internal feelings to align with organizational expectations, producing more natural and genuine emotional displays. Although the underlying regulatory processes involved in each approach differ, the objective of both, is to show positive emotions, which are presumed to impact the feelings of customers and bottom-line outcomes. However, as mentioned, research has found surface acting to be more problematic for employee well-being than deep acting.
In the past, emotional labor demands and display rules were viewed as a characteristic of particular occupations, such as restaurant workers, hospital workers, bill collectors, counselors and nurses. However, display rules have been conceptualized not only as role requirements of particular
Waiters' Race is a race that tests the speed that a waiter can carry a loaded tray without tipping it. It is possible to find archive footage showing a old waiters race in Paris and Berlin at the beginning of the 20th century; the origin of the waiters race, comes from France. At their beginning, waiters races started to be organized in order to improve the recognition of the waiter profession in Paris; this is the reason why today the event has a French Touch and organizers used to schedule races on Bastille Day for instance. Today, it is possible to find waiters races in more than 53 countries all over the world. From Hong Kong to Washington DC, from Brussels to Jerusalem or from Buenos Aires to Japan, waiters are at honor for a day and make a show in front of thousands of spectators. In 2011, "the course des garcons de cafe" come back in Paris after years. Up-to-date, more than 724 waiters races in the world from the beginning have been listed by the International Waiters Race Community Website WaitersRace.
And races are found everyday. Winners of waiters race receives prizes but it is not all. Many of them confess; this is the case for instance for Bassel Halawani who won the Jerusalem Waiters Race and became manager in his Hotel few days after (watch the interview of Bassel. WaitersRace.com, the International and Officiel Waiters Races Website National Waiters' Day Website in UK Video from archive showing old waiters race in Paris Link to a documentary on French Television about Waiters Race5 Course des Garçons des Café Old Photo of Waiters Race Courses des garçons de café in New Orleans
Hooters, Inc. is the trade name of two held American restaurant chains: Hooters of America, based in Atlanta and Hooters, based in Clearwater, Florida. The Hooters name is a double entendre referring to both its owl logo, a bird known for its "hooting" calls, an American slang term for women's breasts popularized by comedian Steve Martin on the hit comedy series Saturday Night Live. Hooters had an airline, Hooters Air, with a normal flight crew and flight attendants and scantily clad Hooters Girls on every flight; the waiting staff at Hooters restaurants are young women referred to as "Hooter Girls", whose revealing outfits and sex appeal are played up and are a primary component of the company's image. The company employs men and women as cooks, hosts and managers; the menu includes hamburgers and other sandwiches, seafood entrees and the restaurant's specialty, chicken wings. All Hooters restaurants hold alcoholic beverage licenses to sell beer and wine, where local permits allow, a full liquor bar.
Hooters T-shirts and various souvenirs and curios are sold. In January 2011 Chanticleer Holdings LLC of Charlotte, North Carolina and others completed the purchase of Hooters of America Inc. from the Brooks family. In 2015 Hooters announced that it is planning to open more than 30 restaurants in Southeast Asia over the next six years; as of 2016 there were more than 430 Hooters locations and franchises around the world and Hooters of America LLC. owns 160 units. There are Hooters locations in 44 US states, the US Virgin Islands, in 28 other countries. Hooters, Inc. was incorporated in Clearwater, Florida, on April 1, 1983, by six Clearwater businessmen: Lynn D. Stewart, Gil DiGiannantonio, Ed Droste, Billy Ranieri, Ken Wimmer and Dennis Johnson; the date was an April Fools' Day joke because the original six owners believed that their prospect was going to fail. Their first Hooters restaurant was built on the site of a former rundown nightclub, purchased at a low price. So many businesses had folded in that particular location that the Hooters founders built a small "graveyard" at the front door for each that had come and gone before them.
The first restaurant opened its doors on October 1983, in Clearwater. This original location was decorated with memorabilia from Waverly, hometown to some of the original Hooters 6. In 1984 Hugh Connerty bought the rights to Hooters from the Original Hooters 6. Robert H. Brooks and a group of Atlantan investors bought out Hugh Connerty. In 2002, Brooks became chairman; the Clearwater-based company retained control over restaurants in the Tampa Bay Area, Chicago metropolitan area, one in Manhattan, New York, while all other locations were under the aegis of Hooters of America, which sold franchising rights to the rest of the United States and international locations. Under Brooks's leadership, the collective Hooters brand expanded to more than 425 stores worldwide. Brooks died on July 2006, in Myrtle Beach, South Carolina, of a heart attack. Brooks's will gave most of Hooters of America Inc. to his son Coby Brooks and daughter Boni Belle Brooks. The Hooters Casino Hotel was opened February 2006, off the Las Vegas Strip in Paradise, Nevada.
This hotel has 696 rooms with a 35,000-square-foot casino. The hotel is owned and operated by 155 East Tropicana, LLC, it is adjacent to the Tropicana, across the street from the MGM Grand Las Vegas. As of 2014, it is the only Hooters facility offering lodging since a Hooters Inn motel located along Interstate 4 in Lakeland, was demolished in 2007; as part of their 25th anniversary, Hooters Magazine released its list of top Hooters Girls of all time. Among the best-known were Lynne Austin, the late Kelly Jo Dowd, Bonnie-Jill Laflin, Leeann Tweeden, Holly Madison. After Brooks' death, 240 buyers showed interest in Hooters of America Inc. and 17 submitted bids, with that number being reduced to eight, three, before the selection of Wellspring Capital Management. Chanticleer Holdings LLC, which had the right to block the sale after a $5 million loan made in 2006, did so in a December 1, 2010, letter to the court; as a result and other investors bought the company. As of July 2013 Hooters of America owns 160 restaurants and operates or franchises over 430.
The company's first overseas location was in Singapore, there are Hooters restaurants in Aruba, Austria, Bolivia, China, Costa Rica, Czech Republic, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Guatemala, Hong Kong, Indonesia, Lithuania, Panama, South Africa, South Korea, Taiwan, Thailand and one in the United Kingdom, following the closure of the remaining UK franchises. The three largest Hooters restaurants are in Singapore, São Paulo. In 2013, the company announced a plan to remodel every restaurant in the chain; the prototype restaurant first remodeled was the location in Houston, located off the Southwest Freeway at Kirby Drive near Downtown Houston. The new design will feature more windows and outdoor dining and upgraded audio-visual systems to better appeal to sports enthusiasts; the first redesigned Hooters opened in New Orleans in July 2013. The company announced changes to its menu, such as the addition of entrée salads; the appearance of the waitresses is a main selling feature of the restaurant.
A Hooters Girl is a waitress employed by the Hooters restaurant chain. The girls are recognizable by their uniform of